Agenda item 42
RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The General Assembly,
Recalling the relevant resolutions of the Security Council and its own resolutions, particularly resolutions 47/118 of 18 December 1992 and 48/161 of 20 December 1993, in which it recognized that there remained in Central America major obstacles to the full exercise of peace, freedom, democracy and development and the need for a global frame of reference that would enable the international community to channel support to the efforts of the Central American Governments, as well as the desirability of increasing support by providing resources for the consolidation of the objectives set, in order to prevent the region's material limitations from diminishing or reversing the progress made,
Recognizing the importance and validity of the commitments assumed by the Central American Presidents at the Esquipulas II summit meeting on 7 August 1987 and at their subsequent summit meetings, especially the fourteenth summit meeting, held at Guatemala City from 27 to 29 October 1993, the fifteenth summit meeting, held at GuÝcimo, Costa Rica, from 18 to 20 August 1994, the Central American Environment Summit for Sustainable Development, held at Managua on 12 and 13 October 1994, and the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America, held at Tegucigalpa on 24 and 25 October 1994, at which a framework of priorities for the formulation and implementation of an integrated strategy for sustainable development covering political, moral, economic, social and ecological matters was established,
Aware of the importance of supporting the efforts of the Central American peoples and Governments for the consolidation of a firm and lasting peace in Central America, and bearing in mind that the Central American Integration System constitutes the institutional framework for subregional integration through which integrated development can be promoted in an effective, orderly and coherent manner,
Convinced of the hopes that inspire the peoples of Central America to achieve peace, reconciliation, development and social justice, as well as the commitment to settle their differences by means of dialogue, negotiation and respect for the legitimate interests of all States, in accordance with their own decision and their own historical experience, while fully respecting the principles of self-determination and non-intervention,
Recognizing the importance of the peace-keeping operations that have been carried out in Central America pursuant to the decisions of the Security Council and with the support of the Secretary-General,
Recognizing also the need to preserve and enhance the results obtained by means of new and innovative initiatives that take into account the new circumstances prevailing in the region, which necessitate a new course based on an integrated strategy for sustainable development in the region,
Reaffirming that there can be no peace in Central America without sustainable development or democracy, which are essential for transforming the region and realizing the hope of the Central American peoples and Governments that Central America may become a region of peace, freedom, democracy and sustainable development,
Emphasizing the important role of international cooperation in supporting the integrated proposal for sustainable development agreed on at the most recent meetings of Central American Presidents, in particular the Central American Environment Summit for Sustainable Development and the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America,
Stressing the importance of honouring the commitments to accelerate the establishment of a new model of regional security in Central America, as established in the Tegucigalpa Protocol of 13 December 1991 1/ and the Agenda and Programme of Specific Action for Sustainable Development adopted at the fifteenth meeting of Central American Presidents, at GuÝcimo,
Noting with satisfaction the progress made in the peace negotiations between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, with the assistance of the Secretary-General and the support of the Group of Friends of the Guatemalan peace process (Colombia, Mexico, Norway, Spain, United States of America and Venezuela), and the contribution by the Assembly of Civil Society and other Guatemalans, within the constitutional framework and the peace agreements,
Recalling its resolution 48/267 of 19 September 1994, in which it decided to establish the United Nations Mission for the Verification of Human Rights and of Compliance with the Commitments of the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights in Guatemala, in accordance with the recommendations of the Secretary-General,
Stressing the great importance it attaches to the conclusion of the negotiations, the speedy termination of the internal armed conflict and the full compliance by both parties with the undertakings agreed to, all of which will help the people of Guatemala to overcome successfully the social and economic problems facing the country,
Taking into account the commitment expressed by both parties, the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, to achieve the full exercise of human rights and to seek peace through dialogue and negotiation,
Noting with satisfaction the holding of free and democratic elections in El Salvador, the progress made towards fulfilment of the outstanding commitments assumed under the Peace Agreement, the political will consistently expressed by the signatories thereto and the support of the various Salvadorian political forces for accelerating the resolution of crucial outstanding issues, which is essential to promote reconciliation and maintain and consolidate peace in El Salvador,
Also taking into account the efforts made by the Government of Nicaragua to promote broad national agreement as the best way of consolidating peace, national reconciliation, democracy and sustainable development with social justice,
Welcoming with satisfaction the adoption of resolution 49/16 of 17 November 1994, entitled "International assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Nicaragua: aftermath of the war and natural disasters", in which the exceptional circumstances prevailing in the case of Nicaragua are recognized,
Recognizing that the consolidation of peace in Nicaragua is a key factor in the Central American peace process, as well as the need for the international community and the United Nations system to continue providing Nicaragua with the support it needs to continue promoting its economic and social rehabilitation and reconstruction in order to strengthen democracy and overcome the aftermath of war and recent natural disasters,
Also recognizing the valuable and effective contribution of the United Nations and of various governmental and non-governmental mechanisms to the process of democratization, pacification and development in Central America, and the importance for the gradual transformation of Central America into a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development of both the political dialogue and the economic cooperation set in motion by the ministerial conference between the European Union and the Central American countries and the joint initiative of the industrialized countries (Group of Twenty-four) and the group of cooperating countries (Group of Three) 2/ through the Partnership for Democracy and Development in Central America,
Bearing in mind that the process established by the International Conference on Central American Refugees was completed in May 1994, that the United Nations Development Programme has assumed the role of lead agency which was formerly performed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and that the mandate of the Special Plan of Economic Cooperation for Central America, 3/ through which both the United Nations system and the international community, and especially the cooperating countries, have supported activities supplementing the Central American peace process, has come to an end,
Considering the Declaration of Commitments in favour of the populations affected both by uprootedness and by conflicts and extreme poverty in the framework of the consolidation of peace in Central America, adopted at Mexico City on 29 June 1994 at the final international meeting of the Follow-up Committee of the International Conference on Central American Refugees, in which the Governments of the convening States emphasized the need to give continuity to the treatment of uprooted populations by changing the emphasis from emergency programmes to sustainable human development strategies in areas or populations given priority by the countries concerned for the consolidation of peace and the eradication of extreme poverty,
Aware that the Central American countries have concluded the Alliance for the Sustainable Development of Central America, 4/ an initiative that inaugurates a promising phase involving the reordering of regional priorities, the effective implementation of which calls for maximum effort on the part of the Governments and the various sectors of the Central American countries, as well as the support of the international community, in order to overcome the underlying structural causes of the crisis in the region,
Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General of 7 October 1994 on the situation in Central America, 5/
Welcoming with deep satisfaction the Tegucigalpa Commitments on Peace and Development 6/ adopted at the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America,
1. Commends the efforts of the Central American peoples and Governments to consolidate peace by implementing the agreements adopted at recent meetings of the Central American Presidents, especially their fifteenth meeting, held at GuÝcimo, Costa Rica, the Central American Environment Summit for Sustainable Development, held at Managua, and the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America, held at Tegucigalpa, and requests the Secretary-General to continue to give the fullest possible support to the initiatives and activities of the Central American Governments;
2. Supports the decision of the Central American Presidents to declare Central America a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development, as set out in the Tegucigalpa Protocol, 1/ and encourages the initiatives of the Central American countries, in the framework of the integrated strategy for sustainable development and based on the latest Central American meetings, to consolidate Governments which base their development on democracy, peace, cooperation and full respect for human rights;
3. Emphasizes the decision of the Central American Presidents included in the Declaration of GuÝcimo 7/ and adopted at the Managua Environment Summit, in which the national and regional strategy known as the Alliance for Sustainable Development -- a comprehensive Central American initiative in the political, moral, economic, social and environmental fields -- was concretized, translating that strategy into a programme of immediate action through which the Central American countries hope to become, with the support of the international community, an example of sustainable development for other regions;
4. Welcomes the efforts of the Central American countries to promote economic growth within a context of human development, as well as the progress achieved in strengthening democracy and consolidating peace in the region, as amply demonstrated by the successful holding of fair and transparent electoral processes in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama;
5. Also emphasizes the functioning of the Central American Integration System since 1 February 1993 and the registry of the Tegucigalpa Protocol with the United Nations Secretariat, expresses its full support for the efforts made by Central Americans, under the political leadership of their Presidents, to stimulate and broaden the integration process in the context of the Central American Integration System, and calls on Member States and international organizations to provide effective cooperation to Central America so that it can steadily promote and strengthen subregional integration in order to make it an effective mechanism for achieving sustainable development;
6. Reaffirms the importance of creating a new model of regional security based on a reasonable balance of forces, the pre-eminence of civil authority, the elimination of extreme poverty, the promotion of sustainable development, the protection of the environment and the eradication of violence, corruption, terrorism and trafficking in drugs and arms, a commitment made at the fifteenth meeting of Central American Presidents;
7. Calls upon the international community and the United Nations system to expand their technical and financial support for the professionalization of the police forces of the Central American countries in order to safeguard democratic institutions;
8. Notes with satisfaction the signing of the Framework Agreement for the Resumption of the Negotiating Process between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, 8/ the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights and the Agreement on a Timetable for the Negotiation of a Firm and Lasting Peace in Guatemala, 9/ the Agreement on Resettlement of the Population Groups Uprooted by the Armed Conflict and the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commission to Clarify Past Human Rights Violations and Acts of Violence that have Caused the Guatemalan Population to Suffer; 10/
9. Recognizes the importance of the decision of the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca to negotiate seriously and resolutely with a view to reaching peace agreements with no further delay;
10. Calls upon those concerned to advance speedily in the Guatemalan peace process in order to achieve, as close as possible to the 31 December deadline, agreement on a firm and lasting peace in keeping with the commitments made in the Framework Agreement;
11. Reiterates its appreciation to the Secretary-General and the Group of Friends for their efforts in support of the Guatemalan peace process, as well as its appreciation for the contribution of the Assembly of Civil Society and other Guatemalans, within the constitutional framework and the peace agreements, for their efforts in support of that process;
12. Notes with satisfaction the establishment of the United Nations Mission for the Verification of Human Rights and of Compliance with the Commitments of the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights in Guatemala, and, in the context of human rights, urges those concerned fully to comply with their commitments under the agreements already signed, including the agreement relating to the Mission;
13. Also notes with satisfaction the efforts of the Secretary-General, the agencies of the United Nations system and the international community as a whole to coordinate their support for the peace process and, in particular, for the implementation of the agreements, and encourages them to continue their assistance in favour of peace, national reconciliation, democracy and development in Guatemala;
14. Requests the Secretary-General to continue his support for the Guatemalan peace process, through his representative, and his assistance in implementing the agreements;
15. Calls upon the Government of El Salvador and all the political forces involved in the peace process to make all possible efforts to fulfil their vital outstanding commitments in accordance with the "Timetable for the implementation of the most important outstanding agreements" 11/ and fully to implement all aspects of the agreements, and requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Government of El Salvador, the Member States and the specialized agencies, to devise procedures for providing El Salvador, in the context of the Peace Agreement, with the necessary cooperation and assistance in the period after the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador, in order to safeguard peace and the strengthening and consolidation of national reconciliation, democracy and sustainable development;
16. Requests all States and invites the international development and financing institutions to react quickly and generously to the joint appeal of the Government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Mart° para la Liberaci¢n Nacional to provide the additional resources required for the full implementation of the Peace Agreement;
17. Reiterates its recognition of the effective and timely participation of the Secretary-General and his representatives and encourages them to continue to take all necessary steps to ensure the successful implementation of all the commitments made by the parties to the El Salvador Peace Agreement, including efforts to mobilize the necessary resources for the reconstruction and development of the country, which are essential for the consolidation of peace and democracy in El Salvador;
18. Recognizes the achievements made by the people and Government of Nicaragua in their efforts to consolidate peace, democracy and reconciliation among Nicaraguans, as well as the political dialogue and process of economic and social consultation among all sectors of the country, in order to strengthen the bases for the country's reconstruction;
19. Supports the treatment accorded to Nicaragua in the light of its continuing exceptional circumstances, so that the international community and financial institutions can incorporate that treatment into programmes to support the country's economic recovery and social reconstruction;
20. Expresses its approval of the establishment of a support group for Nicaragua, which, under the coordination of the Secretary-General, is playing an active role in supporting the country's efforts towards economic recovery and social development, particularly with regard to solving the external debt problem and securing investments and new resources that will allow the country's economic and social reconstruction programmes to continue, and requests the Secretary-General to continue to support those efforts;
21. Emphasizes the importance that the political dialogue and economic cooperation under way within the ministerial conference between the European Union and its member States and the Central American countries, with the participation of the Group of Three 2/ as cooperating countries, have for the Central American countries' efforts to achieve peace, consolidate democracy and ensure sustainable development;
22. Requests the Secretary-General to give the Central American countries every possible assistance for the consolidation of peace and the strategy of sustainable development in the region;
23. Recognizes the importance of implemented, updated and pending programmes, and, in view of the fact that the resources assigned to the Special Plan of Economic Cooperation for Central America have been used up, requests the agencies of the United Nations system, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, and international institutions to mobilize the necessary resources to set in motion new national and regional programmes in support of the content of the Declaration of GuÝcimo, 7/ the Alliance for the Sustainable Development of Central America 4/ concluded at the Managua Summit, and the Tegucigalpa Commitments on Peace and Development 6/ adopted at the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America, in order to prevent the progress made in Central America from being reversed and to ensure that peace is consolidated in the region by means of integrated, sustainable development;
24. Reiterates its appreciation to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the United Nations Development Programme for carrying out their mandate under the International Conference on Central American Refugees, and requests the international community to continue supporting the region in the efforts needed to comply with the Declaration of Commitments adopted at Mexico City on 29 June 1994, as part of the new strategies for sustainable human development to eradicate extreme poverty and consolidate peace in the new Central American context;
25. Emphasizes the commitments on sustainable development adopted at the fifteenth meeting of Central American Presidents, the Central American Environment Summit for Sustainable Development and the International Conference on Peace and Development in Central America, and urges States Members and organs of the United Nations system to give them every support;
26. Reiterates its full appreciation to and thanks the Secretary- General for his efforts in favour of the pacification process in Central America, particularly in those countries where it is necessary to achieve and consolidate peace, national reconciliation, democracy and sustainable development, and to the groups of friendly countries which have made a direct contribution to attaining those ends;
27. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session the item entitled "The situation in Central America: procedures for the establishment of a firm and lasting peace and progress in fashioning a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development";
28. Requests the Secretary-General to report to it at its fiftieth session on the implementation of the present resolution.
92nd plenary meeting
19 December 1994
1/ A/46/829-S/23310, annex III.
2/ The group of cooperating countries, known as the "Group of Three", consists of Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela.
3/ A/42/949, annex.
4/ A/49/580-S/1994/1217, annex I.
5/ A/49/489 and Corr.1.
6/ A/49/639-S/1994/1247, annex II.
7/ A/49/340-S/1994/994, annex.
8/ A/49/61-S/1994/53, annex.
9/ A/48/928-S/1994/448, annexes I and II.
10/ A/48/954-S/1994/751, annexes I and II.
11/ See S/1994/612.