(1) The participants in the Helsinki Consultations on the question of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, representing the Governments of States listed in the annex recommend to their Governments that this Conference should be convened under the conditions specified below, concerning its organization,agenda and the related instructions, participation, date, place, rules of procedure and financial arrangements.
(2) The participants expressed their collective agreement to these Recommendations on 8 June, 1973.
(3) Each State entitled to participate in the Conference will inform the Government of Finland, within the time limits laid down in Chapter 3, of its decision to take part in this Conference, there by indicating its intention to do so on the basis of the Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations. The Government of Finland will inform all States entitled to participate of the communications received in this respect.
(4) The Government of Finland will take the necessary measures, in accordance with the arrangements provided for in the Final Recommendations, to organize the first stage of the Conference.
1. Organization of the Conference
2. Agenda and the Related Instructions
3. Participation, Contributions, Guests
6. Rules of Procedure
7. Financial Arrangements
Annex: List of Participating Countries
ON SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION
(6) The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe will take place in three stages:
(a) Stage I
The first stage will consist of a meeting of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the participating States. In accordance with the recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations, the Ministers will adopt the rules of procedure, the agenda and the instructions of the working bodies of the Conference, together with the other arrangements relating to the conduct of the Conference. The Ministers will state the views of their Governments on the problems relating to security and cooperation in Europe. Should they so wish they will put forward, for consideration in the course of the second stage, proposals relating to the various topics on the agenda.
(b) Stage II
The second stage will comprise the work of the spezialized committees and sub- committees whose instructions are defined in Chapter 2 of these recommendations (points I, II and III of the agenda). Within this framework and on the basis of the proposals submitted either by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs, or subsequently by the delegations of the participating States, the committees and sub- committees will prepare drafts of declarations, recommendations, resolutions or any other final documents. The participating States will be represented in these bodies by such delegates and experts as they shall designate for the purpose.
(9) A co-ordinating committee, composed of representatives appointed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs, will meet periodically during
the second stage of the Conference. It will co-ordinate the activities of the committees and assemble the results of their work with a view to the final stage of the Conference. The Co-ordinating Committee shall also be entrusted with the execution of the tasks defined in point IV of the agenda, as stated in Chapter 2 of the present recommendations. It will, furthermore, submit to the participating governments such recommendations as it may consider useful regarding the conduct of the Conference, especially the organization of its third stage.
(c) Stage III
(10) In the light of the recommendations drawn up by the Co-ordinating Committee, the Conference will meet for its third stage.
(11) The level of representation at the third stage will be decided by the participating States during the Conference, before the end of the second stage
(12) The Conference will adopt its final documents, in formal session, at the close of this third stage.
(13) In carrying out the instructions set out below, the Committee will bear in mind the wider objective of promoting better relations among participating States and ensuring conditions in which their people can live in peace free from any threat to or attempt against their security.
(14) In its work the Committee will proceed from the premise that the strengthening of security in Europe is not directed against any State or continent and should constitute an important contribution to world peace and security.
(15) In considering questions relating to security in Europe, the Committee will bear in mind the broader context of world security and in particular the relationship which exists between security in Europe and in the Mediterranean area.
(16) The Committee will be assisted in its tasks by the appropriate Sub-Committees.
(17) (a) The Committee/Sub-Committee is charged with the task of considering and stating in conformity with the purposes and principles of the United Nations those basic principles which each participating State is to respect and apply in its relations with all other participating States, irrespective of their political, economic or social systems, in order to ensure the peace and security of all participating States.
(18) The principles to be stated shall be included in a document of appropriate form to be submitted by the Committee for adoption by the Conference. It shall express the determination of the participating States to respect and apply the principles equally and unreservedly in all aspects to their mutual relations and co-operation, in
order to ensure to all participating States the benefits resulting from the application of these principles by all.
(19) The reaffirmation, with such clarifications and additions as may be deemed desirable, and the precise statement, in conformity with the purposes and principles of the United Nations, of the following principles of primary significance guiding the mutual relations of the participating States, are deemed to be of particular importance:
- sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty;
- refraining from the threat or use of force;
- inviolability of frontiers;
- territorial integrity of States;
- peaceful settlement of disputes;
- non-intervention in internal affairs;
- respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of
thought, conscience, religion or belief;
- equal rights and self-determination of peoples;
- co-operation among States;
- fulfilment in good faith of obligations under international law.
(20) In discharging itself of these tasks, the Committee/Sub-Committee shall take into account in particular the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co- operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
(21) (b) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall give expression to the idea that respect for the above-listed principles will encourage the development of normal and friendly relations among the participating States as well as of their political contacts which in turn would contribute to the furthering of their co-operation. It shall also consider proposals designed to give effect to refraining from the threat or use of force. In this context, it shall study proposals for and under take the elaboration of a method for the peaceful settlement of disputes among participating States.
(22) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall have regard to the fact that the participating States are desirous of eliminating any causes of tension that may exist among them and of contributing to the strengthening of peace and security in the world, bearing in mind the fact that efforts aimed at disarmament complement political detente and are essential elements in a process in which all participating States have a vital interest.
(23) In order to strengthen confidence and to increase stability and security, the Committee/Sub- Committee shall submit to the Conference appropriate proposals on confidence-building measures such as the prior notification of major military manoeuvres on a basis to be specified by the Conference, and the exchange of observers by invitation at military manoeuvres under mutually acceptable conditions. The Committee/Sub- Committee will also study the question of prior notification of major military movements and submit its conclusions.
(24) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall pay due attention to the views expressed by participating States on the various subjects mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, on the particular interest they attach thereto, especially from the point of view of their own security and of their desire to be informed about the relevant developments.
(25) The Committee shall be responsible for drawing up a draft final document/documents containing guidelines and concrete recommendations which could stimulate common efforts for increased co-operation in the fields of economics, science and technology and environment, which might guide the participating States in their mutual relations in these areas and which they might utilize in the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements, as well as recommendations on specific measures for the development of co-operation which could be agreed by participating States.
(26) The Committee will bear in mind the contribution which such co-operation could make to the reinforcement of peace and security in Europe. It will also bear in mind the interests of developing countries and regions and the positive effects which the broadening of co-operation among participating States could have on world economic relations.
(27) The Committee, having in mind the foregoing, shall study ways and means that would make it possible, by mutual agreement among participating States, to facilitate, with due regard for the diversity of economic and social systems and under conditions of reciprocity of advantages and obligations, the development of trade and co-operation in the various fields of economic activity, science, technology and in the field of the environment. In this regard, it will in particular take account of the work of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
(28) In considering questions relating to co-operation in Europe covered by this mandate, the Committee will bear in mind the relationship which exists between such co- operation in Europe and in the Mediterranean area.
(29) The Committee in its final draft will formulate relevant proposals, based on full respect for the principles guiding relations
among the participating States enumerated in the terms of reference for the Committee on item I of the agenda.
(30) The Committee, assisted by the appropriate Sub-Committees, will examine the following questions:
(31) The Committee/Sub-Committee will examine general provisions designed to promote trade and the exchange of services between participating States. It could discuss general problems relating to most favoured nation treatment. It could also examine measures aiming at the reduction or progressive elimination of all kinds of obstacles to the development of trade.
(32) The Committee/Sub-Committee will examine specific measures designed to facilitate commercial transactions and the exchange of services, such as measures aiming at the improvement of
- business contacts and facilities
- the exchange of information on commercial opportunities and specific trading
- provisions for the settlement of commercial disputes including various forms of
(33) The Committee/Sub-Committee will study the forms and modalities of industrial co- operation will examine the various measures by which participating States could encourage the development of this co-operation using, as appropriate, the framework of bilateral or multilateral intergovernmental agreements.
(34) The Committee/Sub-Committee will examine, in particular, the measures which governments could take to create conditions favourable to this co-operation between competent organizations, firms and enterprises of participating States. It will bear in mind that the specific forms of such co-operation should be settled bilaterally unless otherwise agreed upon by the participants. This examination could bear on the various forms of co- operation, such as co-operation in production and sales, on the exchange of information concerning the possibilities of industrial co-operation, on the improvement of conditions for setting up projects, and on other measures which could develop and facilitate various forms of industrial co-operation.
(35) The Committee/Sub-Committee will also examine the possibilities of encouraging projects of common interest and of working out, where relevant, recommendations in this respect.
(36) This examination could bear on the possibilities of implementing projects of common interest in the fields of energy resources; exploitation of raw materials and, when appropriate, of transport and communications.
(37) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall consider proposals for the development of co- operation in the field of science and technology, taking into account already existing or planned co-operation in this field, with a view to facilitating, through such means as the improvement of contacts and information, access to new developments in science and technology, and to contributing to the most effective solution of problems of common interest and to the betterment of the conditions of human life.
(38) These proposals, in particular, shall be concerned with the areas where there are the most favourable prerequisites for such co-operation, the forms and methods for its implementation, as well as with the obstacles that hinder such co-operation and measures for their removal. In the consideration of these questions, the Committee/Sub-Committee will seek to build on existing practices and take into account the possibilities and capabilities of relevant existing international organizations.
(39) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall be responsible for discussing questions of environmental protection and improvement and in particular for determining the fields that are important for the participating States and can best lend themselves to the development of co-operation between them, such as: protection of the seas surrounding Europe, of the waters and of the atmosphere; improvement of environmental and living conditions, especially in towns; protection of nature and of its resources.
(40) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall examine and put forward the most appropriate bilateral and multilateral forms and methods of co-operation, including co-operation on a regional and subregional basis, for the various fields that have been determined. In the consideration of these questions, the Committee/Sub-Committee will seek to build on existing practices and take into account the possibilities and capabilities of the relevant existing international organizations.
(41) The Committee/Sub-Committee could examine the following
- problems relating to the development of transport and communi-
cations between participating States;
- promotion of tourism by the exchange of information, techniques and the results of
practical experience and by the study of appropriate measures;
- economic and social aspects of migrant labour;
- training of personnel in various fields of economic activity
- such other questions as may be decided by common agreement.
(42) With the aim of contributing to the strengthening of peace and understanding among the peoples of the participating States and to the spiritual enrichment of the human personality, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and irrespective of their political, economic and social systems, the Committee, assisted by the appropriate Sub- Committees, shall be charged with examining all possibilities of co-operation conducive to creating better conditions for increased cultural and educational exchanges, for broader dissemination of information, for contacts between people, and for the solution of humanitarian problems. In this connection, it shall not only draw upon existing forms of co-operation, but shall also work out new ways and means appropriate to these aims.
(43) The Committee in its final document will formulate relevant proposals,
based on full respect for the principles guiding relations among the participating
States eunmerated in the terms of reference for the Committee on item I of the agenda.
(44) The Committee shall also consider to what extent existing institutions could be used to achieve these aims.
(45) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall prepare proposals to facilitate freer movement and contacts, individually or collectively, privately or officially, among persons, institutions and organisations of the participating States.
(46) With a view to contributing to the favourable examination and settlement of relevant matters by the States concerned under mutually acceptable conditions, it shall pay particular attention to:
(a) contacts and regular meetings on a basis of family ties;
reunification of families; marriage between nationals of different States;
(b) travel for personal or professional reasons; improvement of conditions for tourism, on an individual or collective basis;
(c) meetings among young people; expansion of contacts and competitions, particularly in the field of sport.
(47) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall prepare proposals to facilitate the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds. In doing so it shall pay particular attention to:
(a) improving the circulation of, and access to, oral, printed, filmed and broadcast information and extending the exchange of information;
(b) encouraging co-operation in these fields of information on a basis of short or long term agreements;
(c) improving conditions under which journalists from one participating State exercise their profession in another participating State.
(48) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall prepare proposals aimed at extending and improving co-operation and exchanges in the various fields of culture and shall indicate the components and objectives of a consistent long-term development of such exchanges. In its work, it shall bear in mind the results of the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies in Europe, Helsinki, June 1972 including the broader concept of culture outlined by that Conference.
(49) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall consider in particular:
(a) Extension of relations among competent government agencies and non- governmental bodies dealing with matters of culture;
(b) Promotion of fuller mutual knowledge of and access to achievements in literature, art and other fields of cultural activity;
(c) Improvement of facilities for contacts and exchanges in the above- mentioned spheres;
(d) Extension of contacts and co-operation among creative artists and people engaged in cultural activities;
(e) Common search for new fields and forms of co-operation; co-operation in the investigation of the social aspects of culture;
(f) Encouragement of such forms of cultural co-operation as: international events in the fields of art, film, theatre, music, folklore, etc.; book fairs and exhibitions; joint projects in the field protection of monuments and sites; co- production and exchange of films and of radio and television programmes.
(50) The Committee/Sub-Committee while considering the role of States in co-operation in the field of culture will bear in mind the contribution that national minorities or regional cultures could make to it within the framework of respect for principles referred to above.
(51) The Committee/Sub-Committee shall prepare proposals aimed at broadening co- operation and exchanges in the fields of education and silence on a short or long-term basis. These proposals shall be carried out bilaterally and multilaterally as appropriate, between participating States and non-govermmental bodies. The Committee/Sub-Committee shall consider in particular:
(a) Expansion of links between State institutions and non-governmental bodies whose activities are concerned with questions of education and silence.
(b) Improved access, under mutually acceptable conditions, for students, teachers and scholars from the participating States to each other's educational, cultural and scientific institutions, and a more exact assessment of the problems of comparison and equivalence between academic degrees and diplomas.
(c) Encouragement of the study of the languages and civilizations of other peoples for the purpose of creating favourable conditions for promoting wider acquaintance with the culture of each country.
(d) Exchange of experience in teaching methods in various fields including those used in adult education and exchanges in the field of teaching materials.
(52) The Committee/Sub-Committee while considering the role of States in co-operation in the field of education will bear in mind the contribution that national minorities or regional cultures could make to it within the framework of respect for principles referred to above.
(53) The Co-ordinating Committee shall consider, on the basis of the progress made at the Conference such measures as may be required to give effect to the decisions of the Conference and to further the process of improving security and developing co-operation in Europe. Having considered proposals to this effect, including proposals of an organizational nature, it shall make any recommendations which it deems necessary. In examining the follow-up of the Conference, the Committee shall also consider the contributions which it believes could be asked from existing international organizations.
(54) All European States, the United States and Canada shall be entitled take part in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. If any of these States wishes to attend as an observer it may do so. In that case, its representatives may attend all stages of the Conference and of its working bodies, but shall not participate in the taking of decisions. Such a State may decide later to accept these decisions or some of them under the conditions defined by the Conference.
(55) States referred to in the first sentence of the paragraph above wishing to participate in the Conference or to attend as observers must so inform the Finnish Government at the latest on 25 June 1973.
(56) The Conference and its working bodies will acquaint themselves, in such manner as they may determine, with the points of view held by non-participating States on the subject of the various agenda items.
(57) States situated in regions adjacent to Europe and to whom reference is made in the provisions of Chapter 2, and in particular those of the Mediterranean States which have already expressed their interest in stating their views to the Conference, are especially envisaged by this Chapter.
(58) The Co-operating Committee may decide, by consensus, the means by which the working bodies of the Conference may consult appropriate international organizations, on the subject of the various agenda items.
(59) The Secretary-General of the United Nations will be invited as guest of honour to the inaugural session of the Conference.
(60) 1. The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe shall be opened on 3 July 1973 at 11.30 a.m.
(61) 2. The date of the opening of the second stage shall be determined by the Ministers during the first stage.
(62) 3. The date of the opening of the third stage shall be decided during the second stage by agreement among the participating States on the basis of the recommendations of the Co-ordinating Committee.
(63) Taking into account with appreciation the invitation by the Government of Finland, having in view practical considerations and rotation, the first stage of the Conference on Security and Co- operation in Europe will be held in Helsinki; the second stage will be held in Geneva; the third stage will be held in Helsinki.
(64) The States participating in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe shall conduct their work as follows:
(65) 1. All States participating in the Conference shall do so as sovereign and independent States and in conditions of full equality. The Conference shall take place outside military alliances.
(66) 2. The representation of the participating States at each stage of the Conference shall be determined in accordance with the provisions laid down in Chapter 1 of these Final Recommendations.
(67) 3. The working bodies of the Conference shall be the Co-ordinating Committee, the Committees and the Sub-Committees. These working bodies will function during the second stage of the Conference. However, the Co-ordinating Committee will meet at the site of the second stage before the opening of the second stage in order to settle questions relating to the organization of that stage.
(68) The working bodies of the Conference may, if they so wish, set up such working groups as they may consider useful. The working bodies and working groups of the Conference shall be open to all participating States.
(69) 4. Decisions of the Conference shall be taken by consensus. Consensus shall be understood to mean the absence of any objection expressed by a Representative and submitted by him as constituting an obstacle to the taking of the decision in question.
(70) A. The Chair at the inaugural and closing meetings of the first stage of the Conference shall be taken by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the host country. The Chair at other meetings shall be taken on a basis of rotation, as follows:
(a) The Chair at each meeting shall be taken by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of a different participating State, in an order
established in accordance with a list selected by lot country by country before the end of the Helsinki Consultations;
(b) If the Conference should meet both in the morning and in the afternoon of the same day, the two meetings shall be regarded as constituting two distinct meetings;
(c) In the interval between meetings of the Conference, the functions of the Chair shall be exercised by that Minister for Foreign Affairs who presided over the immediately preceding meeting of the Conference;
(d) Should a Minister for Foreign Affairs be prevented from taking the Chair, it shall be taken by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the country next in the order established.
(71) B. The Chair at the inaugural meetings of the working bodies of the Conference shall be taken by the Representative of the host country. Thereafter, the office of Chairman shall be filled as follows:
(a) The Chairman of the Co-ordinating Committee and the Chairmen of the Committees shall be designated on a basis of daily rotation, in French alphabetical order, starting from a letter drawn by lot;
(b) The Chairmen of Sub-Committees and of other subsidiary bodies of the Conference shall be designated on 2 basis of rotation in accordance with practical arrangements to be established at the appropriate time by the bodies in question.
(72) Where necessary, a rapporteur shall be designated by consensus.
(73) C. The provisions laid down for the meetings of the first stage shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to the meetings of the third stage of the Conference. They may be further defined by the Coordinating Committee.
(74) 6. The Executive Secretary for technical matters at each stage of the Conference shall be a national of the corresponding host country. He is designated by the host country subject to agreement by the participating States.
(75) In organizing the services, the Executive Secretary of each stage will be responsible for the recruitment of his staff and assured of the collaboration of the Secretariats of the other stages.
(76) The Executive Secretaries will work under the authority of the Conference and report on their activities to the appropriate body of each stage of the Conference, especially on financial matters.
(77) 7. Official verbatim records shall be taken at the meetings of the first and third stages of the Conference.
(78) Proposals on matters of substance and amendments thereto shall be submitted in writing to the Chairman and circulated to all participants. The proposals adopted shall be registered by the Executive Secretary and circulated among the participants.
(79) Representatives of States participating in the Conference may ask for their formal reservations or interpretative statements concerning given decisions to be duly registered by the Executive Secretary and circulated to the participating States. Such statements must be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary.
(80) 8. The inaugural and closing sessions of the first stage of the Conference will be open. Other sessions of the first stage may be open if the Ministers so decide. The Coordinating Committee, the Committee and the Sub-Committee shall not, as a rule, meet in open sessions unless the participants decide otherwise. Arrangements for the third stage will be similar to those for the first stage and may be further defined by the Co-ordinating Committee.
(81) 9. The working languages of the Conference and of its working bodies shall be: English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish.
(82) Speeches made in any of the working languages shall be interpreted into the other world languages.
(83) 10. Any Representative may make a statement in a language other than the working languages. In this case, he shall himself provide for interpretation into one of the working languages.
(84) 11. Records and decisions of the Conference shall be issued and circulated to participants in the working languages.
(85) The participants shall decide by consensus whether it is desirable to make public, through the appropriate services of the Conference, certain documents or communiques on the work of the Conference and, if they decide in the affirmative shall specify the contents.
(86) 12. During the discussion of any matter, a Representative may raise a point of order and the Chairman shall give him the floor immediately. A Representative raising a point of order may not on the substance of the matter under discussion.
(87) 13. During the meeting the shall keep a list of speakers and may declare it closed with the consent of the meeting. He shall however, accord the right of reply to any Representative if a speech after he has declared the list dosed makes this desirable.
(88) 14. These procedural arrangements shall be adopted by consensus. Once adopted, they can only be altered by consensus.
(89) The following scale of distribution has been agreed for the expenses of the Conference, subject to the reservation that the distribution in question concerns the Conference only and shall not be considered as a precedent which could be relied on in other circumstances.
(90) France................................ 8.80 per cent
Federal Republic of Germany........ 8.80
Union of Soviet Socialist
United Kingdom........................ 8.80
United States of America.............. 8.80 52.80 per cent
Canada................................ 5.52 5.52
German Democratic Republic........ 3.48
Sweden............................... 3.48 20.88
Switzerland........................... 2.00 14.00
Yugoslavia............................ 0.80 3.20
Portugal........ 0.60 2.40
Holy See...... 0.20
San Marino...... 0.20 1.20
100 per cent 100 per cent
(91) Necessary alterations of the cost sharing scale due to any possible modifications in the list of participating States above will be decided upon by consensus.
(92) 1. The monies needed to finance the Conference will be will be advanced by the host country of each stage subject to reimbursement out of the contributions of the participating States according to the agreed cost sharing scale.
(93) 2. Payment of contributions by participating States shall be made to a special account of the Conference.
(94) 3. Payment shall be made in the currency of the host country.
(95) 4. Accounts will be rendered in respect of each stage or at intervals of three (3) months, as appropriate.
(96) 5. Accounts shall be expressed in the currency of the host country and shall be rendered as soon as technically possible after the termination of a billing period. They shall be payable sixty (60) days of presentation.
German Democratic Republic
> Federal Republic of Germany
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
United States of America