The role of science and technology in the context of international security and disarmament, G.A. res. 51/39, 51 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 73, U.N. Doc. A/51/49 (Vol. I) (1996).

      The General Assembly,
      Recognizing that scientific and technological developments can have both
civilian and military applications and that progress in science and technology
for civilian applications needs to be maintained and encouraged,
      Concerned that military applications of scientific and technological
developments can contribute significantly to the improvement and upgrading of
weapons of mass destruction,
      Aware of the need to follow closely the scientific and technological
developments that may have a negative impact on international security and
disarmament, and to channel scientific and technological developments for
beneficial purposes,
      Cognizant that the international transfers of dual-use as well as high-
technology products, services and know-how for peaceful purposes are important
for the economic and social development of States,
      Expressing concern over the growing proliferation of ad hoc and
exclusive export control regimes and arrangements for dual-use goods and
      Recalling that the Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of Heads of
State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at Cartagena de Indias,
Colombia, from 18 to 20 October 1995, noted that restrictions being placed on
access to technology through the imposition of non-transparent ad hoc export
control regimes with exclusive membership tended to impede the economic and
social development of developing countries,
      Emphasizing that internationally negotiated guidelines for the transfer
of high technology with military applications should take into account the
legitimate defence requirements of all States and requirements for the
maintenance of international peace and security, while ensuring that access to
high-technology products and services and know-how for peaceful purposes is
not denied,
      1.    Affirms that scientific and technological progress should be used
for the benefit of all mankind to promote the sustainable economic and social
development of all States and to safeguard international security, and that
international cooperation in the use of science and technology through the
transfer and exchange of technological know-how for peaceful purposes should
be promoted;
      2.    Invites Member States to undertake additional efforts to apply
science and technology for disarmament-related purposes and to make
disarmament-related technologies available to interested States;
      3.    Urges Member States to undertake multilateral negotiations with
the participation of all interested States in order to establish universally
acceptable, non-discriminatory guidelines for international transfers of
dual-use goods and technologies and high technology with military
      4.    Recalls the report of the Secretary-General entitled "Scientific
and technological developments and their impact on international security",
and requests the Secretary-General to update and further develop that report
in order to evaluate the impact of recent scientific and technological
developments, especially those which have potential military applications, and
to submit a report to the General Assembly no later than at its fifty-third
      5.    Encourages United Nations bodies to contribute, within existing
mandates, to promoting the application of science and technology for peaceful
      6.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-second
session the item entitled "The role of science and technology in the context
of international security and disarmament".



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