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Combined fourth periodic report (CEDAW/C/PRT/4) submitted on 23 November 1999  and fifth periodic report submitted on 12 June 2001 (CEDAW/CPRT/5)


Government type: republic

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 1982, 1989, 1992, 1997

Population: 1999 estimate: 10 million

Ethnicities: 99% Mediterranean, 1% black African

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant, 1% other

GDP, 1999: US $108.0 billion

GDP, annual growth rate: 3.1%

GDP per capita, 1999: US $10, 901

Major industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals. 

Services: commerce, government, housing, banking and finance

Employment (4.7 million): 56% government and services, 32% industry, and 12% agriculture

Unemployment rate, 1999: 4.1%

Annual population growth rate, 1999: 0.0%

Infant mortality rate, 1999:  6.73 per 1000 live births

*Life expectancy at birth: male: 71 years

                                           female: 79 years

*Maternal mortality rate: 15 per every 100,000 live births

*Literacy rate: male: 92%

                          female: 87%

Sources: The World Factbook, *International Planned Parenthood Federation

Critical Issues

Prostitution and Trafficking (Article 6, page 4)

·         Increasing trafficking of Portuguese women abroad and foreign women to Portugal

Women in Public Life (Article 7, page 5)

·         Low representation in national and international politics

·         Lack of women in decision making in public life and business

Health (Article 12, page 6)

·         Very restrictive abortion law, high number of illegal and potentially unsafe abortions

Domestic Violence (GR 19, page 8)

·         Despite the availability of legal measures traditional attitudes prevent women from reporting violence

Recent Political Events

Since its shift from authoritarian regime to provisional military government to a parliamentary democracy in 1974, Portugal’s political climate has been dominated alternately by right and left throughout the 1970s and 1980s.  After years of authoritarian resistance, the new government in 1974-1975 granted independence to its African colonies, resulting in an influx of about half a million residents of the former African colonies.  In 1999, Portugal’s remaining overseas territory, Macau, was handed over to China. 

Until December 2001, the Socialist Party dominated the Portuguese political scene. Both the Presidency and the Prime Minister’s office, half the seats in Parliament and a majority of municipalities were held by Socialists.   The heavy losses suffered by the Socialist Party in the December 2001 nationwide local elections, however, led to the resignation of Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres. The center-right Social Democratic Party won 144 council seats, compared with 98 for the Socialists.  Both parties follow similar policies in support of the free market and further European Union integration. [1]  

Prime Minister Guterres supported the privatization and modernization policies of his predecessors and promoted fuller integration into the European Union (EU).  Under Guterres, Portugal has been active in foreign affairs, for example by participating in the peacekeeping operation in Bosnia, and later in the NATO’s operation in Kosovo in 1999 (despite substantial societal opposition).  Portugal also lobbied persistently for the independence of its former colony, East Timor, and became involved in efforts to bring stability to the region following the independence vote and the violence that followed it in 1999. [2]

The country entered the European Community (EC) in 1986, and in 1999 it became a full member of the European Monetary Union. Membership in the EC and then in the EU has increased trade ties and brought structural adjustment funding to Portugal.  A privatization program introduced in late 1980s reduced the state-owned sector’s share in the economy from 20 percent in 1989 to 10 percent in 1998.  In recent years, Portugal’s economy has grown at rates above average of the EU members. Currently, Portugal has one of the lowest unemployment rates in the EU (at 4.1 percent).    However, Portugal’s productivity still stands at only about 55 percent of the EU average, which is the lowest among the 15 EU members. [3]   Although the standard of living has improved considerably, it still stands only at about 70 percent of the EU average.

Human Rights


Racial discrimination and xenophobia sometimes lead to attacks against minorities in Portugal ­— blacks, Roma, immigrants.  According to the Portuguese government, cases of racism and xenophobia are largely isolated and they arise “out of movements which are on the fringes of society and are associated with extreme ideologies.” [4]    Police response to violent actions by racist groups has been inconsistent. In 1999, Parliament adopted a set of antiracism laws based upon the anti-discrimination sections of the Constitution and the Penal Code.  The new laws prohibit and penalize racial discrimination in housing, business, and health services.  They also provide for the creation of a new Commission for Equality and Against Racial Discrimination. [5]





Article 13(2) of the Portuguese Constitution incorporates the principle of equality.  It states that “(n)o one shall be privileged or favoured, or discriminated against, or deprived of any right or exempted from any duty, by reason of his or her ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological convictions, education, economic situation or social circumstances.” [6] Article 9 (h) concerning the basic responsibilities of the State, explicitly charges the State with the duty to “promote equality between men and women.” [7]



Gender Stereotypes in the Media

The fourth government report to CEDAW states that the Portuguese government started a campaign in 1998 to “promote sensitization campaigns through the audio-visual media on the importance of sharing of family responsibilities.” [8]   According to a 1998 study of Portuguese TV advertising, the issue of gender stereotyping in the media certainly needs to be addressed. The study documented strong differences in the presentation of male and female characteristics in the media. For example, the vast majority (91 percent) of central figures who appeared as voice-overs in the commercials were male, while women were more likely to be represented visually.  Females were more likely than males to be presented as product users, while males were depicted as product authorities (85 percent). [9]   Women were more likely than men to be shown in dependent roles (79 percent), while men were depicted in independent roles such as that of an interviewer or a professional.  Female characters were more likely to be portrayed at home and male characters were shown in occupational settings.  Women were more likely to be young (under 30 years old), and men were more likely to be in the “middle-aged” category. [10]    While men were more likely to offer factual and opinion arguments, women were more likely to present no argument at all.  More females than males emphasized self-enhancement as a type of reward, and men were more likely than women to emphasize pleasure.  Women were more frequently associated with body and food products, while men were more likely to advertise auto and sports products.  In additional, women were portrayed in a female and mixed ethnic backgrounds and males were depicted in a male background and no specific ethnic background.   Men were making a final comment much more often than women. [11]

The findings of the study have important consequences for the maintenance of gender stereotypes and the development and maintenance of gender roles. [12]    According to studies in Portugal and other countries, television is a major source through which children learn about appropriate gender behaviors and the desirability of such behaviors. [13]     Media such as television have been shown to help determine aspects of social stereotypes that often serve to justify and foster differential opportunities between men and women. [14]




Prostitution is legal in Portugal, but procurement of prostitutes is not.  In Portugal, prostitution is linked to all kinds of organized crime, and particularly to international drug trafficking. NGOs have established programs offering economic and social services to prostitutes. [15]    Most existing projects have targeted prostitutes for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Co-ordination of the "Intervention Project for Prevention of AIDS and other STDs Among Female Prostitutes: Centro de Aconselhamento DROP-IN” in Lisbon has been in existence since the early 1990s.  Two new projects were established in 1998 in the North of Portugal: AUTO-ESTIMA (operating in Matosinhos, Oporto, Braga, Viana do Castelo and Guimarães) and VAMP (in Oporto). They mainly target street sex workers and prioritize STD/AIDS prevention, along with the provision of social services. [16]

Trafficking in Persons

Under the Penal Code, trafficking in persons is punishable by 2-8 years’ imprisonment.   In 2000, Parliament passed legislation establishing training programs for service providers to victims of trafficking.  The government Commission for Equality and Women’s Rights established two working groups, one to oversee the training of social service workers and another to inform victims of their legal rights.  Both working groups have been providing services to victims. 

Nevertheless, there are reports that trafficking linked to organized crime has been increasing, especially in the North of the country.  International trafficking rings smuggle Portuguese women abroad (the women often come from the more depressed and poorer areas and sometimes they are drug users).  Foreign women—particularly from Brazil, Lusophone Africa, and from Senegal—are trafficked into Portugal. According to press reports, several prostitution trafficking centers exist in northern Portugal, which contract illegal immigrant women mainly from South America and Eastern Europe. [17]    Russian mafia organizations have been operating in Portugal and are responsible for the increasing trafficking of Eastern European women.   There are reports of Moldovan and Ukrainian women who have been sold for an equivalent of US$4,000 each. Authorities broke one such ring, organized and led by a nuclear scientist from the former Soviet Union, in 1999. [18]   In 2000, Portuguese police broke up another prostitution ring and arrested five Brazilian and three Colombian women, who were illegal immigrants, and a Portuguese man and woman. [19]



Article 109 of the Portuguese Constitution states:

“Direct and active participation of men and women in political life is a condition and fundamental instrument of the consolidation of the democratic system.  The law must promote equality in the exercise of civil and political rights and non-discrimination based on sex in access to political office.” [20]

Despite some progress, women’s membership in the national Parliament constitutes only 19.6 percent (2000), and their participation in the national government stands at 11.7 percent. [21]



In 1990-1991, women constituted 55.5 percent of all college students, [22] and they constitute the majority of university graduates, but sex discrimination in employment opportunities and wages continue to have an effect.  For instance, in 1997, women earned an average 77 percent of men’s earnings.  The representation of women in business, science and the professions, however, is steadily growing. [23]  

Portugal is one of four countries (in addition to Italy, Slovenia and Sri Lanka), which had the largest increase of women’s participation in paid employment in industry and services (an increase of 15 percent or more) since the 1980s.   Women’s share in these sectors increased from 30 to 46 percent. [24]

Employment Discrimination

In 2000, maternity leave was increased from 90 days to 120 days with full pay and benefits.  Either mother of father can take the leave, and after return to work, the new parent may take some time off on a daily basis to nurse or feed an infant.  In cases of firing of pregnant or nursing women, or new fathers, they may file a complaint with the government Commission on Equality in the Workplace (CITE).  The Commission—composed of government representatives, employers’ organizations and labor unions—receives many complaints of discrimination by employers against pregnant workers and new mothers. If CITE finds that the employee’s legal rights were violated, the employer is obligated to reinstate the employee and pay double back salary and benefits for the missed work time. [25]   The numbers of complaints and their resolution were not available for this report.

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

The issue of sexual harassment has been gaining public attention in Portugal in recent years.  It is covered under the Penal Code as sex crime, but only if it was committed by a superior and only in the workplace.  The law provides for a penalty of 2-3 years’ imprisonment. [26] CITE has the power to examine (but not adjudicate) complaints of sexual harassment, but so far only a few have been received.  Many women are still reluctant to seek legal protection in such cases, and continued public campaign by the government is necessary to break such traditional attitudes.



Reproductive Health

Family planning is included in the 1976 Constitution as a human right.  Legislation requires public promotion of family planning information and sex education.  Family planning services are provided in health centers free of charge, contraceptives are widely available, and methods requiring prescription are free. [27]   Despite these guarantees and services, unwanted pregnancy and STD infection remain serious problems.

Adolescent and Unwanted Pregnancy

Portugal has the second highest rate of adolescent pregnancies in the European Union: in 1999, over 7,000 babies were born to adolescent mothers, of which 104 were under the age of 15. [28]   Another major sexual health issue that affects young women (particularly ages 18-25) in Portugal is unwanted pregnancy. [29] The Portuguese Family Planning Association (APF) conducted a project on the issue of unwanted pregnancy in Oporto, Coimbra, Lisbon, Alentejo, and Algarve. The study showed that high percentage of young adults in Portugal do not use effective contraception, there is a high number of unwanted pregnancies, there is a use of abortion to terminate them, and high rates of STD infections. 

Although nearly 70 percent of both female and male young people use some form of contraceptives, still 24.4 percent do not consistently use any contraceptive.  The most commonly used contraceptive is the condom: 83 percent of males and 65 percent of females report using it consistently.  Twenty-five percent of males and 63 percent of females reported using the pill. Only 16 percent of the population use a combination of different contraceptives, such as condom and the pill, simultaneously.  The most common “inefficient” methods were withdrawal (9.5 percent), and the calendar method (3.2 percent). [30]  


Prior to 1984 abortion was forbidden by law, without exception.  At the same time, however, according to APF, abortion was generally accepted and being performed illegally by doctors, nurses and midwives.  According to APF, the small number of legal actions taken in such cases is indicative of a level of tolerance toward the procedure in those times. 

In 1984, Parliament legalized abortion in certain strictly specified cases.   First trimester abortion is legal for physical or mental health reasons (fetal malformation or danger to life or health of the woman), or in the case of rape. In all other cases it is against the law (under articles 140-142 of the Criminal Code). [31]   Abortion is punishable by 2 to 8-year jail sentence if performed without women’s consent and by an up to 5-year jail sentence if carried out with the woman’s consent. [32] Even legal abortion is not fully implemented in public hospitals because conscientious objectors refuse to perform the procedures. Annually, only about 100 legal induced abortions are performed in public hospitals. [33]  

Illegal abortion remains a serious and common problem.  About 6.8 percent of young adults have had an unwanted pregnancy and 74.3 percent of them decided to end it. [34]    It is estimated that at least 20,000 and as many as 40,000 illegal abortions are performed each year. [35]   In the last six years, about 9,000 Portuguese women have gone to Spain to have abortion at private Spanish clinics. [36]   Every year, abortion is either the first or the second cause of maternal death, and more than 5,000 women are admitted to hospital each year with post-abortion complications. [37] These numbers suggest that the individuals who decide to terminate their pregnancy have few choices with regard to the procedure, and they are likely to have abortion under poor medical conditions and with little emotional support. [38]

Every year, the police authorities register and investigate crimes of abortion.  There were 49 cases in 1998-1999, which led to 11 abortion trials with 13 defendants, and 8 convictions. [39] As of the end of 2001, 17 women were on trial in Maia municipality (near the city of Oporto) in western Portugal for practicing abortion.  The women are accused of practicing abortion and of being a part of an illegal abortion network.  The trial verdict was expected in early January 2002. [40]  

National public debates on liberalization of the abortion law have demonstrated significant “pro-choice” support.  In February 1998, Parliament approved a proposal for legal abortion on request up to 10 weeks into pregnancy.   In the subsequent referendum, the proposal narrowly fell: 49 percent voted for the legalization, and 51 percent voted against it.  However, only 32 percent of the eligible population voted in the referendum. [41]    The referendum had some positive effects as even the groups which were most opposed to the legalization of abortion, chiefly the Catholic Church and its allies, agreed to the need for family planning and sex education.  This resulted in a call for full implementation of sex education in schools. [42]   Despite these calls, however, some sources report that sex education in schools continues to be practically non-existent and that access to family planning is inadequate. [43]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Infection

Studies of sex education and sexual behavior indicate that Portuguese young men show a higher risk than females in terms of STDs, including HIV/AIDS.  Men are more likely to engage in behaviors that lead to the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases.  As men are culturally and traditionally expected to initiate sexual activity and do not typically put a premium on prevention, their behavior directly affects the health of their sexual partners. [44]    Studies show that non-urban youths have a higher HIV risk because individuals living in rural areas have less access to information and resources relating to sexual and reproductive health than town and city dwellers.  In addition, those who have started their professional life were more at risk as a result of increased social contacts and the greater possibility of sexual encounters. [45]



One-fifth of the Portuguese population live below the poverty line.  IWRAW does not have information as to what percentage of this group are women, especially single mothers and elderly women.  Typically these groups are the most vulnerable. 



Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is thought to be widespread in Portugal, but it has been a largely hidden social problem as relatively few victims seek help and legal recourse.  Traditional social attitudes and beliefs prevent many battered women from seeking help through the judicial system. However, in recent years, as violence has received increased publicity and resources, the number of reported incidents has grown.  The first government-sponsored national report on family violence was published in March 1999.  According to the report, police recorded 2,889 cases of family violence for the period October 1998-January 1999. In January 1999 alone, 633 cases of family violence were reported.  More than two-thirds of all these cases involved spouse or partner and included acts of physical violence. [46]

The law provides for criminal penalties in cases of violence by a spouse, and the judicial system has proven to be willing to prosecute suspects accused of abuse against women. [47] New laws related to domestic violence, adopted in May 2000, include: the expansion of the system of shelters for victims; the creation of domestic violence units in the police; and the creation of a new domestic violence category in the Attorney General’s report on crime.  The new laws also introduce measures to bar perpetrators from contact with their victims, and they give the power to the police to expel the perpetrator from the victim’s dwelling in extreme cases, when the victim’s life is in danger.  The law calls for the development of preventive programs for past perpetrators of domestic violence.  It also provides for professional development assistance to victims to enable them to live independent lives.  Moreover, the law allows any interested party to file charges in domestic violence cases. [48]

A 24-hour 7-day a week toll-free hotline for victims of violence was established in November 1998.  In the first six months, approximately 60 percent of all calls it received related to acts of physical violence, while approximately 40 percent had to do with psychological problems.  Sixty-six percent of the callers were the victims themselves and most of the calls came from large urban areas, mainly Lisbon and Oporto.   


Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Portugal. 6 November 2001. CRC/C/15/Add.162.


·        continue and strengthen its efforts to ensure equal respect for the right to non-discrimination of all children, giving particular attention to children and their families living in poverty, in particular Roma children and children living in less developed areas.

·        make it mandatory for professionals to report to an appropriate body cases of abuse, including sexual abuse, and ensure the provision of appropriate training and adequate protection for professionals called upon to make such reports;

·        ensure the provision of rehabilitation assistance to child victims of abuse.

·        take steps to address adolescent health concerns, including teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, through, inter alia, sex education, including about birth control measures such as the use of condoms.

·        continue to strengthen its HIV/AIDS prevention programmes, including safe sex education programmes [concern at the incidence of HIV transmission, including mother-to-child transmission, and at the high incidence of AIDS (10.4 cases per 100,000)]

·        increase interventions at primary health-care level aimed at limiting mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

·        increase its investment in education; study the causes of high drop-out and repetition rates; introduce policies to address the causes of low enrolment in pre-school education; continue its efforts to increase the number of children completing secondary education; take steps to reduce drop-out rates and to implement its planned reform of secondary education; and take steps to raise the number of persons going on to higher education, giving due attention to reducing gender disparities [there is a sharp disparity between  males (42 per cent) and females (57 per cent) as far as going on to tertiary education from secondary school].

Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Portugal.  21 March 2001. CERD/C/304/Add.117.

Concerns and recommendations:

·        some industrial and services sectors where illegal migrant workers are engaged, they are discriminated against. It recommends that the State party take measures to put an end to this discrimination.

·        lack of detailed information in the report about the effective enjoyment by ethnic groups, including refugees, foreign workers, Gypsies (Roma) and citizens who obtained Portuguese nationality following the independence of former colonies.

·        take measures to inform the population in general, and the most vulnerable groups in particular, about the possibility of bringing complaints before the Commission for Equality and against Racial Discrimination.

Conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture: Portugal. 8 May 2000. A/55/44,paras.96-105.


·        continue to undertake in vigorous measures, both disciplinary and educative, to maintain the momentum moving the police culture in Portugal to one that respects human rights.

Concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Portugal. 1 December 2000. E/C.12/1/Add.53.


·        approximately one fifth of the population of the State party still lives below the poverty line and no comprehensive study of the problem of poverty has been undertaken by the State party.

·        the occurrence of child labour.

·        cases of intolerance and discrimination with regard to Roma people, refugees and immigrants. The Committee also notes with concern that foreign workers cannot enrol in the vocational guidance and training courses to which Portuguese workers are entitled.

·        the persistence of discrimination against women in the fields of employment and equality of wages and opportunity with men; the phenomenon of violence against women, including marital violence.

·        the increase of trafficking in women that is linked to organized crime.

·        the increase in paedophilia and child pornography in association with the increase in drug trafficking and consumption and other criminal activities.

·        the relatively high school drop-out rates and the rate of high illiteracy.


·        intensify its efforts to create a culture of tolerance and to eliminate all forms of discrimination, in so far as they affect women, Roma, asylum seekers and immigrants.

·        ensure stricter application of the legal provisions guaranteeing men and women equal pay for equal work.

·        strictly implement the measures at its disposal to monitor and impose the appropriate penalties on persons or companies using child labour.

·        intensify its efforts to prevent drug addiction among young people and impose appropriate penalties on persons who commit offences relating to paedophilia, child pornography and trafficking in women.

·        the persisting problem of illiteracy.


[1] British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC News: Country Profiles: Portugal, online, 20 December 2001, available at www.news.bbc.co.uk, accessed 28 December 2001.

[2] US Department of State, Background Notes: Portugal (May 2000), available at www.state.gov/r/pa/bgn/index.cfm?docid=3208, accessed 22 October 2001.

[3] Barry Hatton, “Portuguese PM Resigns After Party Loss,” Washington Post,  17 December 2001, online, available at www.washingtonpost.com, accessed 2 January 2002.

[4] United Nations Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Ninth Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 1999: Portugal (CERD/C/357/Add.1), 4 October 2000 (English version), I (A) (4), p. 3.

[5] US Department of State.

[6] Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (4th revision), text according to the Constitutional law no. 1/97 of 20 September 1997, (Text according to Constitutional Law no. 1/97, of 20 September - fourth revision of the Constitution, published in the Diário da República, first series-A,

no. 218), available at www.parlamento.pt/leis/constituicao_ingles/index_const.htm, accessed 1 Novemer 2001.

[7] Ibid.

[8] United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Fourth Periodic Report of Portugal (CEDAW/C/PRT/4), 19 November 1999 (English version),  para. 83-84, p. 10.

[9] Félix Neto and Isabel Pinto, “Gender Stereotypes in Portuguese Television Advertisements,” Sex Roles vol. 39 no. 1-2 (July 1998), 158.

[10] Ibid., 158.

[11] Ibid., 153-164.

[12]   Ibid., 153-164.

[13] Ibid.,  153-154.

[14] Ibid.,  163.

[15] US Department of State, Department of State Human Rights Reports for 2000: Portugal.

[16] Jacinta Azevedo, Irene Santo, and Jorge Cardoso,  Portugal: Activity Report 1998-2000 (Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Media in London, UK), available at www.med.ic.ac.uk/divisions/60/europanew/activities/portugal_activity.htm, accessed 20 December 2001.

[17] “News/Portugal: Police Dismantle Suspected Prostitution Ring in Portugal,” Associated Press, 13 July 2000.

[18] US Department of State.

[19] “News/Portugal: Police Dismantle Suspected Prostitution Ring in Portugal,” Associated Press, 13 July 2000.

[20] Constitution of the Portuguese Republic.

[21] European Database, Women in Decision Making Country Reports: Portugal (by Isabel Romao), 12 February 2001, available at: www.db-decision.de/CoRE/Portugal.htm, accessed 1 December 2001.

[22] Félix Neto and Isabel Pinto, 154.

[23] US Department of State.

[23] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Portugal, online, available at www.ippfnet.ippf.org/pub/IPPF_Regions, accessed 27 November 2001.

[24]   Thalif Deen, “Only Eight out of 188 States Close Gender Gap, Says UNIFEM,” Inter Press Service, 5 June 2000.

[25] US Department of State.

[25] International Planned Parenthood Federation.

[26] US Department of State

[26] International Planned Parenthood Federation.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Information received  by e-mail from Ilda Figueiredo at PCP - Gabinete Parlamento Europeu Lisboa, email: p.europeu.lx@pcp.pt,  4 January 2002.

[29] Sexual Information and Education Council of the United States, Nuno Nodin,  “Risk of HIV Infection and Unwanted Pregnancy among Portuguese Young Adults,” SIECUS Report, vol. 29 no. 5 (2001).

[30] Ibid.

[31] Vilar Duarte, “The Referendum on Abortion in Portugal,” Choices-Sexual Health and Family Planning in Europe vol. 27, no. 1 (1999), 16-18.

[32] Information received by e-mail from Ilda Figueiredo at PCP - Gabinete Parlamento Europeu Lisboa, email: p.europeu.lx@pcp.pt, 4 January 2002.

[33] Vilar Duarte, “The Referendum on Abortion in Portugal.”

[34] Sexual Information and Education Council of the United States, Nuno Nodin,  “Risk of HIV Infection and Unwanted Pregnancy among Portuguese Young Adults.” 

[35] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Portugal,.

[36] Information received  by e-mail from Ilda Figueiredo at PCP - Gabinete Parlamento Europeu Lisboa, email: p.europeu.lx@pcp.pt,  4 January 2002.

[37] Duarte Vilar, “The Referendum on Abortion in Portugal.”

[38] Sexual Information and Education Council of the United States, Nuno Nodin,  “Risk of HIV Infection and Unwanted Pregnancy among Portuguese Young Adults.”

[39] Information received  by e-mail from Ilda Figueiredo at PCP - Gabinete Parlamento Europeu Lisboa, email: p.europeu.lx@pcp.pt,  4 January 2002.

[40] Kate Burke, AVIVA, a monthly email and internet listing of women's groups & events worldwide (based in London, UK), available at www.aviva.org/action.htm#PORTUGAL, accessed 10 December 2001.

[41] Vilar Duarte, “The Referendum on Abortion in Portugal.”

[42] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Portugal.

[43] Information received  by e-mail from Ilda Figueiredo at PCP - Gabinete Parlamento Europeu Lisboa, email: p.europeu.lx@pcp.pt,  4 January 2002.

[44] Sexual Information and Education Council of the United States, Nuno Nodin.

[45] Ibid.

[46] US Department of State.

[46] International Planned Parenthood Federation.

[47] US Department of State.

[47] International Planned Parenthood Federation.

[48] US Department of State.

[48] International Planned Parenthood Federation.



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