Review of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, G.A. res. 48/83, 48 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 93, U.N. Doc. A/48/49 (1993).

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 2734 (XXV) of 16 December 1970 on the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, as well as all its previous resolutions on the review of the implementation of the Declaration,

Bearing in mind the final documents of the Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at Jakarta from 1 to 6 September 1992,

Expressing its firm belief that disarmament, the relaxation of international tension, respect for international law and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, especially the principles of the sovereign equality of States and the peaceful settlement of disputes and the injunction to refrain from the use or threat of use of force in international relations, respect for the right to self-determination and national independence, economic and social development, the eradication of all forms of domination, and respect for basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the need for preserving the environment, are closely related and provide the basis for an enduring and stable universal peace and security,

Welcoming the recent positive changes in the international landscape, characterized by the end of the cold war, the relaxation of tensions on the global level and the emergence of a new spirit governing relations among nations,

Welcoming also the continuing dialogue between the major Powers, with its positive effects on world developments, and expressing its hope that these developments will lead to the renunciation of strategic doctrines based on the use of nuclear weapons and to the elimination of weapons of mass destruction, thereby making a real contribution to global security,

Expressing the hope that the positive trends that started in Europe, where a new system of security and cooperation is being built through the process of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, will succeed and be extended to the non-participating Mediterranean countries and encourage similar trends in other parts of the world,

Expressing its serious concern at the threat that could be posed to international peace and security by the resurgence of doctrines of racial superiority or exclusivity and the contemporary forms and manifestations of racism and xenophobia,

Stressing the need for the strengthening of international security through disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament leading up to the elimination of all nuclear weapons, and restraints on the qualitative and quantitative escalation of the arms race,

Recognizing that peace and security are dependent on socio-economic factors as well as on political and military elements,

Recognizing also that the right and responsibility for making the world safe for all should be shared by all,

Stressing also that the United Nations is the fundamental instrument for regulating international relations and resolving global problems for the maintenance and effective promotion of peace and security, disarmament and social and economic development,

1. Reaffirms the continuing validity of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, and calls upon all States to contribute effectively to its implementation;

2. Also reaffirms that all States must respect, in their international relations, the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

3. Emphasizes that, until an enduring and stable universal peace based on a comprehensive, viable and readily implementable structure of international security is established, peace, the achievement of disarmament and the settlement of disputes by peaceful means continue to be the first and foremost task of the international community;

4. Calls upon all States to refrain from the use or threat of use of force, aggression, intervention, interference, all forms of terrorism, suppression, foreign occupation or measures of political and economic coercion that violate the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence and security of other States, as well as the permanent sovereignty of peoples over their natural resources;

5. Urges all Governments to take immediate measures and to develop effective policies to prevent and combat all forms and manifestations of racism, xenophobia or related intolerance;

6. Calls for regional dialogues, where appropriate, to promote security and economic, environmental, social and cultural cooperation, taking into account the particular characteristics of each region;

7. Stresses the importance of global and regional approaches to disarmament, which should be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security;

8. Reaffirms the fundamental role of the United Nations in the maintenance of international peace and security, and expresses the hope that it will continue to address all threats to international peace and security in accordance with the Charter;

9. Urges all States to take further immediate steps aimed at promoting and using effectively the system of collective security as envisaged in the Charter, as well as halting effectively the arms race with the aim of achieving general and complete disarmament under effective international control;

10. Also stresses the urgent need for more equitable development of the world economy and for redressing the current asymmetry and inequality in economic and technological development between the developed and developing countries, which are basic prerequisites for the strengthening of international peace and security;

11. Considers that respect for and promotion of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the recognition of the inalienable right of peoples to self-determination and independence, will strengthen international peace and security, and reaffirms the legitimacy of the struggle of peoples under foreign occupation and their inalienable right to self-determination and independence;

12. Also reaffirms that the democratization of international relations is an imperative necessity, and stresses its belief that the United Nations offers the best framework for the promotion of this goal;

13. Invites Member States to submit their views on the question of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, particularly in the light of recent positive developments in the global political and security climate, and requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session on the basis of the replies received;

14. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session the item entitled "Review of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security".

81st plenary meeting
16 December 1993