Specific Actions Related to the Particular Needs and Problems of Land-Locked Developing Countries, G.A. res. 50/97, U.N. Doc. A/RES/50/97 (1995)
The General Assembly, Recalling the provisions of its resolutions 44/214 of 22 December 1989, 46/212 of 20 December 1991 and 48/169 of 21 December 1993, Recognizing that the lack of territorial access to the sea, aggravated by remoteness and isolation from world markets, and prohibitive transit costs and risks impose serious constraints on the overall socio-economic development efforts of the land-locked developing countries, Recognizing also that sixteen of the land-locked developing countries are also classified by the United Nations as least developed countries and that their geographical situation is an added constraint on their overall ability to cope with the challenges of development, Recognizing further that most transit countries are themselves developing countries facing serious economic problems, including the lack of adequate infrastructure in the transport sector, Recalling that measures to deal with the transit problems of land-locked developing countries require closer and even more effective cooperation and collaboration between those countries and their transit neighbours, Welcoming the entry into force on 16 November 1994 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Recognizing the important role played by bilateral cooperative arrangements and regional and subregional cooperation and integration in alleviating the transit problems of the land-locked developing countries and improving the transit transport systems in land-locked and transit developing countries, Recognizing also the importance of continuing the activities of the regional commissions to improve the transit transport infrastructure in the land-locked and transit developing countries, Noting the importance of strengthening the existing international support measures with a view to addressing further the problems of land-locked developing countries, 1. Reaffirms the right of access of land-locked developing countries to and from the sea and freedom of transit through the territory of transit States by all means of transport, in accordance with international law; 2. Also reaffirms that transit developing countries, in the exercise of their full sovereignty over their territory, have the right to take all measures necessary to ensure that the rights and facilities provided for land-locked developing countries should in no way infringe upon their legitimate interests; 3. Calls upon both the land-locked developing countries and their transit neighbours, in the spirit of South-South cooperation, including bilateral cooperation, to implement measures to strengthen further their cooperative and collaborative efforts in dealing with their transit problems; 4. Appeals once again to all States, international organizations and financial institutions to implement, as a matter of urgency and priority, the specific actions related to the particular needs and problems of land-locked developing countries envisaged in the previous resolutions adopted by the General Assembly and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and in the International Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade and the Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth and Development of the Developing Countries, adopted at the eighteenth special session of the General Assembly and contained in the annex to its resolution S-18/3 of 1 May 1990, as well as the relevant provisions of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s and the outcomes of recent major United Nations conferences relevant to land-locked developing countries; 5. Invites the land-locked developing countries and their transit neighbours to intensify further their cooperative arrangements for the development of transit infrastructures, institutions and services to facilitate the faster movement of goods in transit, with financial and technical assistance from donors and financial institutions; 6. Emphasizes that assistance for the improvement of transit transport facilities and services should be integrated into the overall economic development strategies of the land-locked and transit developing countries and that donor assistance should consequently take into account the requirements for the long- term restructuring of the economies of the land-locked developing countries; 7. Invites donor countries and multilateral financial and development institutions to provide land-locked and transit developing countries with appropriate financial and technical assistance in the form of grants or concessional loans for the construction, maintenance and improvement of their transport, storage and other transit-related facilities, including alternative routes and improved communications; 8. Invites the United Nations Development Programme further to promote, as appropriate, subregional, regional and interregional projects and programmes and to expand its support in the transport and communications sectors to the land-locked and transit developing countries and its technical cooperation for development geared towards promoting national and collective self-reliance among them; 9. Takes note of the report of the Second Meeting of Governmental Experts from Land-locked and Transit Developing Countries and Representatives of Donor Countries and Financial and Development Institutions, held in New York from 19 to 22 June 1995, and endorses the Global Framework for Transit Transport Cooperation between Land-locked and Transit Developing Countries and the Donor Community contained therein; 10. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, in collaboration with the donor countries and institutions, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, the regional commissions and relevant subregional institutions, to organize, within existing resources, specific consultative groups, when requested by the land- locked and transit developing countries concerned, to identify priority areas for action at the national and subregional level and draw up action programmes for the period 1996-1997; 11. Requests the Secretary-General to convene in 1997, within the overall level of resources for the biennium 1996-1997, another meeting of governmental experts from land-locked and transit developing countries and representatives of donor countries and financial and development institutions, including relevant regional and subregional economic organizations and commissions, to review progress in the development of transit systems in the land-locked and transit developing countries, taking into account, inter alia, the results of the consultative group meetings referred to in paragraph 10 of the present resolution, with a view to exploring the possibility of formulating specific action-oriented measures and the ongoing study undertaken by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development on the implications of the globalization and liberalization of the world economy for the development prospects of land-locked developing countries; 12. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to seek voluntary contributions to ensure participation of representatives from land-locked and transit developing countries in the meeting of governmental experts from land-locked and transit developing countries and representatives of donor countries and financial and development institutions referred to in paragraph 11 of the present resolution; 13. Notes with appreciation the contribution of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in formulating international measures to deal with the special problems of the land-locked developing countries, and urges the Conference, inter alia, to keep under constant review the evolution of transit transport infrastructure facilities, institutions and services, monitor the implementation of agreed measures, collaborate in all relevant initiatives, including those of the private sector and non-governmental organizations, and serve as a focal point on cross-regional issues of interest to land-locked developing countries; 14. Invites the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in consultation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, to take appropriate measures for the effective implementation of the activities called for in the present resolution and of existing measures in support of land-locked developing countries, within the context of the ninth session of the Conference; 15. Welcomes the note by the Secretary-General and the progress report of the secretariat of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development on specific actions related to the particular needs and problems of land-locked developing countries, and requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations, together with the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, to prepare a report on the implementation of the present resolution and submit it to the Trade and Development Board and to the General Assembly at its fifty-second session.