Welcome to the website maintained by Professor Emeritus James N. Butcher featuring the latest research about the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the MMPI- 2, MMPI-A, and Minnesota Reports, including his recommendations for their use in various settings.

Recent Books from the American Psychological Association

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Using the MMPI-2 in Forensic Assessment
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A Beginners Guide to the MMPI-2
A Beginners Guide to the MMPI-A

James Butcher
James N. Butcher, Ph.D.

Emeritus Professor
Department of Psychology
University of Minnesota


Secretary: Betty J Kiminki kimin001@umn.edu

Phone:(612) 625-9880
Fax: (612) 626-0080

The MMPI-2 is discussed in the abnormal psychology textbook published by Pearson Education,
as well as in Professor Butcher’s memoir of his experiences during the Korean War.

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Gender Differences on Personality Tests

Shawn N. Mason, Shawn Bubany & James N. Butcher
University of Minnesota

Q: Is there evidence of gender differences that must be taken into account when undertaking a psychological evaluation using personality instruments like the MMPI-2, MMPI-2-RF, 16PF, MCMI-III, or PAI?

A:  The research and theoretical literature show clear differences in the symptoms and behaviors of men and women assessed by personality tests. There is a robust body of literature on gender differences in personality, psychopathology, cognition, and social behavior. Indeed, personality differences in males and females have even been demonstrated in animal studies.
An understanding of gender differences in personality is important for assuring fair and balanced assessment of women in particular given the potential for discriminatory practices.
In personality assessment, gender differences are typically managed by using gender-specific comparison groups and separate validation samples of men and women for personality scales. However, there are notable exceptions when non-gendered norms have been developed and used in clinical decision-making, as described below.


Walton, G., Spencer, S.J. (2009). Latent Ability: Grades and Test Scores Systematically Underestimate the Intellectual Ability of Negatively Stereotyped Students. Psychological Science, 20(9), p. 1132-1139.

Willingham, W.W., Cole, N.S. (1997). Gender and fair assessment. Routledge Press.

Worrell, J. & Robinson, D.A. (2009). Issues in Clinical Assessment with Women. In Butcher, J.N. (Ed). Oxford Handbook of Personality Assessment (pp. 415-431). New York: Oxford University Press.

Q: Are there psychological theories regarding the origin/nature of gender difference in personality?

A: Yes, a number of psychologists have provided theoretical perspectives on the origin and nature of gender differences in personality, for example:

Social role models suggest that differences in personality traits, social behaviors and/or psychological variables result from social and cultural gender roles. Thus, men and women demonstrate various traits and psychological variables that are in line with culturally proscribed gender norms; adults adopt gender-specific social roles that impact personality traits and behavior.

Evolutionary models posit that men and women developed various personality traits and behavioral tendencies over time in order to maximize survival and quality of life, especially during early periods of human history. More specifically, evolutionary psychologists suggest that psychological differences between men and women are evolved adaptations to biological sexual difference.

Artifact models state that gender differences in personality are due to bias in some aspect of the measurement itself or the testing environment. This might include gender differences that result from informants rating others in ways that are consonant with gender stereotypes, the experience of stereotype threat on individuals completing assessments, or test items that are biased against either men or women (especially when combined gender norms are used).


Buss, D.M., Larsen, R.J., Westen, D. & Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology. Psychological Science, 3(4), 251-255.

Buss, D. (Ed). (2005). The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Eagly, A.H. 1987. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Eagly, A.H. & Wood, W. (1999). The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408-423.

Feingold, A. (1994). Gender Differences in Personality: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 118(3), 429-456.

Guimond, S. (2008). Psychological Similarities and Differences between Women and Men across Cultures. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), p. 494-510.

Gurtman, M. B. & Lee, D.L. (2009). Sex Differences in Interpersonal Problems: A Circumplex Analysis. Psychological Assessment, 21(4), p. 515-527.

Hyde, J.S. (2005). The Gender Similarities Hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60, 581-592.

Hyde, Janet Shibley. (2007). New Directions in the Study of Gender Similarities and Differences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), 259-263.

Schmit, D.P., Realo, A., Voracek, M. & Allik, J. (2008). Why Can't a Man Be More Like a Woman? Sex Differences in Big 5 Personality Traits Across 55 Cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), p. 168-182.

Q: Does the personality research literature show gender differences in personality traits or characteristics?

A:  Yes, numerous studies have reported gender differences across a number of different personality traits and measures. See below for some of the research studies.


Blonigen, D.M., Carlson, M.D., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., & Iacono, W.G. (2008). Stability and change in personality traits from late adolescence to early adulthood: A longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality, 76, 229-266.

Bidlan, J.S. (2004). Self-Esteem Attribution and Achievement: A Study of Gender Differences. Psychological Studies, 49, 282-286.

Burton, L.A., Hafetz, J., & Henninger, D. (2007). Gender differences in relational and physical aggression. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 41-50.

Cattell, H. & Schuerger, J.M. (2003). Essentials of 16PF Assessment. Wiley Press.

Cattell, Raymond. (1947). The Primary Personality Factors in Women Compared With Those in Men. The British Journal of Psychology, 1, 114-130.

Cattell, R.B., Eber, H.W., & Tatsuoka, M.M. (1970). Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.

Chapman, B.P., Duberstein, P.R., Sorensen, S., & Lyness, J.M. (2007). Gender differences in Five Factor Model personality traits in an elderly cohort. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1594-1603.

De Moor, M.H.M., Distel, M.A., Trull, T.J., &  Boomsma, D.I. (2009). Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant Across Sex and Age? Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 125-130.

Ehrhart, K.H., Roesch, S.C., Ehrhart, M.G., & Kilian, B. (2008). A test of the factor structure equivalence of the 50-item IPIP Five-factor model measure across gender and ethnic groups. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 507-516.

Escorial, S., & Navas, M.J. (2007). Analysis of the gender variable in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire--Revised Scales using differential item functioning techniques. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 990-1001.

Hynan, D.J. (2004). Unsupported Gender Differences on Some Personality Disorder Scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 105-110.

Jausovec, N., & Jausovec, K. (2007). Personality, gender and brain oscillations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66, 215-224.

Kline, R.B., & Lachar, D. (1992). Evaluation of age, sex, and race bias in the Personality Inventory for Children. Psychological Assessment, 4, 333-339.

Lindsay, K. A. (1997). Gender bias in self - report personality disorder inventories: Item analyses of the MCMI - III, MMPI - 2, and PDQ - 4 in a clinical population. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 57(11-B), May 1997, pp. 7230.

McBride, C., Bacchiochi, J.R., & Bagby, R.M. (2005). Gender differences in the manifestation of sociotropy and autonomy personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 129-136.

Plax, T. G; Rosenfeld, L. B. (1977). Antecedents of change in attitudes of males and females. Psychological Reports, 41, 811-821.

Pursell, G.R., Laursen, B., Rubin, K.H., Booth-LaForce, C., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2008). Gender differences in patterns of association between prosocial behavior, personality, and externalizing problems. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 472-481.

Stoner, S.B, & Panek, P.E. (1985). Age and sex differences with the Comrey Personality Scales. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 119, 137-142.

White, T.L., Lejuez, C.W., de Wit, H. (2007). Personality and gender differences in effects of d-amphetamine on risk taking. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 599-609.

Wiggins, J.S. (Ed). (1996). The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. New York: The Guilford Press.

Zakriski, A.L., Wright, J.C., & Underwood, M.K. (2005). Gender Similarities and Differences in Children's Social Behavior: Finding Personality in Contextualized Patterns of Adaptation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 844-855.

Zupancic, M., &  Kavcic, T. (2005). Gender differences in personality through early childhood: A multi-informant perspective. Psiholoska Obzorja/Horizons of Psychology, 14, 11-38.

Q: What research exists on sex differences in non-human personality?

A: Gender differences in personality are not just found in the human species. Research has found sex differences in personality characteristics of non-human animals/species. See references below for some examples.


Buirski, P., Plutchik, R. & Kellerman, H. (1978). Sex Differences, dominance, and personality in the chimpanzee. Animal Behaviour, 26, 123-129.

King, J.E., Weiss, A., Sisco, M.M. (2008). Aping humans: Age and sex effects in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human (Homo sapiens) personality. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 418-427.

Schuett, W. & Dall, S.R.X. (2009). Sex differences, social context and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour, 77, 1041-1050.

Q: What are some of the research articles on gender differences in personality and psychopathology (e.g. trait/state anxiety, depression, personality disorders, substance abuse)?

A: The following is a list of articles that address gender differences in various assessment instruments for specific personality characteristics.


Armon, G., Shirom, A., Melamed, S. & Shapira, I. (2010). Gender Differences in the Across-Time Associations of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model and Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Study. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2(1), 65-88.

Bean, Pamela; Maddocks, M. B; Timmel, P; Weltzin, T. (2005). Gender differences in the progression of co-morbid psychopathology symptoms of eating disordered patients. Eating and Weight Disorders, 10, 168-174.

Bradley, R., Conklin, C.Z., & Westen, D. (2005). The borderline personality diagnosis in adolescents: Gender differences and subtypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1006-1019.

Egloff, B., & Schmukle, S.C. (2004). Gender differences in implicit and explicit anxiety measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1807-1815.

Foot, M., & Koszycki, D. (2004). Gender Differences in Anxiety-Related Traits in Patients With Panic Disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 20, 123-130.

Goodwin, Re.D., & Gotlib, I.H. (2004). Gender differences in depression: the role of personality factors. Psychiatry Research, 126,135-142.

Grigoriadis, S., & Robinson, G.E. (2007). Gender issues in depression. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 19, 247-255.

Hiott, A., Grzywacz, J.G., Arcury, T.A., Quandt, S.A. (2006). Gender differences in anxiety and depression among immigrant Latinos. Families, Systems, & Health, 24, 137-146.

Hoffmann, M.L., Powlishta, K.K., & White, K.J. (2004). An Examination of Gender Differences in Adolescent Adjustment: The Effect of Competence on Gender Role Differences in Symptoms of Psychopathology. Sex Roles, 50, 795-810.

Huprich, S.K., Stepp, S.D., Graham, A., & Johnson, L. (2004). Gender differences in dependency, separation, object relations and pathological eating behavior and attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 801-811.

Kashdan, T.B., Vetter, C.J., & Collins, R.L. (2005). Substance use in young adults: Associations with personality and gender. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 259-269.

Keogh, E. (2004). Investigating invariance in the factorial structure of the anxiety sensitivity index across adult men and women. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83, 153-160.

Kim, H., & Kim, H. (2005). Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 35, 325-345.

Krischer, M.K., Sevecke, K., Lehmkuhl, G., & Pukrop, R. (2007). Dimensional assessment of personality pathology in female and male juvenile delinquents. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 675-689.

Kumar, D., Dubey, B.L., & Kumar, R. (2006). Gender differences in SIS-I profile of manic patients. Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health,13, 61-64.

Larsen, J.K., van Strien, T., Eisinga, R., & Engels, R.C.M.E. (2006). Gender differences in the association between alexithymia and emotional eating in obese individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 237-243.

Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shuval, Ronit. (2006). Perceived Causal and Treatment Factors Related to Substance Abuse: Gender Differences. European Addiction Research, 12, 109-112.

O'Leary, M.M., Loney, B.R., & Eckel, L.A. (2007). Gender differences in the association between psychopathic personality traits and cortisol response to induced stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 183-191.

Rogstad, J.E., & Rogers, R. (2008). Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1472-1484.

Strand, S., & Belfrage, H. (2005). Gender differences in psychopathy in a Swedish offender sample. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 23, 837-850.

Strober, M., Freeman, R., Lampert, C., Diamond, J., Teplinsky, C., & DeAntonio, M. (2006). There Gender Differences in Core Symptoms, Temperament, and Short-Term Prospective Outcome in Anorexia Nervosa? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 570-575.

Van Dam, N.T., Earleywine, M., & Forsyth, J.P. (2009). Gender bias in the sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: An application of polytomous differential item functioning. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 256-259.

Vesga-Lopez, O., Schneier, F.R., Wang, S., Heimberg, R.G., Liu, S., Hasin, D.S., & Blanco, C. (2008). Gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC). Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 1606-1616.

Vogel, D.L., Wester, S.R., Heesacker, M., Boysen, G.A., Seeman, J. (2006). Gender differences in emotional expression: Do mental health trainees overestimate the magnitude? Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 25, 305-332.

Voglmaier, M.M., Seidman, L.J., Niznikiewicz, M.A., Dickey, C.C., Shenton, M.E., & McCarley, R.W. (2005). A comparative profile analysis of neuropsychological function in men and women with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 74, 43-49.

Walsh, T.M., Stewart, S.H., McLaughlin, E., & Comeau, N. (2004). Gender differences in Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) dimensions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,18, 695-706.

Q: What are gender specific, gender separate, and non-gendered norms on personality measures?

A: Gender specific and gender separate norms are interchangeable terms referring to population norms that have been developed separately for men and women. In other words when you use a gender specific or gender separate norm, men are compared with men, and women with women. Several major personality measures utilize separate gender norms in test design and scoring.

In contrast, non-gendered norms are those in which men’s and women’s scores are combined into one comparison sample that is used to develop norms to evaluate test scores of persons from either gender.


Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (5th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.

Weiner, I.B. & Greene, R.L. (2008). Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Q: Does the MMPI-2 use gender specific norms?

A: Yes, the MMPI-2 utilizes gender specific norms. Separate gender norms were developed at the inception of the original MMPI. Hathaway and McKinley (1940) found differences between men and women’s scores on a number of MMPI scales. For example, they pointed out “Depression scores are significantly higher for females than for males…” thus they decided separate gender norms were necessary for the original MMPI.

When the MMPI was restandardized in 1989, the use of gender specific norms was continued because:  a) there were gender differences noted for some scales and b) we wanted to maintain the continuity between the MMPI-2 and the original MMPI in the interpretation of the traditional clinical scales (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989; Butcher,  Graham,  Ben-Porath, Tellegen,  Dahlstrom,  & Kaemmer,  2001).

Because the test was used in employment selection programs, research was conducted to examine results of men and women plotted on the same normative distributions as well as on gender specific norms (see Ben-Porath and Forbey, 2003).   Both sets of norms were made available to assure that applicant’s item responses were appropriately compared (see discussion in Butcher & Williams, 2000).

The MMPI-2-RF or Restructured Form (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) is a marked departure from the MMPI and MMPI-2 empirical tradition of gender-based normative comparisons. It introduced non-gendered norms in all settings, despite evidence of gender differences on items, scales, and correlates for scales. Butcher and Williams (2009) provide a critique of this departure.


Ben-Porath, Y. S. and Forbey, J. D. (2003). Non-gendered Norms for the MMPI-2. Minneapolis, MN.: University of Minnesota Press.

Ben-Porath, Y.S. &  Tellegen, A. (2008). MMPI-2RF: Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Butcher, J.N. (Ed). (2006). MMPI-2: A practitioner’s guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W.G., Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Manual for the restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI-2. An administrative and interpretive guide. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, Y. S., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Kaemmer, B. (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2: Manual for administration and scoring. (Revised edition). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Butcher, J.N. & Williams, C.L. (2009). Personality Assessment with the MMPI-2: Historical Roots, International Adaptations, and Current Challenges. Applies Psychology, Health and Well-Being, 1(1), 105-135.

Butcher, J. N. & Williams, C. L. (2000). Essentials of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A clinical interpretation. (2nd edition). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Friedman, A.F., Lewak, R. & Nichols, D.S. (2000). Psychological assessment with the MMPI-2.

Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C. (1940). A Multiphasic Personality Schedule (Minnesota) III. The measurement of symptomatic depression. Journal of Psychology, 14, 73-84

Weiner, I.B. & Greene, R.L. (2008). Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Tellegen, A. &  Ben-Porath, Y.S. (2008). MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual.   Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Q: Do other major personality assessment measures utilize gender specific norms?

A: Yes. Several measures maintain separate gender-specific norms, including the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the NEO-PI and the NEO-FFI.

Q. Do some personality tests use non-gendered T scores?

A: Yes, as noted above the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) uses non-gendered norms although gender differences are found on the test responses.  In addition, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991) uses combined norms even though gender differences have been reported.


Morey, L. C. (1991). Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, Fl.: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Tellegen, A. &  Ben-Porath, Y.S. (2008). MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual.   Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Q: Are there any controversies about gender bias in MMPI-2 scales?

A: Yes, the publisher’s decision in 2007 to add the Fake Bad Scale (FBS) to the standard scoring of the MMPI-2 is very controversial. The FBS, whose name was changed by the publisher to the Symptom Validity Scale in 2008, was developed by Lees-Haley et al. (1991) to detect malingering in personal injury cases.

Several studies have reported gender differences in FBS scores because many of the items are endorsed more frequently by women (e.g., Butcher, Arbisi, Atlis & McNulty, 2003; Dean, Boone, Kim, Curiel, Martin, Victor, Zeller,  & Lang, 2008; Greiffenstein, Fox & Lees-Haley, 2007; Lees-Haley, 1992; Nichols, Williams & Greene, 2009).  Using the same cut-off raw scores for attributing “malingering” is likely to classify more women than men in the extreme range.

However, without mentioning several of these studies reporting gender differences on the scale, the FBS test manual authors (Ben-Porath, Graham & Tellegen, 2009) reach the conclusion that there is absence of gender bias in the prediction of noncredible symptom presentation with the FBS.  In the MMPI-2-RF, non-gendered T scores are used for interpreting the abbreviated Fake Bad Scale Scores (FBS-r). (For a give and take discussion of the FBS controversy see articles: by Butcher, Gass, Cumella, Kally & Williams, 2008; Gass, Williams, Cumella, Butcher,  Kally, 2010; Williams,  Butcher,  Gass,  Cumella & Kally, 2009 and responses by:  Ben-Porath, Greve,  Bianchini  & Kaufmann, 2009a, b).


Ben-Porath, Y. S., Graham, J. R. & Tellegen A. (2009). The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity (FBS) Scale Development, Research Findings, and lnterpretive Recommendations. Minneapolis, Mn.: University of Minnesota Press.

Ben-Porath, Y. S., Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., & Kaufmann, P. M. (2009a). The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) is an empirically validated measure of over-reporting in personal injury litigants and claimants: Reply to Butcher et al. (2008). Psychological Injury and Law, 2(1), 62–85.

Ben-Porath, Y. S., Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., & Kaufmann, P. M. (2009b). The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) is an empirically validated measure of over-reporting in personal injury litigants and claimants: Reply to Williams et al. (2009). Psychological Injury and Law, www.springerlink.com.

Butcher, J.N., Gass, C.S., Cumella, E., Kally, Z., Williams, C.L. (2008). Potential for Bias in MMPI-2 Assessments Using the Fake Bad Scale (FBS). Psychological Injury and Law, 1, 191-209.

Butcher, J.N., Arbisi, P.A., Atlis, M.M. & McNulty, J.L. (2008). The construct validity of the Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale. Does this scale measure somatic malingering and feigned emotional distress? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 855-864.

Butcher, J.N. & Williams, C.L. (2009). Personality Assessment with the MMPI-2: Historical Roots, International Adaptations, and Current Challenges. Applies Psychology, Health and Well-Being, 1(1), 105-135.

Dean, A.C., Boone, K.B., Kim, M.S., Curiel, A.R., Martin, D.J., Victor, T.L., Zeller, M.A., & Lang, Y.K. (2008). Examination of the Impact of Ethnicity on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Fake Bad Scale. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 1054-1060.

Gass, C.S., Williams, C.L., Cumella, E., Butcher, J.N., Kally, Z. (2010). Ambiguous Measures of Unknown Constructs: The MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale (aka Symptom Validity Scale, FBS, FBS-r). Psychological Injury and Law.

Greiffenstein, M. F., Fox, D., & Lees-Haley, P. R. (2007). The MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale in Detection of Noncredible Brain Injury Claims. In K. Boone (Ed.), Detection of noncredible cognitive performance (pp. 210–235). New York: Guilford Press.

Lees-Haley, P. R., English L.T., & Glenn W.J. (1991). A Fake Bad Scale on the MMPI-2 for personal injury claimants. Psychological Reports, 68, 203-210.

Lees-Haley, P. R. (1992). Efficacy of MMPI-2 validity scales and MCMI-II modifier scales for detecting spurious PTSD claims: F, F-K, Fake Bad scale, Ego Strength, Subtle-Obvious subscales, DIS, and DEB. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 681-689.

Nichols, D., Greene, R. & Williams, C, L. (2009). Gender bias in the MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale (FBS) and FBS-r in MMPI-2-RF. Paper given at the Society for Personality Assessment, Chicago, March 2009.

Williams, C. L., Butcher, J. N., Gass, C. S., Cumella, E., & Kally, Z. (2009). Inaccuracies about the MMPI-2 fake bad scale in the reply by Ben-Porath, Greve, Bianchini, and Kaufmann (2009). Psychological Injury and Law, 2, 182-197.