CSCE Budapest Declaration,
Towards A Genuine Partnership In A New Era,
DOC.RC/1/95 (21 December 1994)
Intensification of CSCE action in relation to
the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
- Deploring the continuation of the conflict and the human tragedy
involved, the participating States welcomed the confirmation by the parties
to the conflict of the cease-fire agreed on
12 May 1994 through the mediation of the Russian Federation in co-operation
with the CSCE Minsk Group. They confirmed their commitment to the relevant
resolutions of the United Nations
Security Council and welcomed the political support given by the Security
Council to the CSCE's efforts towards a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
To this end they called on the parties to the
conflict to enter into intensified substantive talks, including direct
contacts. In this context, they pledged to redouble the efforts and assistance
by the CSCE. They strongly endorsed the mediation
efforts of the CSCE Minsk Group and expressed appreciation for the crucial
contribution of the Russian Federation and the efforts by other individual
members of the Minsk Group. They agreed to
harmonize these into a single co-ordinated effort within the framework of the CSCE.
To this end, they have directed the Chairman-in-Office, in consultation with the participating
States and acting as soon as possible, to name co-chairmen of the Minsk Conference to ensure a
common and agreed basis for negotiations and to realize full co-ordination in all mediation and
negotiation activities. The co-chairmen, guided in all of their negotiating efforts by CSCE principles
and an agreed mandate, will jointly chair meetings of the Minsk Group and jointly report to the
Chairman-in-Office. They will regularly brief the Permanent Council on the progress of their work.
As a first step in this effort, they directed
the co-chairmen of the Minsk Conference to take immediate steps to promote,
with the support and co-operation of the Russian Federation and other
individual members of the Minsk Group, the continuation of the existing cease-fire
and, drawing upon the progress already achieved in previous mediation activities,
to conduct speedy negotiations for the
conclusion of a political agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict,
the implementation of which will eliminate major consequences of the conflict
for all parties and permit the convening of
the Minsk Conference. They further requested the co-chairmen of the Minsk
Conference to continue working with the parties towards further implementation
of confidence-building measures, particularly
in the humanitarian field. They underlined the need for participating States
to take action, both individually and within relevant international organizations,
to provide humanitarian assistance to the
people of the region with special emphasis on alleviating the plight of refugees.
They agreed that, in line with the view
of the parties to the conflict, the conclusion of the agreement mentioned above
would also make it possible to deploy multinational peacekeeping forces
as an essential element for the implementation of the agreement itself. They
declared their political will to provide, with an appropriate resolution from
the United Nations Security Council, a
multinational CSCE peacekeeping force following agreement among the parties
for cessation of the armed conflict. They requested the Chairman-in-Office
to develop as soon as possible a plan for the
establishment, composition and operations of such a force, organized on the
basis of Chapter III of the Helsinki Document 1992 and in a manner fully consistent
with the Charter of the United Nations.
To this end the Chairman-in-Office will be assisted by the co-chairmen of the
Minsk Conference and by the Minsk Group, and be supported by the Secretary
General; after appropriate consultations he
will also establish a high-level planning group in Vienna to make recommendations on, inter alia, the
size and characteristics of the force, command and control, logistics, allocation of units and resources,
rules of engagement and arrangements with contributing States. He will seek the support of the
United Nations on the basis of the stated United Nations readiness to provide technical advice and
expertise. He will also seek continuing political support from the United Nations Security Council
for the possible deployment of a CSCE peacekeeping force.
On the basis of such preparatory work and the relevant provisions of Chapter III of the
Helsinki Document 1992, and following agreement and a formal request by the parties to the
Chairman-in-Office through the co-chairmen of the Minsk Conference, the Permanent Council will
take a decision on the establishment of the CSCE peacekeeping operation.
- Faced with the alarming situation in the Republic of Georgia, which has been even further
aggravated by the recent events in Abkhazia, the participating States reiterated their strong support
for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia within its internationally recognized borders.
On the basis of these principles, a settlement of the conflicts in Georgia must be reached. The
interests of the multi-ethnic population in the areas of conflicts must also be taken into account.
The participating States expressed their concern about the unilateral acts of 26 November
1994 by the authorities of Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia. This undermines both United Nations and
CSCE efforts to promote a peaceful political settlement through negotiations between the conflicting
parties in Georgia.
They expressed their deep concern over "ethnic cleansing",
the massive expulsion of people, predominantly Georgian, from their living
areas and the deaths of large numbers of innocent civilians.
They expressed their hope that the efforts conducted under the auspices of the United Nations
and with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator and with the participation of
representatives of the CSCE will improve the situation in Abkhazia and thus permit the early return
of refugees and displaced persons to their homes in safety and with dignity. In this context, they
called on the parties to the conflict to adhere strictly to the principles and recommendations set forth
in the relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions as well as in agreements reached in the
course of the negotiating process.
The participating States noted with satisfaction that certain positive steps have been taken
towards a peaceful resolution of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, building upon the work accomplished
by the joint peacekeeping forces (established under the Sochi Agreement as Joint Peacekeeping and
Law Enforcement Forces, JPLEF) in maintaining the cease-fire in the conflict area.
These encouraging developments were facilitated by the activities of the CSCE Mission to
Georgia and the efforts of the Russian Federation. The participating States encourage the Mission
to persevere in its efforts to promote political dialogue between all parties to the conflict, thus
contributing to reconciliation and the preparation of a broader political framework in which a lasting
settlement of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict can be achieved on the basis of CSCE principles and
They take note of the activities of the joint peacekeeping forces, established under the Sochi
Agreement of 24 June 1992, and welcome the present negotiations to achieve further progress toward
a political solution, with the participation of the CSCE Mission. They call upon the CSCE Mission
to continue to fulfil its mandate with respect to monitoring the activities of the joint peacekeeping
The participating States welcomed the agreement of all the parties reached on
31 October 1994 to reconvene the Joint Control Commission (JCC) in which the Mission will actively
The participating States expressed their appreciation for the efforts undertaken by the
Government of Georgia to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, to build legal
and democratic institutions and to assure full transition to a market economy. The Mission will
remain actively engaged in assisting the Georgian authorities in these efforts. They urge appropriate
governments and international organizations to provide political support and humanitarian and
technical assistance to the Republic of Georgia.
The participating States consider that it may be desirable to convene at the appropriate time
international conferences under the auspices of the CSCE and the United Nations, and with the
participation of other international organizations and interested States, to review progress towards
settling the conflicts and the development of a democratic society in Georgia.
The participating States welcomed the constructive work of the CSCE Mission to Moldova
and pledged their continued support for its efforts.
Recalling the relevant decisions of the Rome Council and subsequent decisions of the
Committee of Senior Officials and Permanent Committee, the participating States welcomed the
signature on 21 October 1994 of the Agreement between the Republic of Moldova and the Russian
Federation on the withdrawal of the Russian Fourteenth Army. They called for the early entry into
force of this Agreement thus permitting a timely, orderly and complete withdrawal of these troops
from the territory of the Republic of Moldova.
In view of the CSCE's commitment to promote good-neighbourly relations between the
participating States, the CSCE will offer the services of its Mission in Moldova to follow closely the
implementation of this Agreement by both sides and will remain actively engaged in the search for
a lasting political solution of the problems in the eastern part of Moldova (Trans-Dniester region)
based on respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of
Moldova. The Mission will continue to co-operate with the representative of the President of the
Russian Federation. The participating States welcomed the commitment by both parties to conduct
the withdrawal of the Russian Fourteenth Army from the territory of Moldova and the search for a
political settlement of the problems of the eastern part of Moldova (Trans-Dniester region) as two
parallel processes which will not hamper each other.