|Teaching Science through History|
|Introduction || Contents || Resources|
Women in Science: Maria Merian & Hildegard von Bingen
by Susan Herder
When people refer to nature, they always use the feminine to describe or portray it. We hear about "Mother Nature." Personification of the sciences in sixteenth and seventeenth century texts and frontispieces were mostly women, unreal and deified. However, the field was truly open only to men as a profession. Women remained invisible, except in positions as midwives, until the late nineteenth century. The purpose of these middle school curriculum modules is to bring to light the contributions of a few of the female pioneers of science: Maria Sibylla Merian and Hildegard von Bingen.
Background: "Women of the Scientific Revolution" (Word doc, 30kb)
Maria Merian (Word doc, 102kb)
Hildegard von Bingen (Word doc, 80kb)