Human Rights and Mass Exoduses, G.A. res. 50/182, U.N. Doc. A/RES/50/182 (1995)

      The General Assembly,
      Deeply disturbed by the escalating scale and magnitude of exoduses of
refugees and displacements of population in many regions of the world and by
the human suffering of millions of refugees and displaced persons,
      Recalling its previous relevant resolutions, as well as those of the
Commission on Human Rights, in particular Commission resolution 1995/88 of 8
March 1995, and the conclusions of the World Conference on Human Rights, which
recognized that gross violations of human rights, including in armed
conflicts, are among the multiple and complex factors leading to displacement
of people, and the need for a comprehensive approach by the international
community to address root causes and effects of movements of refugees and
other displaced persons and the strengthening of emergency preparedness and
response mechanisms,
      Conscious of the fact that mass exoduses of populations are caused by
multiple and complex factors, such as human rights violations, political,
ethnic and economic conflicts, famine, insecurity, violence, poverty and
environmental degradation, which indicate that any approach to early warning
requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach,
      Noting that the Secretary-General, in his report entitled "An Agenda for
Peace", identifies the protection of human rights and the promotion of
economic well-being as important elements of peace, security and development,
      Noting the continuation of the inter-agency consultations on early
warning regarding new mass flows of refugees and displaced persons,
      Recognizing the important aspects of complementarity between the system
for the protection of human rights and humanitarian action, and that
humanitarian agencies make an important contribution to the achievement of
human rights,
      Stressing the need for strengthening international cooperation aimed at
averting new massive flows of refugees while providing durable solutions to
actual refugee situations,
      Recognizing that the human rights machinery of the United Nations,
including the mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights and the human
rights treaty bodies, has important capabilities to address human rights
violations that cause movements of refugees and displaced persons or prevent
durable solutions to their plight,
      Recognizing also that women and children constitute approximately 80 per
cent of most refugee populations and that, in addition to the problems and
needs they share with all refugees, women and girls in such circumstances are
vulnerable to gender-based discrimination and gender-specific violence and
      Reiterating that development and rehabilitation assistance is essential
in addressing some of the causes of mass exoduses and also in the context of
the development of prevention strategies,
      Welcoming the continuing efforts of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees to meet the protection and assistance needs of refugees and other
persons of concern to her Office worldwide,
      1.    Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General;
      2.    Recalls with satisfaction its endorsement, in its resolution 41/70
of 3 December 1986, of the call upon all States to promote human rights and
fundamental freedoms and to refrain from denying these to individuals in their
population because of nationality, ethnicity, race, religion or language;
      3.    Strongly deplores ethnic and other forms of intolerance as one of
the major causes of forced migratory movements, and urges States to take all
necessary steps to ensure respect for human rights, especially the rights of
persons belonging to minorities;
      4.    Invites again all Governments and intergovernmental, humanitarian
and non-governmental organizations concerned to intensify their cooperation
and assistance in worldwide efforts to address the serious problems resulting
from mass exoduses of refugees and displaced persons and the causes of such
      5.    Encourages States that have not already done so to consider
acceding to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status
of Refugees and to other relevant regional refugee instruments, as applicable,
and relevant international human rights instruments;
      6.    Notes with appreciation the contribution made by the United
Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Centre for Human Rights of
the Secretariat to the development of the humanitarian early-warning system of
the Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat, and takes note of
ongoing consultations in this regard;
      7.    Invites the special rapporteurs, special representatives and
working groups of the Commission on Human Rights and the United Nations human
rights treaty bodies, acting within their mandates, to continue seeking
information, where appropriate, on problems resulting in mass exoduses of
populations or impeding their voluntary return home and, where appropriate, to
include such information, together with recommendations thereon, in their
reports and to bring such information to the attention of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights, for appropriate action within his mandate,
in consultation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees;
      8.    Requests all United Nations bodies, including the human rights
treaty bodies, the specialized agencies and governmental, intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations, to cooperate fully with all mechanisms of
the Commission and, in particular, to provide them with all relevant
information in their possession on the human rights situations creating or
affecting refugees and displaced persons;
      9.    Requests the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in
accordance with his mandate, as set out in General Assembly resolution 48/141
of 20 December 1993, and in cooperation with the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees, to pay attention to situations that cause or
threaten to cause mass exoduses and to address effectively such situations
through emergency preparedness and response mechanisms, including
information-sharing with United Nations early-warning mechanisms, and the
provision of technical advice, expertise and cooperation;
      10.   Invites the Secretary-General to attach high priority and to make
available the necessary resources within the regular budget of the United
Nations for the consolidation and strengthening of emergency preparedness and
response mechanisms, including early-warning activities in the humanitarian
area, for the purpose of ensuring, inter alia, that effective action is taken
to identify all multiple and complex factors, including human rights
violations, that contribute to mass outflows of persons;
      11.   Requests the Secretary-General to prepare and submit to the
General Assembly at its fifty-second session a report containing detailed
information on the programmatic, institutional, administrative, financial and
managerial efforts instituted to enhance the capacity of the United Nations to
avert new flows of refugees and to tackle the root causes of such outflows;
      12.   Decides to continue its consideration of this question at its
fifty-second session.



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