Agenda item 142
RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The General Assembly,
Recalling its resolution 46/51 of 9 December 1991 and its decision 48/411 of 9 December 1993,
Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General, 1/
Having considered in depth the question of measures to eliminate international terrorism,
Convinced that the adoption of the declaration on measures to eliminate international terrorism should contribute to the enhancement of the struggle against international terrorism,
1. Approves the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, the text of which is annexed to the present resolution;
2. Invites the Secretary-General to inform all States, the Security Council, the International Court of Justice and the relevant specialized agencies, organizations and organisms of the adoption of the Declaration;
3. Urges that every effort be made in order that the Declaration becomes generally known and is observed and implemented in full;
4. Urges States, in accordance with the provisions of the Declaration, to take all appropriate measures at the national and international levels to eliminate terrorism;
5. Invites the Secretary-General to follow up closely the implementation of the present resolution and the Declaration, and to submit to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session a report thereon, relating, in particular, to the modalities of implementation of paragraph 10 of the Declaration;
6. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session the item entitled "Measures to eliminate international terrorism", in order to examine the report of the Secretary-General requested in paragraph 5 above, without prejudice to the annual or biennial consideration of the item.
84th plenary meeting
9 December 1994
The General Assembly,
Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Recalling the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, 2/ the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, 3/ the Definition of Aggression, 4/ the Declaration on the Enhancement of the Effectiveness of the Principle of Refraining from the Threat or Use of Force in International Relations, 5/ the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, 6/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 7/ and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 7/
Deeply disturbed by the world-wide persistence of acts of international terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, which endanger or take innocent lives, have a deleterious effect on international relations and may jeopardize the security of States,
Deeply concerned by the increase, in many regions of the world, of acts of terrorism based on intolerance or extremism,
Concerned at the growing and dangerous links between terrorist groups and drug traffickers and their paramilitary gangs, which have resorted to all types of violence, thus endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic human rights,
Convinced of the desirability for closer coordination and cooperation among States in combating crimes closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other potentially deadly materials, and bearing in mind the role that could be played by both the United Nations and regional organizations in this respect,
Firmly determined to eliminate international terrorism in all its forms and manifestations,
Convinced also that the suppression of acts of international terrorism, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, is an essential element for the maintenance of international peace and security,
Convinced further that those responsible for acts of international terrorism must be brought to justice,
Stressing the imperative need to further strengthen international cooperation between States in order to take and adopt practical and effective measures to prevent, combat and eliminate all forms of terrorism that affect the international community as a whole,
Conscious of the important role that might be played by the United Nations, the relevant specialized agencies and States in fostering widespread cooperation in preventing and combating international terrorism, inter alia, by increasing public awareness of the problem,
Recalling the existing international treaties relating to various aspects of the problem of international terrorism, inter alia, the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on 14 September 1963, 8/ the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970, 9/ the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, concluded at Montreal on 23 September 1971, 10/ the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted in New York on 14 December 1973, 11/ the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, adopted in New York on 17 December 1979, 12/ the Convention on thePhysical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted at Vienna on 3 March 1980, 13/ the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on 24 February 1988, 14/ the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on 10 March 1988, 15/ the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms located on the Continental Shelf, done at Rome on 10 March 1988, 16/ and the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, done at Montreal on 1 March 1991, 17/
Welcoming the conclusion of regional agreements and mutually agreed declarations to combat and eliminate terrorism in all its forms and manifestations,
Convinced of the desirability of keeping under review the scope of existing international legal provisions to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, with the aim of ensuring a comprehensive legal framework for the prevention and elimination of terrorism,
Solemnly declares the following:
1. The States Members of the United Nations solemnly reaffirm
their unequivocal condemnation of all acts, methods and practices
of terrorism, as criminal and unjustifiable, wherever and by whomever
committed, including those which jeopardize the friendly relations
among States and peoples and threaten the territorial integrity
and security of States;
2. Acts, methods and practices of terrorism constitute a grave violation of the purposes and principles of the United Nations, which may pose a threat to international peace and security, jeopardize friendly relations among States, hinder international cooperation and aim at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and the democratic bases of society;
3. Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them;
4. States, guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter
of the United Nations and other relevant rules of international
law, must refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating
in terrorist acts in territories of other States, or from acquiescing
in or encouraging activities within their territories directed
towards the commission of such acts;
5. States must also fulfil their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and other provisions of international law with respect to combating international terrorism and are urged to take effective and resolute measures in accordance with the relevant provisions of international law and international standards of human rights for the speedy and final elimination of international terrorism, in particular:
(a) To refrain from organizing, instigating, facilitating, financing, encouraging or tolerating terrorist activities and to take appropriate practical measures to ensure that their respective territories are not used for terrorist installations or training camps, or for the preparation or organization of terrorist acts intended to be committed against other States or their citizens;
(b) To ensure the apprehension and prosecution or extradition of perpetrators of terrorist acts, in accordance with the relevant provisions of their national law;
(c) To endeavour to conclude special agreements to that effect on a bilateral, regional and multilateral basis, and to prepare, to that effect, model agreements on cooperation;
(d) To cooperate with one another in exchanging relevant information concerning the prevention and combating of terrorism;
(e) To take promptly all steps necessary to implement the existing international conventions on this subject to which they are parties, including the harmonization of their domestic legislation with those conventions;
(f) To take appropriate measures, before granting asylum, for the purpose of ensuring that the asylum seeker has not engaged in terrorist activities and, after granting asylum, for the purpose of ensuring that the refugee status is not used in a manner contrary to the provisions set out in subparagraph (a) above;
6. In order to combat effectively the increase in, and the
growing international character and effects of, acts of terrorism,
States should enhance their cooperation in this area through,
in particular, systematizing the exchange of information concerning
the prevention and combating of terrorism, as well as by effective
implementation of the relevant international conventions and conclusion
of mutual judicial assistance and extradition agreements on a
bilateral, regional and multilateral basis;
7. In this context, States are encouraged to review urgently the scope of the existing international legal provisions on the prevention, repression and elimination of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, with the aim of ensuring that there is a comprehensive legal framework covering all aspects of the matter;
8. Furthermore States that have not yet done so are urged to consider, as a matter of priority, becoming parties to the international conventions and protocols relating to various aspects of international terrorism referred to in the preamble to the present Declaration;
9. The United Nations, the relevant specialized agencies and
intergovernmental organizations and other relevant bodies must
make every effort with a view to promoting measures to combat
and eliminate acts of terrorism and to strengthening their role
in this field;
10. The Secretary-General should assist in the implementation of the present Declaration by taking, within existing resources, the following practical measures to enhance international cooperation:
(a) A collection of data on the status and implementation of existing multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements relating to international terrorism, including information on incidents caused by international terrorism and criminal prosecutions and sentencing, based on information received from the depositaries of those agreements and from Member States;
(b) A compendium of national laws and regulations regarding the prevention and suppression of international terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, based on information received from Member States;
(c) An analytical review of existing international legal instruments relating to international terrorism, in order to assist States in identifying aspects of this matter that have not been covered by such instruments and could be addressed to develop further a comprehensive legal framework of conventions dealing with international terrorism;
(d) A review of existing possibilities within the United Nations system for assisting States in organizing workshops and training courses on combating crimes connected with international terrorism;
11. All States are urged to promote and implement in good faith
and effectively the provisions of the present Declaration in all
12. Emphasis is placed on the need to pursue efforts aiming at eliminating definitively all acts of terrorism by the strengthening of international cooperation and progressive development of international law and its codification, as well as by enhancement of coordination between, and increase of the efficiency of, the United Nations and the relevant specialized agencies, organizations and bodies.
1/ A/49/257 and Add.1-3.
2/ Resolution 2625 (XXV), annex.
3/ Resolution 2734 (XXV).
4/ Resolution 3314 (XXIX), annex.
5/ Resolution 42/22, annex.
6/ Report of the World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 14-25 June 1993 (A/CONF.157/24 (Part I)), chap. III.
7/ See resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex.
8/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 704, No. 10106.
9/ Ibid., vol. 860, No. 12325.
10/ Ibid., vol. 974, No. 14118.
11/ Ibid., vol. 1035, No. 15410.
12/ Resolution 34/146, annex.
13/ International Atomic Energy Agency, document INFCIRC/225; to be published in United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1456, No. 24631.
14/ International Civil Aviation Organization, document DOC 9518.
15/ International Maritime Organization, document SUA/CONF/15/Rev.1.
16/ Ibid., document SUA/CONF/16/Rev.2.
17/ See S/22393 and Corr.1.