Agenda item 55
RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The General Assembly,
Recalling its resolutions 47/44 of 9 December 1992 and 48/67 of 16 December 1993,
Taking note of the report of the Disarmament Commission on its 1994 substantive session, 1/ in particular on the work of Working Group II on agenda item 5, entitled "The role of science and technology in the context of international security, disarmament and other related fields", 2/
Recognizing that science and technology per se are deemed to be neutral, that scientific and technological developments can have both civilian and military applications and that progress in science and technology for civilian applications needs to be maintained and encouraged,
Mindful that the application of science and technology relevant to weapons of mass destruction, as well as to conventional weapons, should not lead to excessive and destabilizing accumulation of arms through quantitative build-up or qualitative improvements of arms which threaten international peace and security,
Recognizing that progress in the application of science and technology contributes substantially to the implementation of arms control and disarmament agreements in the fields of, inter alia, weapons disposal, military conversion and verification,
Cognizant that international transfers of high-technology products, services and know-how for peaceful purposes are important for the economic and social development of States,
Recalling that norms and guidelines for the transfer of high technology with military applications should take into account legitimate requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security, while ensuring that they do not deny access to high-technology products, services and know-how for peaceful purposes,
Mindful that cooperation in this field among supplier and recipient States should be enhanced by a firm common commitment to preventing transfers of high technology with military applications for exclusively peaceful purposes from being diverted to non-peaceful uses, and that such cooperation should be based on clearly defined and balanced rights and obligations, appropriate measures of transparency and verification, equity and fairness and predictability of incentives and benefits,
1. Affirms that scientific and technological achievements should be used for the benefit of all mankind to promote the sustainable economic and social development of all States and to safeguard international security, and that international cooperation in the use of science and technology through the transfer and exchange of technological know-how for peaceful purposes should be promoted;
2. Invites Member States to undertake additional efforts to apply science and technology for disarmament-related purposes and to make disarmament-related technologies available to interested States;
3. Recommends that Member States adopt and implement national measures, consistent with international law, regulating the transfer of high technology with military applications in order to seek to ensure that such transfers do not undermine international peace and security and that access is not denied to high-technology products, services and know-how for peaceful purposes;
4. Also invites Member States to widen multilateral dialogue, seeking universally acceptable norms and guidelines that would regulate international transfers of high technology with military applications;
5. Encourages the United Nations to contribute, within existing mandates, to promoting the application of science and technology for peaceful purposes;
6. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session the item entitled "The role of science and technology in the context of international security, disarmament and other related fields".
90th plenary meeting
15 December 1994
1/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 42 (A/49/42).
2/ Ibid., para. 22.