Training Manual on Human Rights Monitoring - Chapter XXII: Norms Applicable to UN Human Rights Officers and Other Staff


A. Introduction

B. Previous UN codes of conduct for its on-site staff

C. Code of conduct for human rights officers

1. Respect for human rights standards

2. Respect for principles of human rights monitoring

3. Respect for local population and customs

4. Inter-office relations

5. OHCHR Code of Conduct

A. Introduction

1. HROs comprise the international professional staff of a field operation. This Chapter deals with the conduct of HROs.


2. Even more than with other humanitarian efforts -- which might, for example, concentrate on providing material aid -- a human rights field operation depends for its success on its staff members. A human rights operation is usually established as a result of a crisis in which there is a great urgency to send HROs to the country where they are needed. The HROs need skills and knowledge that are relevant not only to human rights, but also to the country or region of operations. In addition to language skills it is useful for HROs to have knowledge of the region -- in terms of the culture and of the social, political, and human rights situation. Many HROs have had useful grassroots or field experience in human rights, refugee work, humanitarian assistance, development, or a related field. Their experience can help them meet the very high expectations of the UN and the international community.

3. A UN HRO, in a country of operations, is a member of a UN human rights field operation. The HRO's presence in the country and administrative status are defined in terms of the operation. The travel documents -- Laissez Passer, or UN consultant pass -- used by staff members attach each individual to the United Nations, and provide him/her with a particular status of a diplomatic nature. In contrast, the staff members of international NGOs travel on their own national passports and, to that extent, do not possess the same international identity when they are in the country of operations.

4. While in the country of operations, HROs are thus always representatives of the operation to which they are attached. In their words and actions to people outside of the operation, they are identified with the operation. In the same way, the actions and decisions taken by the operation reflect upon the HRO.

5. HROs may be required to work long hours in difficult and dangerous situations. Perhaps most important of all, it must be emphasized that a UN HRO remains a UN HRO 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, while in the country of operations. In order to remain effective, a HRO must take time off from work. The effectiveness of the officer and the operation requires rest, but there are some significant restrictions on the way personal time should be used. While a HRO remains within the country of operations he/she remains at all times a member of the operation and a representative of the UN -- regardless of whether the HRO is working/on duty or not. This principle applies in part because of the legal status of UN HROs in the country of operations, and in part because of the perception of other people working and living in the area. The conduct of HROs will be the subject of judgement not only by nationals of the country of operations, but also international staff members from other organizations.

6. UN human rights personnel should be informed of expected standards in regard to their job performance and appropriate behaviour in field operations. At a minimum, HROs are required to respect any rules imposed by the UN or by the field operation itself. These rules might include, for example: avoidance of conflicts with local cultural norms, such as, the respect of certain dress or behaviour requirements when in public; care in regard to financial matters; propriety in regard to social and sexual relations; an evening curfew in certain circumstances; a restriction on travelling between certain regions; a ban on visiting certain bars or nightclubs; etc. The majority of restrictions will be motivated by security concerns and are imposed for the security of each individual HRO. Some restrictions, however, may be imposed out of concern for the image of the UN and of the field operation.

7. If HROs are mandated by the United Nations to monitor and encourage compliance with international human rights norms, officers should in their own conduct exemplify those norms.

8. UN personnel are sometimes viewed as leading a privileged lifestyle in the field. The international staff may be paid salaries far in excess of national personnel and thus may drive rents and other local prices out of the reach of other people. UN personnel may also experience problems of adjusting to local customs. At the same time local residents may have exaggerated expectations of the UN personnel as perfect representatives of the highest standards of the international community with no human failings or inadequacies.

9. No matter how well crafted the mandate of an operation, its effectiveness is dependent upon the legitimacy of its HROs in the eyes of Government officials and ordinary individuals at the local level, who must work with the operation on a day-to-day basis. That legitimacy depends largely upon the conduct of the HROs.

10. Hence, the UN, its HROs, and the community in which they are working need clear expectations in a code of conduct as to the standards to be applied to HROs and other UN personnel in the area.

B. Previous UN codes of conduct for its on-site staff

11. The UN has regulated the conduct of its staff -- particularly in field situations -- through various documents and guidelines.

12. In 1954 the International Civil Service Advisory Board issued a "Report on Standards of Conduct in the International Civil Service" which has been applied since that time and, for example, was used in regulating the conduct of civilian, police, and military personnel in the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) during 1992-93. Those standards emphasize

"the obligation and responsibilities of supervisors at all levels to maintain in their relationships with their staff a high degree of integrity, tolerance and understanding and to treat them in all circumstances with fairness. . . . [I]n particular, when serving in the field or on a mission assignment, International Civil Servants must understand and respect the culture, customs and habits of the country of their duty station. They must avoid giving cause for resentment and abstain from conduct which will adversely reflect on their organization. The International Civil Servant has the obligation to set for him/herself a high standard of personal conduct which must be such that it will not infringe upon any demonstrable interest of the organization he/she serves, bring it into discredit or offend the community where he/she lives. (internal quotation marks removed)"

13. The International Civil Service Advisory Board also made some useful observations in regard to the conduct of staff members serving away from UN Headquarters:

A prime obligation of an international civil servant going to serve in a particular area of the world is to obtain in advance the best possible knowledge of the countries to which [s/he] is going and of the habits, customs and attitudes of their peoples. . . . Such knowledge can help an individual to regulate [his/her] conduct so as to reflect discretion, understanding and tolerance. . . .

In principle, the private life of the international staff member is [his/her] concern and should not be intruded upon by his organization. At the same time, in order that [his/her] private life will not bring his organization into disfavour, [s/he] must set himself a high standard of personal conduct - one that is more complex in some respect [than] that demanded of national civil servants. [S/he] must bear in mind that [his/her] conduct, whether connected or unconnected with official duties, must be such that it will not infringe upon any demonstrable interests of the organization [s/he] serves, bring it into discredit, or offend the community in which [s/he] lives. . . . Scrupulous compliance with laws of the host country, avoidance of illicit or speculative dealings in currencies, honouring of financial obligations - these are only a few of the obvious requirements which derive from the general principle.

14. In 1992 these standards were particularly cited in the context of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) to deal with the following problem:

Instances have been reported where female Cambodian personnel have been asked to socialise with international personnel, in such a persistent manner as to make them feel they have no choice but to accept their invitations. Such attitudes could be viewed as sexual harassment. (1)

15. UNTAC responded to this problem and stated, "This behaviour is clearly unacceptable and not compatible with the high standards of conduct to be maintained by international personnel. . . . The international personnel is therefore reminded that attitudes which conflict with the established Standards of Conduct could lead to appropriate disciplinary measures being taken." UNTAC established personnel procedures to implement the Standards of Conduct.

16. The UNTAC Civilian Police Commissioner issued a further directive on 8 February 1993 in regard to UN Civilian Police (CIVPOL) "mingling" with women of a "questionable reputation, such as prostitutes from neighbouring countries." The Commissioner stated that such relations could cause people to question UNTAC's neutrality and could create a security threat for the officers involved and others. CIVPOL officers were told that they "should not be seen with those women . . . and are therefore ordered not to engage in any kind of romantic relation with local women." (2)

17. In 1994 the UN General Assembly adopted a Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel (3) which required ratifying governments to take all appropriate measures to ensure the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel. UN personnel include military, police, or civilian components of a UN operation deployed by the UN Secretary-General. Associated personnel include persons deployed by humanitarian nongovernmental organizations working under an agreement with the UN Secretary-General. The Convention provides for a number of protections for the security of UN and associated personnel, but also contains expectations about the conduct of the personnel. For example, if UN or associated personnel are captured or detained in the course of the performance of their duties, they shall not be subject to interrogation and shall be promptly released and returned to UN or other appropriate authorities. The Convention, however, also states in Article 6:

Respect for laws and regulations

1. Without prejudice to such privileges and immunities as they may enjoy or to

the requirements of their duties, United Nations and associated personnel shall:

(a) Respect the laws and regulations of the host State and the transit State;

(b) Refrain from any action or activity incompatible with the impartial and

international nature of their duties.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the observance of these obligations.

This Convention is discussed below more fully in Chapter XXIII- "Security", but is relevant here because of the obligations it places on UN staff and associated personnel.

18. In 1994 the United Nations issued Staff Rules Applicable to Service of a Limited Duration, which would apply to the staff of peace-keeping, peace-making, technical cooperation, humanitarian, and emergency operations. (4) The 1994 Staff Rules deal with many personnel issues, including a requirement that staff members shall not, without prior approval, issue statements to the press or other media; accept speaking engagements or take part in film, theatre, radio, or television productions; submit articles for publication. The 1994 Staff Rules provide disciplinary measures for failure to observe the standards of conduct expected of an international civil servant, including censure, suspension without pay, fine, separation from service, and summary dismissal. The Rules also provide for appeals by staff members against the imposition of disciplinary measures.

19. When United Nations Civilian Police (CIVPOL) are deployed, they are regulated by "Standard Administrative Procedures", which contain a very detailed "Code of Conduct". (5) For example, the Standard Administrative Procedures issued on 6 February 1995 for the UNPROFOR Civilian Police in the former Yugoslavia, provide:

8.1 Police officers are drawn from many countries with varying cultures, legal procedures and levels of training. They are, however, serving members of police organizations in their home countries, where they are accustomed and psychologically oriented to the every day problems of policing under a certain code of conduct. To carry out the tasks satisfactorily police monitors will at all times exercise patience, tolerance, tact, diplomacy, good judgement and common sense, but where the occasion demands, they will act with the necessary firmness in the discharge of their tasks and always with complete impartiality toward all communities in the Mission areas.

8.2 The following reflects a common internationally accepted code of conduct by most Police organizations which must be strictly adhered to by all participants in this mission.

8.3 Discreditable conduct

8.3.1. A member of Civpol will not act in a manner which the member knows, or ought to know, would be prejudicial to discipline or reasonably likely to bring discredit to the United Nations.

8.3.2. Perform any act conduct, disorder or neglect, to the prejudice of good order, morality or discipline of the police not specified in these regulations.

20. The Code of Conduct proceeds to forbid misconduct towards another member of CIVPOL including any act that is "oppressive, abusive, discriminatory or likely to cause offence or humiliation." The Code also prohibits any assault on another member. Officers are required by the Code to account properly for any money or property received" in his official capacity or "knowingly or through neglect make any false, misleading or inaccurate oral or written statement or entry in any record or document made, kept or required for United Nations purposes." Officers "will not make an unauthorized communication in relation to any information which comes to the member's knowledge in the course of his/her duty and which is not available to members of the public." "Statements to the Press, Newspaper, Radio or TV or other public media are not allowed unless proper authorization is given." Officers are forbidden to engage in any "corrupt or improper practice" including improperly using or attempting to use his/her position as UN member for his/her private advantage, wilfully and without good cause failing to pay any lawful debt in such circumstances as to compromise other members, and placing him/herself under a pecuniary obligation to any person in a manner that might affect his/her ability to discharge his/her duty or might appear to so affect his/her ability. Officers will not commit any abuse of authority in treating any member of the public in an oppressive, abusive, or impolite manner. Officers may not "render himself/herself unfit for duty through use of alcohol or drugs, or drive a UN vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs." An officer "will not use a UN vehicle without proper authority or outside the scope of the authority given."

21. The Civilian Police have also established a procedure for imposing discipline which includes fair opportunity to respond to allegations, appeal, the handling of minor breaches by local supervisors, and the handling of serious breaches by their central office in the country of operations. Sanctions vary including counseling, reprimand, stoppage of daily allowance, and recommendation for separation and repatriation to the home country.

22. In 1995 the United Nations Department of Peace-Keeping Operations issued "General Guidelines for Peace-keeping Operations", U.N. Doc. UN/210/TC/GG95, which are instructive also for civilian HROs in stating,

Legitimacy is the most important asset of a peace-keeping operation. It rests on an understanding that the operation is just and is representative of the will of the international community as a whole rather than some partial interest. . . . This legitimacy is further enhanced by the composition of peace-keeping operation, typically including personnel from a broad spectrum of States. Finally, the conduct of the operation is an essential element of legitimacy. . . . The bearing and behaviour of all personnel must be of the highest order, commensurate with the important responsibilities entrusted to the peace-keeping operation.

23. In training junior staff for peace-keeping, the UN Department of Peace-Keeping Operations has stated:

The correct behaviour and conduct required as a UN Peace-keeper.

Good behaviour and self-discipline are your security.

A peace-keeper is on duty 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Your behaviour and speech will be closely observed.

You are an ambassador of UN and your nation.

Your behaviour will reflect upon the UN organisation as a whole. (6)

23. In 1997, the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations issued Guidelines and a Ten Rules Code of Personal Conduct for Blue Helmets, which read as follows:


The United Nations Organization embodies the aspirations of all the peoples of the world for peace. In this context the United Nations Charter requires that all personnel must maintain the highest standards of integrity and conduct.

We will comply with the Guidelines on International Humanitarian Law for Forces Undertaking United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and the applicable portions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the fundamental basis of our standards.

We, as peace-keepers, represent the United Nations and are present in the country to help it recover from the trauma of a conflict. As a result we must consciously be prepared to accept special constraints in our public and private lives in order to do the work and to pursue the ideals of the United Nations Organization.

We will be accorded certain privileges and immunities arranged through agreements negotiated between the United Nations and the host country solely for the purpose of discharging our peace-keeping duties. Expectations of the world community and the local population will be high and our actions, behaviour and speech will be closely monitored.

We will always:


We will never:

We realize that the consequences of failure to act within these guidelines may:



1. Dress, think, talk, act and behave in a manner befitting the dignity of a disciplined, caring, considerate, mature, respected and trusted soldier, displaying the highest integrity and impartiality. Have pride in your position as a peace-keeper and do not abuse or misuse your authority.

2. Respect the law of the land of the host country, their local culture, traditions, customs and practices.

3. Treat the inhabitants of the host country with respect, courtesy and consideration. You are there as a guest to help them and in so doing will be welcomed with admiration. Neither solicit or accept any material reward, honor or gift.

4. Do not indulge in immoral acts of sexual, physical or psychological abuse or exploitation of the local population or United Nations staff, especially women and children.

5. Respect and regard the human rights of all. Support and aid the infirm, sick and weak. Do not act in revenge or with malice, in particular when dealing with prisoners, detainees or people in your custody.

6. Properly care for and account for all United Nations money, vehicles, equipment and property assigned to you and do not trade or barter with them to seek personal benefits.

7. Show military courtesy and pay appropriate compliments to all members of the mission, including other United Nations contingents regardless of their creed, gender, rank or origin.

8. Show respect for and promote the environment, including the flora and fauna, of the host country.

9. Do not engage in excessive consumption of alcohol or traffic in drugs.

10. Exercise the utmost discretion in handling confidential information and matters of official business which can put lives into danger or soil the image of the United Nations."

24. UNICEF has also provided broadly relevant advice to the Special Committee on Peace-keeping Operations as to the minimum age for sexual relations of peace-keeping personnel:

Internationally, child prostitution is recognized as a form of exploitative child labour. ILO Convention 138 on Minimum Wage sets 18 as the age for engagement in dangerous or hazardous activities such as mining. Given the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission and its physical and psycho-social impact, prostitution is similarly considered a dangerous and hazardous activity. According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which 190 States are Parties, a child means any human being below the age of 18 years (unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier). UNICEF and UNHCR recommend the establishment of 18 as the age to prohibit the sexual exploitation of children. This is wholly consistent with the basic principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the current international and legal framework.

Hence, one can distill the UNICEF rule as forbidding sex with anyone under the age of 18.

25. To promote proper conduct among personnel of UN peace-keeping operations, the UN in October 1995 established Guidelines for Conduct, which, for example, each UN Military Observer in the UN Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) was required to sign before serving. The Guidelines for Conduct forbid the Military Observer, without express authorization of the Chief Military Observer, from (a) accepting speaking engagements, granting media interviews, or making public statements; (b) communicating UNIKOM documents to others; (c) visiting military or industrial installations or participating in official ceremonies sponsored by a Government; (d) taking private photographs -- particularly of restricted subjects; and (e) purchasing duty-free merchandise except pursuant to regulations. The Guidelines noted that non-compliance may result in immediate repatriation. The Guidelines furthermore applied the restrictions in points (a), (b), and (c) after completion of the assignment with UNIKOM.

26. The United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1996 agreed on "Guidelines for UN Forces Regarding Respect for International Humanitarian Law." Those Guidelines are not specifically applicable to civilian HROs, but indicate the UN undertaking to ensure that any UN peace-keeping or enforcement force "respects the principles and spirit of international humanitarian law applicable to the conduct of military personnel . . .."


27. Similarly, as the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights observed in the "Field Guide for International Police Task Force Members of the Peace Implementation Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and CIVPOL Offices of the United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia 1 (1996), "Of course, as personnel acting under a United Nations mandate, they are also bound by United Nations standards." The same observation applies to all UN personnel, including members of a human rights operation.

C. Code of conduct for human rights officers

28. Drawing from the previous experience in regard to UN standards for its on-site personnel, and from other principles related to human rights work which were indicated in other parts of this Manual, it is possible to derive some basic principles which might be codified in a code of conduct for human rights field operations.

1. Respect for human rights standards


29. First, UN human rights personnel should be aware of and should be bound by United Nations human rights norms, including the principles and spirit of the UN Charter, the International Bill of Human Rights, other human rights treaties, and further international human rights instruments.

2. Respect for principles of human rights monitoring

30. UN HROs should also endeavour to respect the basic principles of monitoring set forth in Chapter V - "Basic Principles of Monitoring":

3. Respect for local population and customs

30. In order to achieve the standards which are expected of HROs, it is very important - as mentioned in Chapter II - The Context - that the operation develop a briefing on social customs in the country. HROs should be informed about such matters as:

31. For example, civilian staff of UNTAC were informed in 1992 that:

"It is not polite for Cambodians to look into the eyes of an interlocutor, especially if the interlocutor is considered of a higher social status." "When seated, one should not cross one's legs . . .." "Smoking is very common among Cambodians. They do not think it is rude not to ask for permission to smoke." "A person's head is considered sacred and is never patted or touched." "A lay person, especially a woman, should never touch a Buddhist monk. Monks should be shown respect at all times." "A person should never step across any part of the body of another person, especially the upper part of the body. One should walk around that person to get from one place to another." "The holding of hands between members of the same sex does not have any sexual connotation. It is simply an expression of friendship between two people." "Notions of time among Cambodians are fairly flexible. One can expect to experience some delay for appointments and meetings. Cambodians do not usually apologise for being late. That is not due to rudeness, but rather to the fact that apologies (or expressions of thanks) are usually not over-expressed in public." "In an office situation, it is expected that people will dress properly i.e. no jeans, for example. Slacks and an open neck shirt are appropriate."

This sort of guidance needs to be prepared for any country in which a human rights operation is located to assist staff in their work and in determining appropriate personal conduct at all times.

4. Inter-office relations


32. Relations within the operation are also a very important issue. HROs, including officers in management positions, should be respectful of the important contribution all personnel -- fellow officers, UN Volunteers, seconded staff, support staff, national staff, etc. -- are making to the overall effort of the human rights operation. Staff should avoid any act which detracts from the cohesiveness of the operation. Staff should make every effort to share equitably the equipment and other resources which are available to make the operation as effective as possible. Each member of the staff should see themselves as part of the overall human rights operation rather than as a representative of whatever agency may have recruited them. Regardless of how a staff member is recruited, paid, equipped, or classified, it should be clear that the head of operations is responsible for the management of the operation. At a minimum, UN personnel should abstain from any act that is oppressive, abusive, discriminatory, or likely to cause offence or humiliation.

33. This principle is particularly important because staff often come to the human rights operation in different ways, e.g., recruitment, secondment (by other agencies, regional organizations, or governments), referral as UN Volunteers, hiring on-site, etc. Accordingly, the staff may receive quite different salaries, vacation periods, equipment, civil service classifications, etc. because of differences in the sources of their support and recruitment. Nonetheless, each individual can bring valuable experience and skills to the operation -- regardless of their status or provenance.

34. This principle is also important because the work of HROs is very stressful and difficult. HROs and other staff must depend heavily upon each other -- particularly in small, isolated offices. Staff usually come with different nationalities, cultural backgrounds, professional experiences, and working styles. It is critical that they be able to work together relying upon the strengths of each other. Personality differences -- often triggered by working under stressful conditions -- may undermine the effectiveness of area offices and even their security. Individual HROs must make a great commitment to working with those who share an area office. HROs should be assured of the support they will receive from their colleagues and should appreciate the different contributions each can make to the overall effort.

35. Accordingly, to summarize the expectations stated above, the HRO should:

36. Hman rights officers should recognize that they are part of a much larger operation and that they cannot determine policy by themselves. Wisdom resides in consultation. Unless there is a crisis requiring individual action, HROs should consult with their area coordinators and colleagues about major steps. Similarly, HROs must realize that their comments -- even off-hand personal observations -- may reflect on the entire operation. HROs officers should always avoid criticizing the human rights operation, or any of its staff members, to any person who is not a staff member. Criticism of the operation to people outside of the operation can be very damaging to the human rights work of the operation. It is particularly harmful to engage in such criticisms when talking with journalists or with the members of other organizations. Such criticism gives an extremely poor impression of the human rights operation and reflects badly on the professionalism of the individual making it. Generally, a HRO who criticizes his/her own operation in this manner is trying to distance him/herself from the operation in the eyes of the person being addressed. If the criticism is genuine and the HRO feels very strongly about the problem, it would be better to raise the issue within the operation or within the UN. If those efforts fail, resignation is preferable to undermining the operation.

37. The human rights field operation may develop other principles for a code of conduct based upon its own experience and/or the experience of previous UN operations.

5. OHCHR Code of Conduct

38. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights has issued in 1999 a Code of Conduct for its staff -- both at Headquarters and in the field. The Code reiterates legal obligations of United Nations staff, and enumerates ethical principles to be adhered to by all. In the words of the High Commssioner, "[t]"he Code complements the provisions of the Charter, the rules and regulations of the Organization, further defining the role, responsibilities and high standard of conduct expected of those who serve the United Nations human rights programme."

39. The Code reads as follows:

"In the performance of their duties for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and in order to attain the highest standard of quality, integrity and professionalism, staff shall abide by the principles of the United Nations Charter and all applicable United Nations rules, and in particular they shall:

1. Promote the advancement and observance of all human rights as defined by international instruments, and base all actions, statements, analysis and work on these standards.

2. Respect, uphold and enforce the United Nations principle of non-discrimination with regard to race, colour, gender, language, religion, opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3. Promote the fulfilment of the mandate of the High Commissioner as defined by the relevant General Assembly and other United Nations resolutions, as well as by internal guidelines and policy documents.

4. Respect the United Nations Charter's principle of independence vis-à-vis Governments and other external authorities, accepting directives only from the United Nations and report, through the proper channels, to the High Commissioner.

5. Conduct, and be seen to conduct, themselves in an impartial and objective manner at all times - while always promoting human rights - and avoid expressions of partisanship or prejudice.

6. Discharge their functions with promptness, efficiency, a sense of initiative, competence, good faith, integrity and professionalism at all times.

7. Respect the culture, customs, and people of the country of operation and all other people with whom they come into contact.

8. Encourage cooperation among the various United Nations agencies and departments and promote the integration of a human rights dimension in all aspects of their work.

9. Exercise discretion in regard to all official matters, and not communicate to any person any information known to them by reason of their official position which has not been made public, except in the course of their duties or by authorization of the High Commissioner, nor at any time use such information to private advantage - including after separation from the OHCHR.

10. Refrain from making public statements on official matters, except as provided in the relevant OHCHR guidelines.

11. Refrain from endangering, by way of their words or action during or after their service with the OHCHR, the safety and privacy of the people with whom they come into contact and their own safety, strictly comply with all UNSECOORD security directives, and refer any security queries to the appointed security advisor or Designated Official.

12. Refrain from and oppose any act of corruption or fraud, make use of OHCHR resources responsibly with a view to avoiding waste or self-enrichment, and respect OHCHR property over its assets and work products, including rights of authorship and copyright to research, publications and other materials that OHCHR produces."




1. United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), Information Circular No. 67/72 "Relations between International and Locally Recruited Personnel", 27 November 1992.

2. United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia, Commissioner's Directive: "Personal Behaviour of CIVPOL Monitors", 8 February 1993.

3. U.N. G.A. res. A/49/59 of 9 December 1994, 49 GAOR (Supp. No. 1) at 299, annex (1994).

4. United Nations, Staff Rules, Rules 301.1 to 312.6 Governing Appointments for Service of a Limited Duration, U.N. Doc. ST/SGB/Staff Rules/3/Rev.5 (1994) (revising U.N. Doc. ST/SGB/Staff Rules/3/Rev.4 (1987)).

5. United Nations Field Operations Division, Notes for the guidance of Military Observers and Police Monitors, 1 March 1992.

6. United Nations Department of Peace-Keeping Operations/Office of Planning & Support/Training Unit, Peace-keeping Handbook for Junior Ranks 19 (1994).



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