Home        About us       CEDAW       UN Treaties       Q and A       Reporting to UN Bodies       Resources       Publications       Contact us


Volume 9, Number 1
June, 1995



By now most Women's Watch readers know that the site for the NGO Forum at Beijing was moved in March 1995 from the city to a "scenic area" about 70 kilometers from the northeast corner of Beijing, near the Great Wall. The international NGO community and ultimately the NGO Facilitating Committee lost no time in protesting the move and outlining the requirements for the site to be accepted. After two months of intensive negotiating, including a major effort to involve the United Nations Secretary General, the China Organizing Commitee has responded to most of the concerns voiced in objections to the offered site.

The Huairou site for the NGO Forum is about one hour's drive from the northeast corner of Beijing, where the official meeting will be held. Among other guarantees the China Organizing Committee has indicated that an adequate shuttle system will be in place. The road has been improved-what was a a four-lane, congested highway (travelled by the IWRAW director in March 1995) has been upgraded in the space of two months to a six-lane road with one lane each way designated for high-occupancy vehicles (seen by Charlotte Bunch of the Center for Women's Global Leadership in May). It is clear that the China Organizing Committee can deliver the promised facilities if they continue to work at this pace. It remains to be seen whether the promised facilities will be adequate for the 36,000 registered participants in the NGO Forum.

After a final site visit by Forum Convenor Supatra Masdit, Executive Director Irene Santiago released a letter to the international NGO community that listed the major points of agreement:

Scheduling of activities for the NGO Forum has been delayed by the difficulties over the site. As a result, the workshop spaces requested by IWRAW and IWRAW Asia Pacific have not been confirmed at press time. The requested activities are:

The Women's Convention-Gender, Justice and Human Rights. Four introductory workshops, to be held in French, Spanish, English and Arabic. Sponsored by IWRAW in collaboration with UNIFEM and national NGOs.

Claiming Women's Human Rights Under the Women's Convention-Practical Strategies for Implementation. Sponsored by IWRAW in collaboration with UNIFEM and national and regional NGOs

Ethics, Values and Rights and the Women's Convention. Sponsored by IWRAW Asia Pacific

Women's Human Rights and Children's Rights. Sponsored by IWRAW Asia Pacific, in collaboration with UNICEF.

While the NGO Forum drama was unfolding many NGOs have continued to work on the Platform for Action. The latest version of the Platform released by the Division for the Advancement of Women is as of May 15. Close to 40% of its language is in brackets, indicating a failure to agree on many issues of continuing concern to NGOs. The Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), organizer of the Linkage Caucus, is preparing a document outlining the NGO positions on the Platform as it now stands. Many NGOs have examined the Platform and sent information to WEDO indicating their position on language issues. A complete document should be available from WEDO in mid-June.

The United Nations is holding an "informal informal" meeting in New York, July 31-August 4, for governments to work on the Platform. This meeting will be closed to NGOs. According to US State Department sources, the discussions will focus on resources, institutional issues, economic development issues, and human rights, and it is anticipated that most of the discussion will be "technical." This means that although very important issues will be on the table, the most contentious ones probably will remain for discussion at Beijing. Most of the government representatives will be from the UN missions rather than from the capitals, so contacts with government officials in your country will be a first but not a last step in lobbying.

The US-based human rights groups that have followed the Platform developments have produced a set of short papers on the issues that have been the most problematic during the negotiations on the Platform. These reflect some of the discussion during PrepCom negotiations as well as the background for the suggestions submitted to WEDO. These documents are available from IWRAW, by fax or e-mail.

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN - Convention Articles 3, 5, 6, 12, 16

Rape crisis centers in Canada are shredding counseling records to shield victims of sexual assault, reported The New York Times in March 1995. The Canadian Criminal Code protects victims' rights to privacy by prohibiting direct questioning in court concerning their sexual past. On the other hand, defense lawyers have the right to secure any evidence to prove a defendant's innocence, so they use medical and psychological counseling records of the victims, including those kept by rape crisis centers. Some centers have been destroying notes from therapy sessions, fearing that such records might be used against the women they are trying to protect. In some cases, however, shredding turns out not to be in the best interests of the women anyway, as in a case mentioned by The Times in which charges were dropped because evidence had been destroyed. In addition, records kept at a crisis Centre can be a crucial resource to build a case for abused women. The problem in Canada stems from ambiguity in the criminal law about the procedure for releasing confidential records. Most legal scholars concede that defense access to confidential data may be necessary, but they add that the court should define the guidelines.

[The New York Times,17 March, 11995, B12]

Women's organizations in Zimbabwe are joining to document and publicize the murders of women by men. Called the Femicide Register, the project aims to prevent violence against women by raising public awareness about the nature and seriousness of the problem. The project will also petition the Ministry of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs to review the laws related to domestic violence. Administered jointly by the Musasa Project and Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), the project is requesting volunteers to contribute to their information-gathering efforts on femicide cases. Contact the Musasa Project Offices, 139 Rotten Row, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel: 263-4-794983.

[Musasa News, vol.4 no. 2, April 1995, 4]

Rape by uniformed Haitian military personnel and their civilian allies is on the rise, according to a report entitled "Rape in Haiti: A Weapon of Terror," published in July 1994 by Human Rights Watch in conjunction with the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees. According to the report, the Haitian military authority has taken no action to denounce rape or to punish those under their command who engage in rape, thus failing to provide Haitian women with judicial redress as required under both international and domestic law. The report calls on the Haitian leaders to denounce, investigate and prosecute state and state-supported agents who engage in rape and to ensure that women can report rape without fear of reprisal. The report further urges the Clinton Administration to ensure that Haitian women who suffer or have a well-founded fear of persecution based on gender will receive fair and full consideration of their claims for asylum in the US. The Haiti report and other Human Rights Watch publications can be obtained from: Publication Department, Human Rights Watch, 485 Fifth Avenue, NYC, NY 10017-6104.

[Women in International Law Interest Group Newsletter, vol. 7, no. 1, March 1995, 5]

The Chilean Congress has created a National Women's Programme to prevent family violence, promote legal reform to criminalize domestic violence, generate documentation and organize community awareness campaigns to change public consciousness about the problem. According to the March 1995 newsletter of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence in Washington, D.C., the Chilean national program will set up crisis centers to provide legal and psychological help to battered women.

[UPDATE Special Edition, February,March 1995]

In Jamaica women's groups are using popular theater for prevention education on gender violence. Update reports that the artistic collective, Sistren, uses street theater and other dramatic techniques to promote public discussions about domestic violence and rape. A community group, Teens in Action, performs drama to encourage critical thinking about violence and sexuality issues in their neighborhood.

[Update Special Edition, February/March 1995]

HUMAN RIGHTS - Convention Articles 2 and 3

An armed Islamic fundamentalist group in Algeria has vowed to kill women linked to the government. According to The New York Times, the country's most violent group sent a statement to the London-based daily paper Al Hayat in May 1995 threatening to kill "every mother, sister or daughter" of Algerian government officials, as well as officers and soldiers in the army and the police. The statement also warns the wives of any opponent of an Islamic state or advocate of secularism to leave their marriage or risk death. The group, known as the Armed Islamic Group, took responsibility for sixty murders when it expanded its campaign against women this year, issuing death threats for various reasons, including failure to wear a veil or pursuit of an education. About twenty women have been assassinated thus far in Algeria for refusing to marry militant Muslim fighters.

Men and women artists have also become targets of militant groups. In the past few months, many actresses and singers have fled Algeria seeking exile, mainly in France. Women artists had been fighting back against the terrorist campaign against them by setting up mutual support networks, according to the Guardian Weekly. The Aicha Association was set up to promote artistic activities as well as to change the way women were perceived by the Algerian public. By April 1995 half of its organizers had been forced to flee the country.

[Guardian Weekly 23 April, 1995]

Women are being subjected to a systematic campaign of sterilization as Indonesia's military occupation of East Timor increases in brutality, according to the East Timor Action Network. Since the invasion of newly independent East Timor shortly after independence in 1975, one third of island's indigenous population has been killed. Recently the Clinton Administration asked Congress to renew military aid and increase arms sales to Indonesia, assistance which will undoubtedly continue to sustain the Indonesian government's current activities in East Timor. The East Timor Action Network urges public opposition to US foreign policy on East Timor. For further information, contact ETAN/SFBA, P.O. Box 420832, San Francisco, CA 94142-0832 or phone (415) 285-1971.

[ETAN action letter; also sthg. from Human Rights Tribune, March, 1995, Vol 3 No.1]

The Awakening Foundation, the oldest feminist NGO in Taiwan, is calling for revision of the country's patriarchal Civil Codes, known as the Book of Family. According to the Codes, married women do not have the right to decide where to live or the right to custody of children. Women do not have independent rights to property in marriage or even the right to divorce. Since 1990, the Awakening Foundation has promoted the revision of these legal codes by recording the experiences of women victimized through them. The Foundation has issued an Urgent Call for Action in which they ask for support in the form of letters from around the world demanding revision of the Codes and adequate administrative resources to implement the changes. Supporters can write to: the Legislative Yuan, Fax: 886-2-3222558; the Judicial Yuan, Fax: 886-2-3898923; the Ministry of Justice, Fax: 886-2-3319102; and the President's Office, Fax: 886-2-3140746.

[Action Alert]


The first World Congress on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is scheduled to be held in Stockholm during the last week of August 1996. Culminating a six year campaign, the Congress planners aim to bring together decision-makers in business, government, tourism, UN bodies and NGOs that can influence the child sex tourism industry worldwide. The International Labour Office (ILO), Interpol, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the NGO liaison group to the Convention on the Rights of the Child have already indicated their interest in the Congress.

[Human Rights Tribune, vol 3, no. 1, Feb/March 1995]

A database on organized crime and its impact on women and children is being established by a Canadian-based organization, the International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy. According to the Human Rights Tribune, the database includes literature describing how women and children are affected by organized crime activities such as the smuggling of aliens, the sex trade, prostitution and exploitive labor practices. The focus of an expert meeting planned for 1995 will be determined by the results of the database research. For more information contact: Marcia Kran, Senior Associate, International Centre for Law Reform, 1822 East Mall, University of British Colombia.

[Human Rights Tribune, vol. 3, no.1, Feb/March 1995]

POLITICS AND PUBLIC LIFE - Convention Article 7

The first black woman senator in Colombia raises the issue of race. "For a long time, no one wanted to admit that there was racial discrimination in Colombia, that there were even any blacks to discriminate against," said Piedad Córboda de Castro. In an interview with The New York Times, she says that the black consciousness movement in Colombia is hindered by the low level of racial identification among black and mixed-race people. Although statistics are unreliable, blacks in Colombia represent an estimated twenty-one percent of the population. Senator Córboda de Castro is the author of a 1993 law that recognizes equal rights for black Colombians. In the struggle against racial marginalization, Senator Córboda de Castro sees similarities between the culture, identity and experience of blacks living in Latin America and the United States.

[New York Times, April 17? 1995, Karen De Witt]

The Israeli Supreme Court approves affirmative action for women. The Israel Women's Network (IWN) won a precedent-setting case that established the legitimacy of affirmative action for women in certain spheres of public life. A 1993 law stipulates that both sexes must receive "appropriate representation" on the boards of government companies. Until this is achieved, government ministers are required whenever possible to appoint members of the underrepresented sex. IWN based its case on this 1993 law and successfully challenged the appointments of three men to the board of two government companies. The Network argued that the ministers made no attempt to seek qualified women to fill the positions.

[IWN, 1/95]

EDUCATION - Article 10

Argentina's new national curriculum incorporates a gender perspective. The Ministry of Culture and Education has approved a new national basic curriculum for pre-elementary and elementary schools that includes discussion of women's contributions in all areas of society. Curriculum documents are to be written in non-sexist language. Under the guidance of the Ministry, provinces will be encouraged to reform their own curricula to include the history of local women and the conditions they faced. The Ministry is also preparing to revamp secondary schools curricula.

[letter from Gloria Bonder, Coordinator, Programa Nacional Igualidad de Oportunidades Para La Mujer en el Area Educativa, Ministry of Culture and Education.]

Iraq launches a non-formal education program for 7,000 girls. Economic sanctions imposed on the country have led to the withdrawal of girls from the regular schools. First Call for Children reports that a joint effort by UNICEF Baghdad, the Iraqi Minister of Education and the General Federation of Iraqi Women has established a program designed to improve basic literacy and technical/vocational skills of girls aged 10 - 14. The informal program was designed to retrain girls in reading, arithmetic, sewing, child care and religion. The program staff will also conduct home visits to encourage families to allow their girls to join.

[First Call for Children, October-December, 1994]

Women delegates to the Ugandan Constituent Assembly learn about the role of gender in the country's democratic process. The Ugandan Gender Resource Centre collaborated with a district women's development association to conduct a four day seminar targeting mainly women, youth and disabled delegates to increase their knowledge of gender issues and improve their self-confidence and advocacy skills. The seminar's prime concerns were the provisions of the country's draft Constitution and the need to unite these interest groups and empower them to speak with one voice on the issues affecting them in the Constituent Assembly. Similar projects have been initiated in several districts.[Gender Alert, Oct-Dec 1994, Vol 1, No 1 Uganda Gender Resource Centre.]

EMPLOYMENT - Convention Article 11

Malaysia, the only country in the world where unions are banned in the electronics industry, continues to exploit its mainly female workforce, according to a report published this year by the International Metalworkers Federation based in Geneva. The report claims that workers in the multinational electronics enterprises in Malaysia have experienced little or no improvement in their working conditions since a 1987 investigation by the journal Free Labour World. The law banning unions in the electronics sector dates back to 1958 and has only been amended twice, according to Free Labour World, once in 1967 to legalize night work for women and once in 1969 to further reduce women workers' rights. The government continues to argue that "industrial peace is essential to economic progress," despite a crisis in the mid 1980s which brought thousands of workers out onto the streets to protest bad working conditions. Repeated injunctions by the ILO have been ignored by the Malaysian government, which continues to provide ideal investment conditions for multinationals, including labor laws which allow them to ignore trade unions. Malaysia's electronics industry is its principal source of foreign exchangeß.

[Free Labor World, March 1995]

The European Parliament has adopted a resolution on the protection of families, calling for more help to be given to single-parent families and for measures to improve women's chances of meaningful employment. The measures, enacted to mark the close of the International Year of the Family, include provision of adequate childcare and better training. The Parliament deplored the lack of progress relating to part-time work and parental leave.

[CREW Reports, vol. 14, no. 11/12, November/December, 1994,17]

The first sexual harassment case in the UN was settled with a $210,800 award to the complainant. In 1991, Catharine Claxton made an official complaint about an incident involving her boss when it appeared that he was planning to eliminate her job. In 1993, UN Secretary-General Boutros-Boutros Ghali appointed a judge to hear the case in private. The judge found Claxton's boss, Luis Maria Gomez, guilty, but ordered the report kept secret. In December 1994, a UN spokesperson finally announced the settlement "for damages resulting from the prolonged and complex nature of the proceedings." The announcement indicated that the award was for the length of time the case had taken and was not related to Gomez'sinnocence or guilt.

[Human Rights Tribune, vol.3, no.1, February/March 1995, 30]


The Egyptian government has retracted its ban on female genital mutilation. Apparently acting under pressure from sectors of the religious establishment, the Minister of Health, Ali Abdel Fatah, issued a decree that medicalizes FGM and designated a number of selected hospitals to perform the operation for a fee. This policy is a turnaround for the Minister, who had publicly declared at the International Conference on Population and Development that the practice of FGM should be banned and practitioners punished. According to government officials, the new hospital policy is an attempt to put an end to the "butchery that damages the health and lives of more than half of all young girls." However, some commentators, including Equality Now, state that the move came despite a fatwah issued by the Grand Mufti of Egypt and supported by other religious leaders that states there is nothing in the Quran about female circumcision, and that the opinion of the medical establishment should prevail. The New Woman Research Center in Egypt has commented on the persistence of pressures to maintain the practice, saying that the decision to codify circumcision instead of criminalizing it has nothing to do with religion or morality but is rather " a decision to codify the control of women, and codify violence against them, in addition to codifying their inferior status in society."

[Equality Now, Women's Action 8.1 March 1995]

Meanwhile, in the United States House of Representatives, a bill has been introduced to prohibit FGM. According to Reproductive Freedom News, the bill includes punitive measures against persons who perform the operation, although the procedure would be allowed for medical health reasons. If approved, the bill requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to identify communities that practice FGM and inform them about its "physical and psychological effects." The bill also calls for HHS to develop and disseminate information to medical schools about FGM and its complications. HHS would also be mandated to compile statistics on the number of women who have undergone FGM in the United States and in other countries. A companion bill is expected to be introduced in the Senate shortly. A similar version of the bill was introduced in 1994 but never went beyond the House of Representatives Judiciary Committee. [Reproductive Freedom News, IV/5, March 10, 1995]

Ireland awaits a Supreme Court decision on a law giving women the right to information about abortion clinics abroad. This bill was passed by the Irish legislature and could have been signed directly into law by President Mary Robinson. Instead, the President has asked the Supreme Court to rule on its constitutionality. A favorable ruling by the Court would render the measure immune to further legal challenges. The new legislation allows social workers, doctors and nurses to inform Irish women about health clinics where they could obtain abortions. The five member court includes one woman.

[Int'l Dateline, April 1995 and Reproductive Freedom News, IV/6, March 24, 1995]

India outlaws use of prenatal tests to determine the sex of a fetus. To stop the abortion of female fetuses, the Indian Parliament voted to ban the use of amniocentesis and ultrasound for sex determination purposes. The forbids doctors from telling prospective parents the gender of their fetuses. Under the new law, women undergoing the tests, and technicians providing them, could face prison terms and fines. The Indian states of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Gujarat have passed similar restrictions on prenatal testing.

[Intl' Dateline, March 1995 and Reproductive Freedom News III/15, September 9, 1994]


The United Nations Development Fund for Women and the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service has published Putting Gender on the Agenda: A Guide to Participating in UN World Conferences. The purpose of the handbook is to provide specific and practical information about how UN conferences work and how to enhance NGO participation. The handbook also describes how the conferences are planned and contains suggestions for NGO activities based on past experiences. [q: isn't this dated now??]

The Kharkov Gender Studies Center was recently established in Ukraine to promote the development of gender research in the scientific and social science disciplines. The Center has developed training programmes to integrate women into the political and economic life of the country as well as introduce a women's studies curriculum to different educational institutions. The first feminist publishing house in the Ukraine is housed in the Center. The address is Ukraine, 310002, Kharkov 2, 8 Frunze St., Academy of Science of Ukraine. Telephone: 0572 471756.

[letter from the center]

Women are featured in a special December 1994 issue of the Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor. The issue includes articles about women's indigenous knowledge of forest and water management, the role of women in livestock production in Peru, and women's involvement in botanical diversity in Thailand. It also includes information about resource centers, networks, databases, research, conferences, publications and films about indigenous knowledge. Contact: CIRAN/Nuffic, PO Box 29777, 2502 LT the Hague, The Netherlands. Telephone: 31 70 4260324. Fax: 31 70 4260329. Email: TICK@NUFFICCS.NL. Subscription to the Monitor is free.

Policymakers and practitioners have another source for concise, up-to-date information on key issues in gender awareness. The BRIDGE team at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex has announced the publication of Development and Gender In Brief. The journal is aimed at policy makers, practitioners and researchers working in developing countries who are interested in integrating gender concerns in their work. To receive a complimentary issue, contact BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE, United Kingdom. Telephone: 01273 678491. Fax: 01273 621202. Email: S.L.BADEN@SUSSEX.AC.UK.

The Latin American and Caribbean Committee for the Defense of Women's Rights (CLADEM) has produced a proposal to reformulate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. the Proposal for a Universal Declaration of Rights from a Gender Perspective is available from CLADEM, PO Box 11 - 0470, Lima I, Peru. Email: postmast@cladem.org.pe. [CLADEM Oct/Dec newsletter]

Taking Action: A Union Guide to Ending Violence Against Women is a handbook for women trade union members to help develop a response to gender violence in the workplace. The book provides a description of issues based on women's experiences and actions of union members in response to workplace harassment. The handbook costs $6.95 (Canadian) and can be obtained from the Women's Resource Centre, 101-2245 Broadway, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6K 2E4. Telephone: 604 734 0485; Fax: 604 734 0484.

The Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) has produced an action-oriented information package on reproductive health. Towards Women-Centred Reproductive Health Information Package No. 1 1994 includes three booklets. The first two, "Broadening the Concept, Addressing the Needs," and "Ideas for Action," include excerpts from over 40 articles, papers and reports written by women's health advocates, researchers and health professionals. The third booklet is a bibliography that reviews 50 key monographs, articles, and papers about population policies and programmes. The package is available from ARROW, 2nd Floor, Block F, Anjung Felda, Jalan Maktab, 54000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax: 603 292 9958. The price is US$4.00 plus $2.00 for sea mail. A free copy is available for organizations on an exchange basis.

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: A Commentary was edited by the Japanese Association of International Women's Rights (JAIWR). The book is an article-by-article commentary on each of the thirty articles of the Convention. Available in English and Japanese from JAIWR, Bunkyo Women's College, 1196 Kamekubo, Ohi-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama Prefecture, 356 Japan.

The Commonwealth Medical Association has published Adolescent Futures: Adult Fears, a report based on the Workshop on Youth conducted in Cairo during the NGO Forum of the International Conference on Population and Development. Issues discussed in the report include adolescent health, reproductive health and sexuality, socio-economic problems facing youth, and human rights and youth. Copies of the report can be obtained from the Commonwealth Medical Association, c/o BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JP, United Kingdom. Telephone: 44 71 383 6095. Fax: 44 71 383 6195. Email: 72242.3544@compuserve.com.

The MacArthur Foundation has established a grant making initiative on gender and sustainable development management. It hopes to encourage the incorporation of gender perspective in the examination of natural resource issues, to strengthen and support the role of women in natural resource management, and to increase public understanding of gender differences in resource use. The initiative will support research and action program that seek to influence environmental policy or conservation practices. Interested organizations should submit a brief letter of inquiry describing the proposed activity to Caren Grown, Senior Program Officer, Population Program, John D. and Catharine T. MacArthur Foundation, 140 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60603, USA. Telephone: 312 726 8000.


WOMEN'S WATCH subscriptions policy. Women's Watch is sent free to groups and individuals in developing countries and on an exchange basis with libraries and documentation centres. Subscriptions are US$25 per year payable in US dollars only or an international money order. Subscriptions are renewable as of January 1 of each year. If you renew any time in 1994, your renewal will keep you on the list through 1995 -- in essence providing several free issues. Checks in US dollars on a US bank should be made payable to: IWRAW, Humphrey Institute. Other subscription points: In Great Britain and continental Europe, send subscriptions in pounds or Eurodollars to: IWRAW/Marianne Haslegrave, 6 Wood Lane, Braunston in Rutland, Leics, LE15 8 QZ, United Kingdom. In Australia, send to: Hilary Charlesworth, University of Adelaide, Law School, Adelaide, South Australia. In Canada, Susan Bazilli, METRAC, 158 Spadina Road, Toronto, Ontario M5R 2T8. In Japan, Japanese Ass'n of International Women's Rights, Bunkyo Women's College, 1196 Kamekubo, Ohi-machi, Iruma, Saitama 354 Japan.

WOMEN'S WATCH is published by the IWRAW project, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, USA. Editors: Marsha Freeman, Sharon Ladin, and Margaret Adamek. IWRAW is a global network of individuals and organizations that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, an international treaty ratified by over 130 countries. IWRAW welcomes news items, subscriptions, inquiries and contributions. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. The Humphrey Institute is hospitable to a diversity of opinions and aspirations. The Institute does not itself take positions on public policy issues. The contents of this report are the responsibility of the editors. IWRAW is grateful to the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Phillips Petroleum Company, the Carnegie Corporation, Mertz-Gilmore Foundation, Shaler Adams Foundation, the Netherlands Foreign Ministry, SIDA and numerous other individuals and foundations for financial support. Contributions to the project are welcomed and are tax deductible for U.S. citizens.



COPYRIGHT© 2009 All materials on this web site copyright of International Women's Rights Action Watch, University of Minnesota, USA