By Adam Overland
President Barack Obama will appoint civil engineering professor Efi Foufoula-Georgiou to the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board.
Efi Foufoula-Georgiou appointed to Nuclear Waste Board
The White House announced that President Barack Obama will appoint Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, a civil engineering professor in the University of Minnesota’s College of Science and Engineering, as a new member of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. Foufoula-Georgiou is one of only eight individuals nationwide who will be appointed to the board.
The Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board is an independent agency of the U.S. Federal Government. Its sole purpose is to provide independent scientific and technical oversight of the Department of Energy's program for managing and disposing high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Foufoula-Georgiou came to the University of Minnesota in 1989. She has served as the director of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics at the University of Minnesota since 2008. She has also served on the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Science Advisory Board since 2005 and is a member of the American Geophysical Union, American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Society of Women Engineers.
Prior to her faculty appointment at the University of Minnesota, Foufoula-Georgiou was an assistant professor at Iowa State University from 1986 to 1989 and a research associate at University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory from 1985 to 1986. She received a degree in civil engineering from the National Technical University in Athens, Greece, as well as an M.S. and a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Florida. For more information, see the news release.
North Star STEM Alliance to receive additional $2.5 million from NSF
The University of Minnesota Twin Cities, 13 collaborating higher education institutions, and 3 community partners of the North Star STEM Alliance have been awarded an additional five years of funding totaling $2.5 million from the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program. Additional funding was awarded as the Alliance approaches its initial five-year goal of doubling the number of underrepresented minority students receiving bachelor’s degrees in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields from 2007–12.
The University of Minnesota Twin Cities has also been named one of four national recipients of a two-year Minority Male STEM Initiative (MMSI) grant from the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). Funded by a major grant from The Kresge Foundation, the MMSI grant supports a partnership between the U of M and Minneapolis Technical and Community College (MCTC) to increase recruitment, retention and success of minority males in STEM majors.
The North Star STEM Alliance began June 1, 2007, as a partnership among Minnesota colleges and universities and two community organizations. The University of Minnesota Twin Cities is the lead institution, with the collaborative effort involving faculty and staff from the College of Biological Sciences, the College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, the College of Science and Engineering, and the Office for Equity and Diversity. The university’s Duluth and Morris campuses are also members. For more information, see the news release.
Valberg inducted into Equine Research Hall of Fame
Stephanie Valberg, professor and director of the University of Minnesota Equine Center, was inducted into the University of Kentucky Equine Research Hall of Fame on Sept. 23 at Keeneland Race Course in Lexington, KY.
Established by the University of Kentucky Gluck Equine Research Foundation, the Equine Research Hall of Fame is the highest honor for a lifetime of contribution to the body of knowledge in equine research. For a scientist to have merited such distinction is a great tribute to their work. The work of the Hall of Fame members spans several disciplines and covers nearly 100 years of scientific investigation in all parts of the world. Valberg is the first woman to receive the honor. For more information, see Valberg.
U in the News: A selection of U faculty and staff in the news as appearing daily in Today’s News.
Retiring VP Mulcahy retooled U research
If Tim Mulcahy seems noticeably relaxed these days, that's probably because he is. Like any soon-to-be retiree, Mulcahy, 61, is looking forward to a life of travel, photography and writing after he steps down as University of Minnesota's vice president of research in December. But more important, Mulcahy walks away from the job confident the university has pumped a steady flow of jobs and innovation into Minnesota's economy. Star Tribune.
Land of 10,000 Stories: 'Dressy Jessie' is one woman costume party
A bustling city can be a difficult place to hold on to one's identity. Then there's Jessica Mooney, who has given up even trying. And since the marketing manager in the U of M's College of Education and Human Development was surrendering her identity, she invented a new one: "Dressy Jessie" is the name she chose for her Facebook page. KARE-11.
Editorial: Tuition escalator shows in Minnesota
Two signs that the long-running American higher-education tuition escalator is slowing and may be coming to a halt appeared in Minnesota in recent days, at two very different institutions. ...University of Minnesota President Eric Kaler proposed a two-year base undergraduate tuition freeze if the Legislature commits to increasing state support $14.2 million per year in each of the next two state fiscal years. Star Tribune.
Obesity could double in Minnesota if patterns hold
Anyone who thinks Minnesota has a serious obesity problem now should look ahead 20 years. A new analysis of government health data suggests that Minnesota's obesity rate could climb to a staggering 54.7 percent by 2030 if the state's current weight-related trends don't change. Simone French, an obesity prevention researcher at the University of Minnesota, hopes the report's dire projections will motivate lawmakers to take more action on reducing obesity. MPR.
Peterson: farm bill unlikely soon
Don’t expect a new farm bill by the time Congress bails out of Washington next week for the fall election, Rep. Collin Peterson, D-Minn., said Friday. That won’t affect the nutrition and farm programs covered by the 2012 farm bill, at least until Jan. 1, Peterson and ag experts say. Bill Craig, a University of Minnesota Extension agricultural business management educator based in Crookston, expects the current farm bill to be extended, with action on a five-year bill after the election. AG Week.
Communities collaborate on solar project
David Schmidt has been intrigued by the idea of generating power from the sun for a long time, but he had never taken the next step. The research engineer teaches a course on renewable energy at the University of Minnesota. He had already cut back on his energy use and converted his home to LED lights. USA Today.
Jones named president of University at Albany
Senior VP Robert Jones has been named the next president of the University at Albany. Jones has served the U of M for 34 years. He begins his new role on Jan. 2, 2013.Senior Vice President Robert Jones has been named the next president of the University at Albany, part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Jones will assume the role on Jan. 2, 2013.
Jones has held his current role as senior vice president for academic administration, University of Minnesota system, for the past eight years. Prior to that, he served in key administrative leadership roles at the U of M for more than 15 years and was a professor of agronomy and plant genetics.
His broad scope of responsibility at the U of M encompasses central academic administration, statewide and systemwide academic programs and resources, and University-wide programs of public engagement and outreach. His portfolio includes the U of M’s campuses in Crookston, Duluth, Morris, and Rochester; international programs, diversity and multicultural affairs, PreK-12 and other youth and family programs, urban initiatives, planning and institutional research, information technology, human resources, institutional strategic leadership, University of Minnesota Extension, and other University statewide initiatives.
Jones’ contributions to the University of Minnesota over the past three decades have had a major impact on higher education across the state. He has strengthened engagement between the University and communities across Minnesota, from Extension to urban initiatives. In the area of global partnerships and education, his influence has indeed been felt around the world.
National Science Foundation Partnerships for Innovation grant
U scientists have received a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Partnerships for Innovation Program to develop biotechnology to clean up hydraulic fracturing (fracking) water.
Fracking, the use of hydraulic pressure to release natural gas and oil from shale, has the potential to meet energy demands with U.S. resources and stimulate the economy. However, the practice also carries possible environmental and public health risks, most notably water contamination.
A University of Minnesota research team is addressing this challenge by developing innovative biotechnology to purify fracking wastewater. Headed by Larry Wackett, a professor in the College of Biological Sciences, the team includes Alptekin Aksan, professor in the College of Science and Engineering, and Michael Sadowsky, professor in the College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences.
The effort has earned a new $600,000 grant from the National Science Foundation’s Partnerships for Innovation (NSF-PFI) program, which pairs academic researchers with companies to transfer academic knowledge to the private sector and produce innovative technologies that benefit the public. Wackett, Aksan and Sadowksy, as well as CBS Dean Robert Elde, are co-investigators. Elde’s role is to lead interaction between the researchers and the companies. If the project is successful, the team will be eligible for additional NSF funding.
The three scientists, all members of the university’s BioTechnology Institute, are using naturally-occurring bacteria embedded in porous silica materials to biodegrade contaminants in fracking wastewater, a technology they originally developed to remove agricultural pesticides from soil and water. They now have the ability to customize the technology to degrade chemicals in water used for fracking. Their goal is to make the water suitable for re-use in fracking of other wells and significantly reduce the amount of water used by industry.
Earlier this year, Wackett and his team also won a University of Minnesota Futures Grant to more broadly explore methods for mitigating the environmental impacts of fracking. For this project, they are working with a larger interdisciplinary group of co-investigators including faculty in the Humphrey Institute for Public Affairs and the School of Public Health as well as the intercollegiate BioTechnology Institute. Given to only one or two faculty teams annually, Futures Grants encourage extraordinary collaborative research deemed likely to attract substantial external funding.
For more information, see the news release.
U in the News: A selection of U faculty and staff in the news as appearing daily in Today’s News.
New U center will offer guidance on medical education
The University of Minnesota will lead a new center that will provide national guidance on the best ways to reshape health care education so graduates learn how to practice collaboratively. The federal government will contribute $4 million over five years to the center, the only one of its kind in the country. The U of M's Barbara Brandt, the principle investigator on the project, says the health care system is transforming rapidly. MPR.
U promises to freeze tuition for $14 million in new money
The University of Minnesota is getting creative in how it asks for new money. For the first time, the U's capital request to the Legislature promises to freeze tuition for in-state undergraduates if the Legislature provides a $14.2 million increase. University officials said they also would propose that the state create tax credits to help students pay tuition. Star Tribune.
U of M tree expert: water until the ground is frozen
Monday morning’s rain probably helped your yard, flowers, or garden -- but it did little or nothing to help your trees. Experts at the University of Minnesota Extension say we could be in for a significant tree kill next spring, unless you start taking action, says Gary Johnson, forestry specialist. KAAL.
U VP named president at NY college
After serving the University of Minnesota for 34 years in various roles, Senior Vice President Robert Jones will leave the University of Minnesota to assume the presidency at the University at Albany effective Jan. 2. Minnesota Daily.
The gut and its bacteria a growing focus of research
The gut has been linked to many illnesses. Scientists are looking at how to manipulate its bacteria to promote health and treat disease. Infection with C. difficile is "the clearest example of a bad outcome of using antibiotics," says Dr. Alex Khoruts, a gastroenterologist at the University of Minnesota. Los Angeles Times.
It's watering time!
If you were one of those folks who let their lawns go dormant over the heat of summer, it’s time to pull out the hoses. If you don’t provide your lawn with proper moisture now, there may be no turf grass to come back in the Spring. Sam Bauer, Extension Turfgrass Educator for the University of MN Extension, wrote that usual Fall lawn maintenance on drought affected turfgrass may actually do more harm than good. Star Tribune.
The Unexpected Impact of Coded Appeals
After signing into law the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson famously told an aide, “we just delivered the South to the Republican Party for a long time to come.” Indeed, the Johnson-Goldwater contest was notable in two important respects related to race: it featured the first appearance in almost a century of racial animus as a central dimension of partisan conflict in a presidential election, and it was the last time a Democrat received a majority of the white vote. Author Christopher Federico is an associate professor of political science and psychology at the University of Minnesota. New York Times.
Peanut allergies may have tripled over the last decade
Maria Rinaldi, U epidemiologist, served as lead author of a study that found peanut allergies may have tripled over the last decade. Huffington Post.
Raw milk trial underway in Minneapolis
A Hennepin County courtroom is a long way from the dairy herds of central Minnesota. But it’s there where the issue of food safety hangs in the balance with consumers rights. Specifically, it’s about farmer’s right to sell raw milk to members of a co-op or “private” food club. “I think they should be aware of the inherent risks,” said University of Minnesota Veterinary Public Health professor, Jeff Bender. WCCO-TV.
Christy Haynes named one of "Brilliant 10"
University of Minnesota chemist Christy Haynes has been named one of Popular Science magazine's "Brilliant 10," an honor that recognizes an elite group of young scientists whose research is expected to dramatically impact their fields. Haynes' profile was published today on the PopSci website and is featured in the Popular Science magazine now on newsstands.
Haynes, an associate professor of chemistry in the University's College of Science and Engineering, has been working with her research group to study blood platelets. Platelets are small, irregularly shaped cell fragments that circulate in the blood and are an essential component of blood clotting. Platelets are about one-tenth the size of average cells in mammals and have proven difficult to study due their small size and their biological function to react immediately when in a foreign environment.
Haynes and her team are the only researchers in the world who have been able to measure chemicals being released by individual platelets in real time. They were the first to successfully isolate an individual platelet under a microscope, place a minuscule electrode onto it, and measure the messenger molecules released.
Understanding how platelets communicate with each other gives researchers fundamental knowledge they never had before. This could lead to new treatments for patients who have difficulty with blood clotting or developing medications to help patients avoid dangerous blood clots.
Haynes is already collaborating with renowned platelet specialists nationwide to look at platelet samples and conduct initial lab testing for possible anti-clotting medicines.
Haynes and her colleagues recently formed the Center for Analysis of Biomolecular Signalling within the University of Minnesota Department of Chemistry. The research will be focused on learning more about how cells in the body send chemical signals to each other during immune response, blood clotting, muscle firing and more.
In addition to studying platelets, Haynes has been building "an immune system on a chip," where she is isolating and studying the various way cells communicate and respond to each other. With more information about how immune cells interact, she helps to open new avenues for treating allergic reactions and asthma. For more information, see the news release.
Douglas receives CAREER award
Professor Christopher Douglas has received a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support his research into new methodologies for chemical synthesis, particularly those relating to the activation and functionalization of carbon sigma bonds adjacent to carbonyls.
The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is one of the NSF's most prestigious awards. It supports junior faculty who exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education, and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organizations.
Douglas' research encompasses discovering new chemical synthesis methods involving the metal-promoted activation of carbon sigma bonds in ketones, esters, and aldehydes. A major focus will be on the insertion of unsaturated groups into the activated bonds. Mechanistic work will be undertaken to develop a deeper understanding of the new reactivity develop. The methods developed under the CAREER award will be applied to a diverse set of synthesis challenges. Applications will range from the synthesis of commodity chemical feedstocks like methyl ethyl ketone to the synthesis of complex natural products.
Douglas also will initiate two educational projects that interweave research and teaching. The first project involves discovery-based learning in a large chemistry classroom. A hybrid, guided-inquiry and traditional-lecture teaching plan for introductory organic chemistry will be piloted and tested.
The second project is an outreach program involving a local recording arts high school that serves at-risk children from predominantly underrepresented groups. Douglas and members of his research group will design and lead college visit days designed to engage students in hands-on science demonstration activities, including making their own chemiluminescent glow-stick. The high-school students will record their experiences as a part of their recording-arts curriculum with a goal of producing a pubic service announcement for their school's radio program.
CASCW selected by Sen. Klobuchar for Angel in Adoption award
The Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) has been selected by Senator Amy Klobuchar as one of this year's Angels in Adoption for outstanding advocacy in preparing adoption-competent clinical mental health and child welfare professionals for their work with adopted children and their families. The Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute (CCAI), which orchestrates the Angels in Adoption program, will honor CASCW, along with more than 140 other Angels, at an awards ceremony and gala event on September 11 and 12 in Washington, D.C.
Established in 1999, the Angels in Adoption program is CCAI's signature public awareness campaign that provides an opportunity for Congress to honor the good work of their constituents who have enriched the lives of children in foster and adoptive homes in the United States and abroad.
Part of the University of Minnesota's School of Social Work, CASCW is being honored for its Permanency and Adoption Competency Certificate (PACC), a professional training program that was developed in response to community demand for an adoption-competent mental health and child welfare workforce able to serve the unique and complex clinical and practice needs for adopted individuals and their families.
U in the News: A selection of U faculty and staff in the news as appearing daily in Today's News.
Patent reform could speed up innovation
A sweeping new patent law that begins to go into effect Sunday could help the U.S. whittle down a massive backlog in patent applications and free up innovation. Tom Cotter, an expert on intellectual property law at the University of Minnesota agreed the act will speed up the process of approving patents, but he downplayed the boost to innovation argument. Pioneer Press.
Top athletes believe diet is key to success
The raw bell peppers' crispness muffled the noise coming from James Onwualu's mouth as he described the purpose of the colorful snack. Red, yellow and green peppers, mixed with broccoli and spinach, are a vital part of living a purified life, the Cretin-Derham Hall senior said. Rasa Troup, a sports nutrition specialist and dietitian for University of Minnesota athletics, believes such guidelines will help create good eating habits. Star Tribune.
Report: Date of school start affects tourism
The director of the University of Minnesota tourism center says new research suggests there's a significant decrease in vacation travel among families with children when school starts before Labor Day. The director, Ingrid Schneider, says the university was part of a national survey of five states that compared people's travel patterns when school started before and after Labor Day. MPR.
Survey: 7 out of 10 con law profs think DOMA is unconstitutional
Dale Carpenter, a professor at University of Minnesota Law School, asked constitutional law professors whether they support same-sex marriage and whether they believe the Defense of Marriage Act, which defines marriage as between a man and a woman, is constitutional. Wall Street Journal.
U's Kaler: It's all about return on investment
University of Minnesota President Eric Kaler often speaks to service clubs and other groups, and he usually works in a variation of this: "For every state dollar invested in us, we return $13.20 to Minnesota's economy." Dropping that line on an audience is part of Kaler's standard pitch to remind folks of the university's deep economic impact. Star Tribune.
Buyer Beware: There Might Be More to the Organic vs. Conventional Food Debate Than Thought
I'm a big proponent of buying organic food versus non-organic, but now I'm a little flummoxed. "In the largest review yet of studies that compare conventional to organic foods, researchers found no major evidence that one type is healthier than the other in measurements like nutrient content, allergic response or infection rates," Discovery reports. Together, the results are too inconclusive and disparate to draw any major conclusions, said Betsy Wattenberg, a toxicologist at the University of Minnesota. Yahoo News.
So, we meet again
After Tess Gallagher moved to Minneapolis for a new job, the 24-year-old Michigan graduate didn't try to make friends at the gym or the grocery store. Instead, she logged onto Meetup.com, where she found three groups whose members shared her eclectic interests—reading, rock climbing and theater. "Meetups are an evolving tool to find like-minded people who are passionate about the same things," said Shayla Thiel-Stern, who teaches courses about new media and culture at the University of Minnesota. Star Tribune.
Arteries Show Signs of Damage Even After Short Duration of Smoking
For teens who smoke, heart health troubles may start early. Regular smokers ages 8 to 20 have substantial artery damage that can lead to heart disease, Swiss researchers report. American Heart Association spokesman Russell Luepker, MD, of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, says it's now well-established that heart disease and stroke risk factors in childhood track into adulthood. CBS Sacramento.
Electronic Cigarettes Useful as Smoking Cessation Aid, Researcher Says
Electronic cigarettes do not appear to be bad for your heart, according to the first study to look at the effects of smoking e-cigarettes on heart function. American Heart Association spokesman Russell Luepker, MD, of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, says that because they "light up," electronic cigarettes may be preferred over other smoking cessation aids by some people trying to quit. CBS Philadelphia.
Faculty of color find community in writing
He tries to set aside a little time for it every day, and he's found it's easier to stay motivated when working alongside others. This wasn't always the case. J.B. Mayo, an assistant professor in the University of Minnesota's Department of Curriculum and Instruction, spent his first years as a faculty member writing alone. But when he heard about the Faculty of Color writers group, everything changed. Minnesota Daily.
UMAA CEO Phil Esten accepts role at Cal-Berkeley
University of Minnesota Alumni Association president and CEO Phil Esten will leave his position in early October to become executive associate athletic director for advancement at the University of California, Berkeley.
Esten joined the UMAA in 2010 as only the seventh CEO of the 108-year-old association. During his tenure, Esten led the association through a comprehensive strategic planning process that resulted in a new mission and vision, five core values and seven strategic objectives that include three key ‘pillars’—engage, partner and advocate.
At Berkeley, Esten will oversee all athletics fundraising efforts and become part of athletic director Sandy Barbour’s senior leadership team. The move is also a return to his roots in athletics. Before becoming alumni CEO he was the University of Minnesota’s associate athletics director, managing the department’s overall strategic plan and serving as the point person in the development of TCF Bank Stadium, among other duties.
A transition team will be appointed to see the organization through the search for a new CEO.
Stenhjem awarded P&A Leadership Award
Pam Stenhjem, ICI research fellow, was recently awarded the P&A Leadership Award from the University Women's Center, which includes a $1,500 professional development stipend. Established in 2012, this award annually recognizes members of the campus P&A staff who have made outstanding contributions to improve the work environment for P&A women.
U in the News: A selection of U faculty and staff in the news as appearing daily in Today’s News.
Possessed by money
Kathleen Vohs, associate professor at the University of Minnesota's Carlson School of Management, is obsessed with money. Not acquiring it, but studying what the pursuit of it does to us. Her groundbreaking research is motivated partly by her own experience with money, a not-exactly-rags to relative riches story. Star Tribune.
A realistic approach to intimacy
Every generation believes that they "discovered" sex, and the Millennials are no different. What goes on when the lights go out might not have changed all that much, but how students talk about—and, hopefully, prepare for—sex is changing. "For students who choose to be sexually active, we say 'condoms plus,'" said Julie Sanem, associate program director at Boynton Health Services at the University of Minnesota. Star Tribune.
The rebirth of recess
Every schoolchild who’s ever squirmed in his seat, anxious for recess to arrive, can sympathize with students in Chicago. This year, many public schools in that city are scheduled to have recess for the first time in three decades. “Having recess is much, much, much better than not having recess,” says Anthony Pellegrini, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Minnesota. Slate.
Study says the lust that drives sexual harassment at the workplace is power not sex
A new Youth Development Study, authored by Amy Blackstone a sociology professor at University of Maine, along with two sociologists at the the University of Minnesota, Professor Chris Uggen and Ph.D. candidate Heather McLaughlin, belies popular belief and reveals that it’s not the new vulnerable secretary or the college intern or the junior associate who are subjected to sexual harassment at the workplace, but the female supervisors who are, in reality, sexually harassed more. Human Resources Journal.
U engineering researchers discover noninvasive method for diagnosing epilepsy
A team of University of Minnesota biomedical engineers [led by Bin He] and researchers from Mayo Clinic published a groundbreaking study today that outlines how a new type of non-invasive brain scan taken immediately after a seizure gives additional insight into possible causes and treatments for epilepsy patients. UMNews.
Diplomacy through sport: an effective way to bridge cultures
With the ending of the 2012 Summer Olympics, Joan Brzeinski, executive director of the China Center and the Confucius Institute at the U of M, authored this commentary on how the world doesn't need to wait four more years to engage in thoughtful and respectful dialogue about culture and values. MinnPost.
Want more self-control over what you eat? Just pay attention, U study suggests
Why is it that some people dip into a bowl of M&Ms or a pint of Ben & Jerry’s Chunky Monkey ice cream or a bag of Frito-Lay potato chips and eat just a little bit, while other people munch away until the container is empty, or close to it? Most of us would say it’s because the people in the first group have more self-control, or willpower. But that may be only part of the explanation, according to new research from the University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management and the study’s lead author, Joseph Redden, an assistant professor of marketing. MinnPost.
U of M gets $13.1M for energy research
The University of Minnesota is getting federal grant money from the U.S. Department of Energy to fund two nationwide centers. The $13.1 million will be used over the next five years to fund centers at the Department of Chemistry in the university’s College of Science and Engineering. KSTP.
Faces of Leadership: Pamela Wheelock
When University of Minnesota President Eric Kaler chose Pam Wheelock to be the U’s new vice president of university services, he found someone with a resume that’s almost mind-boggling in its diversity. The Line.
U-Morris is in spotlight for clean energy
The U.S. Energy Department has put a spotlight on Morris, Minn., and its University of Minnesota campus, releasing a 3 1/2-minute video about their clean-energy programs. Morris, located 150 miles northwest of the Twin Cities, is the second U.S. community chosen by the Energy Department to spotlight clean energy efforts in cities with populations of less than 20,000. U-Morris Chancellor Jacqueline Johnson said the campus's two wind turbines sometimes supply 100 percent of its power, and the corncob gasifier helps heat and cool buildings. Star Tribune.