||strong reciprocity / aggression by one macaque on another
||Organisms may also actively punish non-cooperators. For example, in a free-ranging (semi-captive) colony of macaques, or rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), on an island off Puerto Rico, individuals call to the group when they find food. Individuals that fail to call are frequently discovered and, here, actively punished. They are more likely to be bit, hit, chased or rolled. Cheaters ultimately eat less food. There are costs to deception (Hauser 1992). Cooperation enforced through punishment yields strong reciprocity. In cases such as these, interactions at the higher, social level regulate behavior, or stimulus-response patterns, at the individual level. [Note: This image is not from Dr. Hauser's study.]
Punishment seems important in human culture and evolutionary history, as well. When Darwin began considering the evolution of morality, he reflected on a possible role for the "fear of others acting in unison" and "the fear of punishment" (M Notebook, p. 151; 1871, p. 92). However, punitive behavior cannot be assumed. It costs extra effort or resources. Humans, nonetheless, accept personal cost to ensure group benefits in anonymous experimental situations. Moreover, others respond to their punitive actions (Fehr and Gächter 2002). A norm of cooperation can be learned and enforced through punishment.
||A system of sharing is also found in a free-ranging (semi-captive) colony of macaques, or rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), on an island off Puerto Rico. Individuals call to the group when they find food. However, some individuals fail to call. When they are discovered they receieve adverse treatment. They are more likely to be bit, hit, chased or rolled (Hauser 1992). What are the consequences for cheaters and cooperation here?
What are the conditions or capacities that enable such a system of punishment or enforcement?
[ Cooperation enforced through punishment is called strong reciprocity. ]
Target Concept: Social organisms may enforce cooperation through rewards and punishment.
||Mark "leedstoloasandbeyond" [flickr.com]
|SIZE in pixels [file size]