The role of science and technology in the context of international security and disarmament, G.A. res. 51/39, 51 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 73, U.N. Doc. A/51/49 (Vol. I) (1996).
The General Assembly, Recognizing that scientific and technological developments can have both civilian and military applications and that progress in science and technology for civilian applications needs to be maintained and encouraged, Concerned that military applications of scientific and technological developments can contribute significantly to the improvement and upgrading of weapons of mass destruction, Aware of the need to follow closely the scientific and technological developments that may have a negative impact on international security and disarmament, and to channel scientific and technological developments for beneficial purposes, Cognizant that the international transfers of dual-use as well as high- technology products, services and know-how for peaceful purposes are important for the economic and social development of States, Expressing concern over the growing proliferation of ad hoc and exclusive export control regimes and arrangements for dual-use goods and technologies, Recalling that the Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, from 18 to 20 October 1995, noted that restrictions being placed on access to technology through the imposition of non-transparent ad hoc export control regimes with exclusive membership tended to impede the economic and social development of developing countries, Emphasizing that internationally negotiated guidelines for the transfer of high technology with military applications should take into account the legitimate defence requirements of all States and requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, while ensuring that access to high-technology products and services and know-how for peaceful purposes is not denied, 1. Affirms that scientific and technological progress should be used for the benefit of all mankind to promote the sustainable economic and social development of all States and to safeguard international security, and that international cooperation in the use of science and technology through the transfer and exchange of technological know-how for peaceful purposes should be promoted; 2. Invites Member States to undertake additional efforts to apply science and technology for disarmament-related purposes and to make disarmament-related technologies available to interested States; 3. Urges Member States to undertake multilateral negotiations with the participation of all interested States in order to establish universally acceptable, non-discriminatory guidelines for international transfers of dual-use goods and technologies and high technology with military applications; 4. Recalls the report of the Secretary-General entitled "Scientific and technological developments and their impact on international security", and requests the Secretary-General to update and further develop that report in order to evaluate the impact of recent scientific and technological developments, especially those which have potential military applications, and to submit a report to the General Assembly no later than at its fifty-third session; 5. Encourages United Nations bodies to contribute, within existing mandates, to promoting the application of science and technology for peaceful purposes; 6. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-second session the item entitled "The role of science and technology in the context of international security and disarmament".