Reprinted from Russian Language Journal, vol. 31, no. 109(1977):67-78.
L. N. TOLSTOJ'S NARODNYE
Gary R. Jahn
have a quantitatively significant place in the literary work of
his last thirty years. The stories comprise a very large part of his artistic
work in the 1880s. It was with these stories, in fact, that Tolstoj returned
to fiction from exclusive concentration of the religious writings which
followed the personal crisis he underwent in the late 1870s. Scholarly studies
of these stories have appeared, but infrequently, especially as compared to
the masses of published materials devoted to other segments of his work .l
This paper offers a descriptive analysis of Tolstoj's Narodnye
rasskazy accompanied by a sketch of their precedents in 19thcentury
Russian literature and the literary context of which they formed a part.
Tolstoj's stories for the people are part
of a current in 19th‑century Russian literature called "narodnaja
literatura" This broad designation subsumes a variety of related
concepts. It includes, first, the literature of the people. This means,
mainly, the narrative forms of folklore: the heroic songs, fairy tales,
religious legends, and the like. This category of popular literature was
produced among the common people themselves. It assumed written or printed
form only through the efforts of folklorists and other transcribers of its
oral performance.. Once such works became known it was not long before
stylizations of them followed. These were works inspired by folk models but
created by writers of the upper classes. Such works are clearly not "of
the people" but are meant to approach as closely as possible the spirit
and forms of their models. These stylizations seem to be the result of an
upper class writer recognizing the artistic power present in folklore and
seeking simply to participate in it rather than to turn it to his own
purposes. Stylizations, particularly of the skazka, are well represented in
19th‑century Russian literature. Well‑known examples are Pushkin's
"Skazka o rybake i rybke," V. F. Odoevskij's "Moroz Ivanovich,"
S. T. Aksakov's "Alen'kij cvetochek," and P. P. Ershov's "Konek‑gorbunok."
Second, popular literature includes
literature about the people. Here we deal with works produced by and for the
educated sectors of society. The origins of this sort of writing are to be
found in the late 1820s and early 1830s, motivated to some
extent by the penetration of Russian
intellectual life by German philosophy and particularly Herder's ideas about
the "nation." This trend in literature received further impetus from
Belinskij and blossomed into the "Natural School" of the mid‑1840s.
From this point on its main characteristics became the realistic style and a
tone sympathetic to folk life, an early example being certain of Turgenev's Zapiski
oxotnika. Literature about the people gained renewed support from the
populist critics of. the 1870s and 1880s, especially
N. K. Mixajlovskij, and has continued to be a powerful
movement in literature even to the present day. A main tenet of Socialist
Realism is that same sympathetic and realistic approach to the lives of common
folk for which Belinskij called in the 1840s.
Third, popular literature means works
written for the people, that is, works created by the educated sector of
society and directed at the popular audience. It is this category of popular
literature which is most closely related to Tolstoj's stories for the people,
although there are undeniable points of contact between them and the
literature of and about the people as well.
In the 1880s (the period during which most
of Tolstoj's stories for the people were written) there were two main
categories of literature for the people. The more successful was purely
commercial. It began in the early 18th century when, because of the developing
literary taste of educated society, there began to be an unmet demand for
works to satisfy the relatively static taste of the general population. Song
books, books on the interpretation of dreams, casual collections of folklore,
and stories of romance and adventure were the main commercial inventory. The
second category was more idealistic. It consisted of works which sought to
enlighten or edify the masses rather than to profit by entertaining them. Its
first success was the journal Sel'skoe chtenie, published 1843‑48) by V. F Odoevskij and A.
P. Zablockij‑Desjatovskij.  In the late 1850s and 1860s the efforts of A.
F. Pogosskij, who published such magazines as Soldatskaja beseda, Narodnaja beseda, and Dosug i delo, enjoyed some popular success. In the 1870s, interest
in raising the quality of the literature available to the people led to the
formation of enterprises devoted solely to this goal. The most representative
of these was V. N. Marakuev's "Narodnaja biblioteka," founded in
1872 and engaged mainly in the production of inexpensive editions of the
classics of Russia and other nations.
Tolstoj's interest in literature for the
people is well-attested. In February, 1884, he wrote to V. G. Chertkov that
the literature for the people which was then being produced not only was not
good, but was not even useful. Indeed, he wrote, some of it was actually
harmful.  The first statement summarizes his view of the idealistic category
of literature for the people, the second his view of the commercial category.
In that same
year Tolstoi, Chertkov, and P. I. Birjukov (later Tolstoj's biographer) founded "Posrednik," a publishing house for works intended for the popular audience. Their motive was to blend the distribution methods of the commercial producers of literature for the people (a combination of re ional distribution centers and a network of itinerant peddlers with the goals of the idealistic category. Their efforts succeeded to an extent previously unheard of in the realm of educative literature for the people. Birjukov estimated that in the 1890s "Posrednik" distributed some 3,500,000 copies of various works per year. 
Thus we have the state and dimensions of
the popular literature of the 19th century of which Tolstoj's stories for the
people form a part. The question of which of Tolstoj's stories are to be
classed as stories for the people has not been satisfactorily resolved. There
is fairly general agreement, however, that a number of stories written in the
1880s are stories for the people. In comparing the contents of four of the
more complete editions of Tolstoj's collected works, it was found that in each
of them a volume or clearly marked section of a volume was designated Narodnye
rasskazy.  While there were differences in the selections included in the
various editions, the following sixteen stories appeared in each of them:
"Chem ljudi zhivy," Devchonki umnee starikov, Dva brata i zoloto,
Dva starika, "Gde ljubov', tam i Bog," "Il'jas," "Kajushchijsja
greshnik," "Kak chertenok krajushku vykupal," "Krestnik,"
"Mnogo li cheloveku zemli nuzhno " "Skazka ob Ivane durake
" "Svechka " "Tri starca " "Upustish' ogon'‑‑ne
potushish'," "Vrazh'e lepko, a Bozh'e krepko," and "Zerno
s kurijnoe jajco." There is further evidence to corroborate this
selection. In 1887 Tolstoj consented to the publication by
"Posrednik" of a volume to be titled Narodnye
rasskazy. The book was forbidden by the censorship and never appeared. The
proposed contents, however, included all of the stories listed above, with the
exception of "Kajushchijsja greshnik." 
The narrative mode of each of these stories
is the third person. Most commonly the voice of the narrator is popular and
his tone is sympathetic to his characters. The degree of the narrator's
sympathy is variable, however. Often, as in "Chem ljudi zhivy,"
"Dva starika," and "Skazka ob Ivane durake," there is
considerable identification between the narrator and the characters.
Occasionally the narrator's tone approaches neutrality, as in "Dva brata
i zoloto." In no case is sarcasm, so characteristic of Tolstoj's other
work, found in the narrative tone.
The major characters tend to be drawn from
among the common people, the most frequent type being the peasant. Characters
drawn from other backgrounds appear in major and sympathetic roles only when
they are muted by distance in space and time from the audience for whom
Tolstoi was writing or by the generalized quality of their presentation. For
example, a king
has a major role in "Zerno s kurijnoe jajco," but the story takes place in the distant past. In "Il'jas," where a rich landowner has a major role, the setting, vaguely middle‑eastern, is remote in space. Supernatural characters, both angels and demons (including the Devil himself), appear in all but three of the stories. Other late works by Tolstoj tend to offer popular characters only in supporting, often comparative roles, e.g., the servant Gerasim in Smert' Ivana Il'icha, Nikita in Xozjain i rabotnik. The supernatural is almost never introduced, and when it is, as in Plody prosveshchenija, it is ridiculed. 
The setting of the stories is either
popular and Russian or far enough removed (again by space, time, or vagueness)
from contemporary life that it has a legendary or exotic appearance. "Vrazh'e
lepko, a Bozh'e krepko" is called a parable, and its setting is
nonspecific; "Dva brata i zoloto" and "Il'jas" have exotic
settings; "Zerno s kurijnoe jajco," while Russian in a general way,
is, as noted above, set at a point in the distant past.
Perhaps the most distinctive feature of the
stories for the people is their language, and this is reflected in the rather
considerable comment that the style of the stories has inspired. A. G. Cejtlin
described them as exhibiting a dual linguistic image. On the one hand, he
associated popular language with the "realistic" aspects of the
stories (actions and speech of characters), yet on the other hand, he noted
the presence of archaized and Biblical forms of speech in Tolstoj's
presentation of the "ideological" content. L. D. Opul'skaja
agreed. She considered the language of the stories to be simple, expressive,
unmixed with any kind of jargon, and genuinely popular. She noted that the
popular language used in the stories was generalized; that is, it did not
usually include the representation of phonetic peculiarities or generally
incomprehensible regionalisms. Finally, she noted that the narrator and the
characters in these stories speak roughly the same variant of language. R.
R. Gel'gardt also emphasized the duality of the language in these stories, but
he preferred to contrast the folklore (rather than popular) element to the
Biblical, archaic element. He mentioned Tolstoj's frequent use of proverbs as
well as many of the devices of folk poetics (alliteration and assonance, for
instance) in contrast with the numerous scriptural quotations and such devices
as the repetition of initial i.
Much attention has been devoted to the
popular and folkloric elements in the language of the stories for the people.
N. N. Apostolov considered the popular element to be present in the voices of
both the narrator and the characters and isolated the use of lexical items
with popular associations as the cornerstone of this popular element. L. M.
Myshkovskaja perceived a combination of elements working together to provide
the popular coloring of the language. Chief among these were laconism,
a high proportion of colloquial lexical items, and, in general, a close relationship to the language of fairy tales and religious legends. A. I. Popovkin observed the following popular elements in the language: repetition, simple comparisons, inversion of the normal subject‑verb order, lexical items with popular associations, popular expressions, proverbs, and the frequent use of H as the first word in a sentence. Popovkin connects the latter device with the popular strain of language in the Narodnye rasskazy while Gel'gardt maintained it was archaic and Biblical.
S. P. Bychkov regarded the stories for the
people as a remarkable stylistic departure from Tolstoj's earlier work. He
noted in this new style an almost complete absence of complex metaphorical
language, maximally simplified syntax, peasant words and expressions, and the
use of many devices from folklore.
A fairly consistent description of the
language of these stories emerges. There is a consensus that Tolstoj's use of
language was studied, conscious, deliberate, and directed at the creation of a
popular tonal quality. The language of the stories varies within certain
limits. In no case does Tolstoj's "literary" style, with its
tendency to syntactic and lexical complexity, foreignisms, and lengthy
The basis of the language of all of the
stories is the simple sentence, pruned of all but essential elements and
frequently elliptical. In longer sentences, the tendency is markedly toward
the simple linking of principal clauses and away from the use of subordinate
This language base has either Biblical or
popular coloring, or both. In most of the stories, the narrative is markedly
popular. The popular flavor is achieved by the consistent inversion of
literary word order in the sentence (e.g., "Ne mog eshche ja ponjat' . . ." instead of "ja
eshche ne mog ponjat' . . .") and the use of popular lexical material.
This material is often proverbial and sometimes from folklore, for example,
the traditional opening phrase of the skazka "zhil‑byl," which
appears in many of these stories. In a few stories the use of the language of
the common people is less marked. An example is "Vrazh'e lepko, a Bozh'e
krepko." The inverted sentence structure is preserved, but the number of
popular turns of phrase is reduced and a more formal lexicon and grammar is
introduced. One discovers such lexical items as d'javol and soblaznjat',
subordination in syntax, and the use of the verbal adverb (XXV, 59). The
result is a language of solemnity similar to the language of the Bible. Actual
Biblical language is present in quotations in nine of the stories, either in
text or as epigraph. The influence of Biblical language affects nearly all of
the stories. This is clearest in the language of divine characters (the angels
in "Chem ljudi zhivy" and "Dva brata i zoloto," the
heavenly voice in "Gde ljubov', tam i Bog") and generally
whenever the narrative touches directly upon the underlying thematic sense of the work, as in the moralizing conclusion of "Svechka."
The presentation of characters and events
is consistent. Characters are most often developed through their actions and
words. Occasionally the narrator characterizes his heroes directly, but
usually he confines himself to brief physical descriptions. Very rarely and
nowhere at length, are the psychological processes of the characters described
directly by the narrator. This is another important distinction between the
stories for the people and other late works, where one continues to encounter
the frequent use of devices such as interior monologue and stream of
consciousness. The reason for this is surely to be found in Tolstoj's desire
to remain true to the spirit of folklore in developing his popular style.
Events are presented in a straightforward chronological manner, although there
may frequently be found such conventional al folkish artifices as events in
groups of three, found in "Km ljudi zhivy," "Gde ljubov', tam i
Bog," "Skazka ob Ivane durake," and several others. Thus, plot
in these stories does not take on the complex forms with which Tolstoj
experimented in such non‑popular late works as Smert'
Ivana Il'icha and Voskresenie, with
their use of flashbacks and shifting points of view on the events described.
Finally, all the stories for the people are
more or less openly didactic and may even present a moral formally, as in
Based upon this description, it is clear
that the Narodnye rasskazy form a cycle or sub‑genre unto themselves within Tolstoj's ouevre
as a whole. The factors which unite them are both stylistic and thematic
and were consciously employed by Tolstoj to this end as can be seen from a
letter which he wrote to F. F. Tishchenko (an aspiring writer of popular
stories) in early 1886. Tolstoj advised that an author of stories for the
people must desire to be of service rather than to gain profit, thus
indicating which of the two camps within literature for the people he
preferred. He noted that it was necessary to write expressly for the popular
audience, making no concession to the expectations of the educated reader. In
particular, he urged a simplification of language, to be achieved by
liberation from the "harmful" influence of the literary tradition of
the recent past and by the avoidance of lexical and, we may assume, syntactic
elements which were foreign to the Russian of the common people. He demanded
that exposition be logical and straightforward and stressed the importance of
brevity and economy. Finally, he stated that the most suitable subject matter
was that which was based upon one or another of the ethical teachings of
The thematic unity of the Narodnye
rasskazy develops from their common relevance to the Christian teaching as
Tolstoj had come to understand it in the late 1870s and 1880s. In his long
essay, "V chem moja vera," he reduced the Christian teaching to five moral imperatives, derived from the "Sermon on the Mount" (Matt. v‑vii and parallels). Briefly stated, the five commandments are: (1) do not be angry; (2) do not lust; (3) do not swear, that is, do not, through an oath, surrender free moral choice to the will of others; (4) do not resist the evil doer with force; and (5) love all people alike. These commandments, their corollaries, and the effects of disobeying them (or, more generally, the will of God which they represent) provide a complete thematic summary of the Narodnye rasskazy and provide the basis of their thematic unity.
The commandment to avoid anger is prominent
in "grave lepko, a Bozh'e krepko," "Upustish' ogon'‑‑ne
potushish'." and "Devchonki umnee starikov"; its corollary,
forgiveness, is the theme of "Kajushchijsja greshnik." The
injunction against lust never appears in the Narodnye
rasskazy. We may surmise that Tolstoj discerned no need to preach this
commandment among the people, and, judging by the frequency of the sexual
theme in the nonpopular late works (Otec
Sergij, Krejcerova sonata, Voskresenie, and others), that he regarded
infractions of this commandment as an essentially upper‑class
phenomenon. The wrongness of oath‑taking appears as a theme in "Skazka
ob Ivane durake" when the devil is unable to raise an army in Ivan's
kingdom because the people refuse to promise allegiance. In "Dva starika,
Elisej, who proves to be the morally superior of the two old men, attaches
little importance to the vow he has sworn to make a pilgrimage to the Holy
Land when it conflicts with an obligation to assist others who are in need.
The fourth commandment is the subject of "Svechka," "Skazka ob
Ivane durake," and "Krestnik." The only positive commandment,
to love all men alike, is at the heart of most of the best known Narodnye
rasskazy: "Chem ljudi
zhivy," "Dva starika," Tri
starca," and "Gde ljubov', tam i Bog."
The five remaining stories deal with the
evil that comes from ignorance of or disobedience to the Christian teaching.
Their theme is excess. In "Mnogo li cheloveku zemli nuzhno it is in the
form of greed for more land than needed, in "Kak chertenok krajushku
vykupal" it appears in the misuse of an excessive crop to produce strong
drink, in "Il'jas" it is shown in the contrast between the hero's
contentedness with poverty and his former anxiety with wealth. In "Dva
brata i zoloto" and "Zerno s kurijnoe jajco," the use of money
as a replacement for active human concern is attacked.
The stylistic unity of the Narodnye
rasskazy is the product of a number of linguistic and larger structural
devices which they share. Proverbs, sayings, and other bits of popular wisdom
were incorporated into the stories. As early as 1862, Tolstoj stated that he
intended to write a series of brief stories, each of which was to be inspired
by, and offer an explanation of, a striking popular saying (VIII, 302). Often
such sayings were used as the titles of stories, for example, "Gde ljubov',
tam i Bog," "Bog pravdu vidit, da ne skoro skazhet," and "Upustish' ogon'‑‑ne potushish".11
The majority of the stories are reworkings
of existing popular narratives, such as those of the famous skazitel'
V. P. Shchegelenok, from whom Tolstoj obtained the subjects of "Chem
ljudi zhivy" and "Dva starika." Another familiar model used
by Tolstoj was the lubok or illustrated text. The word 'lubok (from lub the
inner bark of the lime tree, or from lubochnaja koroba,
the name given to the box used by peddlers to transport their goods) was known
from the early 17th century. While not itself a form of folklore, it was well‑known
to the popular audience. Essentially, the lubok consisted of a picture (or a
series of pictures) accompanied by a printed text which might be explanatory
or narrative as the case required. Many of the shorter Narodnye rasskazy (e.g., Devchonki umnee starikov," "Vrazh'e
lepko, a Bozh'e krepko," and "I1 'j as") were modelled on the
lubok and printed, often as separate sheets, with an accompanying picture.
Finally, Tolstoj made use of folklore anthologies as sources for the stories.
"Krestnik," "Kajushchijsja greshnik." "Rabotnik
Emel'jan i pustoj baraban," and "Kak chertenok krajushku vykupal"
are all closely modelled on religious legends or fairy tales found recorded in
the collections made by A. N. Afanas'ev.
Besides the use of popular models, several
elements common to folk narratives (and not found in Tolstoj's usual literary
style) are encountered regularly. Such are the angels and demons which are so
frequently present in these stories and the structuring of events and
characters in groups of three (in distinct contrast to Tolstoj's 's preference
in his "literary" style, pointed out long ago by Shklovskij, for
comparison and contrast nourished by groups of two). Also, there is evidence
in the form of notebooks kept by Tolstoj, especially in the late 1870s, of his
deliberate attempt to study and later to employ striking turns of phrase which
he encountered in talks with common folk.
Finally, Tolstoj quoted freely from
scripture and adopted some mannerisms typical of the Bible and other religious
literature. This element is most frequently found in the epigraph (where it
has a significance not unlike that of the proverbs used as titles) or at the
climax of the story, or, where there is such, in the passage where the moral
to be gained from the story is explained. Quite possibly Tolstoj hoped to
supply the moral didacticisms in his stories with an air of sanctity and
religious authority, assuming that to the popular, Orthodox reader Biblical
language would be both familiar and authoritative.
The Narodnye rasskazy were written to exemplify certain ethical models.
In this sense they resemble the other late works of Tolstoj, for there, too,
we find didactic purpose. It is not, perhaps, even too much to say that the
early works also reflect the didactic proclivities of Tolstoj, at least to the
extent that he consciously, from an early date, sought to portray the "truth," as he understood it, in his fiction. Thus, it is not the themes or the motives of Tolstoj which ultimately set the Narodnye rasskazy apart from the rest of his work, but their style, which was developed specifically and consciously as an apt and accessible medium for conveying moral concepts to the popular audience.
It may be thought unlikely that works so
overtly burdened with didactic purpose and directed at so specific an audience
would have much chance of being artistically memorable. In the case of many of
these stories, especially the very brief ones, this prediction proves all too
accurate. Yet such stories as "Chem ljudi zhivy," "Ova starika,"
"Tri starca," "Gde ljubov', tam i Bog," and "Mnogo li
cheloveku zemli nuzhno" do possess artistic value. They represent a
masterful achievement in the development from heterogeneous, although related;
elements of a unified style which yet permits a modicum of flexibility and is
singularly well adapted to its solemn moral purpose.
The Narodnye rasskazy have a unique place in the context of It narodnaja
literatura." Just as they represent a synthesis of various elements on
the stylistic level, so too in the broader context they represent a synthesis
of various types of popular literature. They are "of the people" in
their language, their devices, and often in their sources. They are
"about the people" in their emphasis on popular characters and
settings and the patent tone of sympathy with the lot of the narod. And of
course, they were "for the people," written primarily for their
improvement and appreciation, and we should not forget that as he wrote these
stories, Tolstoj was already convinced that the common folk were the most
discriminating of artistic audiences.
In the last thirty years of his life
Tolstoj's activity was threefold. He was an artist, producing fictions in
various genres and with various ends in view. He was also a religious thinker
and publicist, developing and explaining a philosophical system which was
mainly ethical in its emphasis. Finally, he was an aesthetician, elaborating a
theory of universally comprehensible art which, in effect, provided the
theoretical framework within which the artist and the religious thinker could
cooperate. A final aspect of the unity of the Narodnye
rasskazy is that they represent the unique confluence of these three modes
of activity: the moralism of the religious thinker was presented in a manner
which both pleased the artist and satisfied the requirements of the
rasskazy are the following: (1) R. R. Gel'gardt, "K izucheniju jazyka i stilja narodnyx rasskazov L. N. Tolstogo," Izvestija Tverskogo pedagogicheskogo instituta, V (1929), 89‑106; (2) G. V. Krasnov, "Narodnye rasskazy 70‑x godov," in L. N. Tolstoj: Stat'i i materialy (Uchenye zapiski Gor'kovskogo universiteta, vyp. 77, Gor'kij, 1966), 201‑211; (3) Z. S. Melkix, "Tolstoj i fol'klor (Narodnye rasskazy 70‑80‑x godov)," in Voprosy literatury (Minsk: Izdatel'stvo Belgosuniversiteta im. V. I. Lenina, 1960), pp. 3‑20; (4) L. M. Myshkovskaja, "Narodnye rasskazy," in her Masterstvo L. N. Totstogo (Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel', 1958), pp. 369389; (5) A. I. Popovkin, Narodnye rasskazy L. N. Totstogo (Tula: Muzej‑usad'ba L. N. Tolstogo "Jasnaja poljana," 1957).
The following editions were
consulted in obtaining the list of stories for the people: (1) Vol. XI of the
eleventh edition (1904) of Tolstoj's
collected works (the titles given under the heading Narodnye
rasskazy); (2) Vol. XVI of the first complete collected works (P. I.
Birjukov, ed., 1913), under the
heading Povesti i rasskazy dlja narodnyx
izdanij; (3) Vol. X of Polnoe
sobranie xudozhestvennyx proizvedenij (B. Ejxenbaum and K. Xalabaev, eds.,
1930); (4) Vol. XXV of Polnoe
sobranie sochinenij (V. G. Chertkov, ed., 1928‑56)
under the heading Narodnye rasskazy.
If all of Tolstoj's finished
short stories are compared with the description offered in this paper it
appears that a complete list of Tolstoj's stories for the people includes,
besides the sixteen stories given here, the following: "Alesha Gorshok,"
"Bog pravdu vidit, da ne skoro skazhet," "Tri syna," and
"Rabotnik Emel'jan i pustoj baraban." For the particulars of the
process of comparison and segregation used in arriving at this conclusion the
reader is referred to the author's dissertation, "L. N. Tolstoj's Stories for the People on the Theme of Brotherly Love"
(University of Wisconsin, 1972).
8. The proposed volume was banned by the censorship in conformance with a policy of minimizing the spread of Tolstoj's ideas among the populace. The value of this source must be regarded as merely corroborative in that: (1) all that is known is that Tolstoj assented to its publication; it is not known to what degree, if any, Tolstoj assisted in the selection of the titles to be included, (2) the selection is inconsistent as regards genre, including a play, Pervyj vinokur, among the stories.
18. That is, at the period when
Tolstoj was most diligently at work on the stories for the people. Between
March, 1885, and March, 1886, he wrote seventeen items for publication by the
newly founded "Posrednik." (For the text of the letter to Tishchenko
see LXIII, 325‑27.)
22. See V. I. Sreznevskij, "Jazyk
i legenda v zapisjax L. N. Tolstogo," S.
F. Ol'denburgu: Sbornik statej (Leningrad, 1934) and K. S. Shoxor‑Trockij,
"Zapisnaja kniga 1879 goda," Literaturnoe
nasledstvo, Kn. 37‑38 (1939), pp. 103‑116.
24. In concluding his "Sevastopol' v mae" (1855), Tolstoj wrote that the hero of his story was the truth and that truth was, is, and would always be, for him, the hallmark of beauty.
25. For a presentation of the
artistic worth of these stories, see my dissertation (Note 7) or my article,
"A Structural Analysis of Leo Tolstoy's 'God Sees the Truth, But
Waits,"' Studies in Short Fiction, XXI, No. 3 (Summer 1975), 261‑70.