BASIC COUNTRY DATA
Population, July 2003 estimate:
Ethnicities: Russian 81.5%,
Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian
0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%
Religion: Russian Orthodox,
GDP, 2002 estimate: PPP
US $1.27 trillion
GDP per capita, 2002 estimate: US
GDP real growth rate, 2002 estimate: 4%
Major Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil,
gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building
from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space
vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment;
communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors,
and construction equipment; electric power generating and
transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments;
consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Fertility Rate, 2003 estimate: 1.33
children born per woman
Infant Mortality Rate, 2002 estimate: 13.99 deaths per 1,000 live births
HIV/adult prevalence, 2001 estimate: 0.9%
HIV/AIDS infected adults, 2001: 700,000
Life Expectancy at birth, 2003: female: 72.97 years; male: 62.46 years
Literacy, 2003: female:
99.5%; male: 99.7%
World Factbook, 2003
Women in Public
Life (Covenant Articles 2 and 3)
• Underepresentation of women in high public
• Cultural and financial barriers to women seeking
Women and the
Workplace (Covenant Articles 6, 7, and 8)
• Discrimination against women in employment
• High percentage of women among unemployed
• Concentration of women in low-paying jobs
• Provisions of labor law based on stereotypical
• Poor enforcement of anti-discrimination statutes
of the Family (Covenant Article 10)
• Provisions of criminal law based on stereotypical
of Living (Covenant Article 12)
• Inadequate safety net for single mothers
• Inadequate safety net for single elderly
• Trafficking of women in sex trade
• Very high abortion rate
• Low contraception use
• High maternal mortality for an industrialized
• Increased transmission of HIV/AIDS to women
• Neglect and abuse of women prisoners
• High rate of teenage pregnancy
• Widespread domestic violence
• Sexual violence in Russia and Chechnya
Since its birth as an independent nation,
following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian
Federation has had a tumultuous history. Steps toward economic
liberalization, undertaken during the presidency of Boris
Yeltsin, led to massive inflation and a deterioration in the
standard of living for average Russians. Though the economy
began to grow in the late 1990s, a quarter of Russians live
below the subsistence level.
Russia also suffers from poor governance.
A World Bank study found that Russia ranked in the bottom
quarter of countries with regard to control of corruption
and also fared poorly in indicators regarding rule of law.
Bribes are a common strategy for average
Russians seeking public services, such as housing or education,
or favorable treatment from law enforcement or the judiciary.
Bribery is similarly a part of doing business in Russia, a
fact which has deterred Western investors and sapped money
from the formal economy. Organized crime, often acting in
concert with public officials, engages in extortion, money
laundering, acts of violence, drug trafficking, and sexual
Since October 1999, Russia has occupied parts
of the Republic of Chechnya, where separatists have sought
independence from the Russian Federation since 1994. The current
President, Vladimir Putin, was elected in March 2001, largely
on promises of more economic reforms and a tough position
on Chechnya. A referendum in Chechnya in March 2003 overwhelmingly
approved election laws and a Constitution which provide the
republic with some autonomy within the Russian Federation,
but no independence. Though a final draft report by international
observers declared the referendum fair, the Russian human
rights group Memorial called the poll illegitimate.
Human rights groups have criticized Russia's
failure to protect human rights in the region. Both Chechens
and Russians have been implicated in human rights violations,
which include instances of torture, disappearances, extrajudicial
killings and hostage-taking.
STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION PER ICESCR CONVENANT:
COVENANT ARTICLES 2 and 3:
Right to Non-Discrimination; Right to Equal Enjoyment of Rights,
Women’s Economic and Political Status
Women hold disproportionately few high-level
government posts in the Russian government. Only 7% of the
deputies in the two houses of the Russian parliament are women,
and several subnational legislatures have no women at all.
Shortly after Russian independence, activists
formed the Women of Russia political bloc (WOR) in response
to general neglect of women's participation and women's issues.
Since 1993, however, it has not been able
to meet the 5% threshold of the vote to be seated in the State
Duma; in the 1999
elections, it took only 2.2%.
Other parties have place one female name
high on the party list and either failed to list other women
or placed them in such low ranking that they were unlikely
be elected, a strategy that has been characterized as making
only a token gesture of equality.
There are no female governors among the
89 administrative divisions of the Russian Federation.
This discrimination is consistent with the
exclusion of women from real decision-making during the Soviet
era, albeit in a different manner. Though Soviet rhetoric
of egalitarianism was translated into action in some areas
of life, it did little to increase women's political power.
Women attained a high level of representation in the Supreme
Soviet, but few held leadership posts in the Communist Party,
the seat of real power.
In addition, deputies in the Supreme Soviet
were not elected in free and open elections.
Women still face barriers to attaining positions
of power. Stereotypes hold that women are not intended for
politics and must sacrifice their family life to be successful
Additionally, few women have the
administrative and financial means to run.
Those women who are elected to public office
are treated with disrespect by fellow public servants.
Irina Khakamada, a deputy speaker in the
State Duma, has said that female politicians face great difficulties
in being heard on "male" topics such as war, security,
and army reforms.
In focus groups and interviews, the Moscow
Helsinki Group found that men and women legislators both attribute
to women greater skill in handling "social issues,"
such as vulnerable groups, pensions and family law;
one female legislator attributing the pragmatism
of women in the legislature to physiology.
The persistent inequality of women in Russia
indicates that, even on "social issues," pro-women
voices are not being heard.
Legislative Measures to Ensure Equality
The 1993 Constitution
of the Russian Federation provides that men and women have
equal rights and liberties and equal opportunity to pursue
Though this principle is embodied in many
legal provisions–for instance, the 1996 Criminal Code establishes
legal equality regardless of sex
–laws regarding employment, criminal sentencing
and benefits treat women differently from men. These laws,
reflecting a norm of protecting women as mothers, can lead
to discrimination and the perpetuation of stereotypes.
In addition to the many discriminatory provisions
of the Labor Code, women are also treated differently from
men vis-à-vis the family in the Criminal Code. A provision
of the Criminal Code allows the consideration of "the
situation of the family" in sentencing, a provision which
Russia's Fifth Periodic Report under the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
notes is of greater significance to women than men.
Older women, and women pregnant or with
young children, are exempted from compulsory work, while pregnant
women and women with children cannot be sentenced to the death
penalty or life sentences.
(The death penalty in Russia has been under
a moratorium since 1996.
) Inequality between men's and women's protections
has sometimes worsened public health crises in jails. According
to a tuberculosis advisor for Medecins Sans Frontieres, because
of the protections for pregnant women, female prisoners seek
to get pregnant, even if they have tuberculosis.
Russian law also allows the sentences of women
with children to be deferred, whereas men's cannot.
In 2002, an amnesty declared by President
Putin released every woman with a child below the age of three
from Russian jails.
Without effective programs for the those
released from prisons, however, this amnesty will only provide
temporary relief to the overcrowded Russian jail system before
released prisoners reoffend and are incarcerated again.
Though some administrative
divisions, such as the Penza region, have enacted legislation
to review potentially discriminatory laws, there is no general
legislation in Russia to enforce the constitutional guarantee
As a result, there is no general legal
remedy to challenge discrimination.
COVENANT ARTICLES 6, 7, and 8:
Right to Work, to Just and Favorable Conditions of Work,
and to Form and Join Trade Unions
Since the early 1990s, Russian politicians,
media outlets, and public opinion have embraced stereotypes
of women as "guardians of the home hearth" and men
as protectors and providers.
These stereotypes are invoked to justify
discrimination against women regarding occupational spheres,
wages, hiring and firing, “protection” in the workplace environment,
and training. After enduring the "double burden"
of being both mothers and workers under the Soviet regime,
Russian women are now being squeezed out of employment in
an economic climate where most families require two salaries
Discrimination begins in the earliest stages
of the employment relationship. Classified ads in Russian
papers sometimes specify the gender of applicants sought;
in the private business world, such discrimination is commonplace.
One phrase in listings–"without hangups"–signifies
either sex work or willingness to endure sexual demands and
is so common that it is abbreviated.
Though the dimensions of the problem are
not known, the Fund for Protection from Sexual Harassment
at Work, a Moscow based organization, has reported that women
seeking employment have been raped by potential employers.
Pregnant women face the most difficult
time finding work, as a result of stereotypes and the cost
of gender-based protections in the Labor Code. Some employers
have stipulated in contracts that women not become pregnant
for a given period of time.
The State Party's Report notes two worrisome
statistics: 1) by the end of 2000, 71% of the unemployed were
women; and 2) despite equal wage laws, women are paid 30%
less than men.
But whereas the Report discusses reform
of the minimum wage law and raising the real value of wages,
it does not mention a strategy for ending the wage gap between
men and women.
And though it claims that women are given
priority in obtaining jobs, women are often only able to find
work in low-paying, low prestige sectors of the economy. Government
bias towards low paying work for women is reflected in job
retraining programs which track women into unskilled labor,
despite their high levels of education.
The State Party's Report also obscures the
government's role in the high percentage of women among the
unemployed. In the early 1990s, when formerly state-controlled
industries were being privatized or streamlined, disproportionate
numbers of women were affected. In one instance cited by Human
Rights Watch, when the government sought to reduce the number
of working days per week in the defense industry, only women
were forced to work the reduced time, with its correspondent
drop in compensation.
Discriminatory firing occurred not only
in industries generally dominated by women, but also in industries
where the workforce was made up of equal percentages men and
Labor Code restrictions officially perpetuate
stereotypes as to what occupations are appropriate for women.
The Labor Code, which was revised most recently in late 2001,
restricts women from working in hard, hazardous, or unhealthy
jobs (Article 253)
. What constitutes a restricted occupation
is determined by the Russian government in consultation with
a committee on social and labor relations; a roster of hazardous
and dangerous jobs released in early 2000 listed over 450
The roster restricts women from working
in high-paying jobs in allegedly dangerous conditions, while
allowing women to work in low-paying professions in the same
or similar conditions. For instance, women are restricted
from working as captains or navigators on a ship, but are
allowed to work on deck.
The International Labor Organization has
criticized the restrictions as discriminatory.
The Labor Code prohibits expectant mothers
from overtime work, nighttime work, business trips, and work
on free days and holidays (Article 259). Women with young
children may engage in such work only if there is a written
agreement (Article 259). Pregnant women may request transfer
or adjustment of rates of output or service standards, with
the retention of average salary; women with children under
eighteen months must be moved to a new job if they cannot
do their previous one (Article 254). Article 255 provides
paid maternal leave of seventy days before and after birth,
as well as child rearing leave for children up to three years
of age and breaks for feeding children.
Some employers seek to avoid paying benefits
by not hiring women with children or women likely to become
By emphasizing the cost to an employer
of hiring a mother, rather than a parent, many provisions
designed to protect women make them less desirable candidates
for job openings than men. A more equitable approach would
follow Article 256 of the Labor Code, which allows a father
or other relative time off to raise a child, or Article 257,
which allows either parent time off after adopting a child.
Such provisions would theoretically deter employers from failing
to hire or promote women for fear that they would need time
off for child care. In the absence of a cultural change requiring
men to increase their share in childrearing, however, gender-neutral
legislation is ineffective.
Even if legal
protections were extended both parents, poor enforcement is
the norm. The Labor Code prohibits discrimination against
women in labor contracts on the basis of sex, pregnancy or
presence of children (Article 64), provides the right to appeal
alleged instances of discrimination in concluding a labor
contract and generally (Articles 64 and 391), and seemingly
encourages such actions by waiving the fees and legal expenses
of employees appealing a decision (Article 393). Still, participants
at a workshop of Russian human rights organizations in January
2003 reported not knowing of a successful case challenging
discrimination on the grounds of sex.
COVENANT ARTICLE 11:
Right to an Adequate Standard of Living
families headed by women are among the poorest of the poor
A divorce rate of over 60%
and high rates of teen pregnancy, along
with the high mortality of Russian men, mean that many women
are raising children alone. A recent survey by the Russian
Academy of Sciences found that 28% of all children are born
to unwed mothers.
In the current Russian economy, two incomes
are necessary to escape poverty.
As was noted regarding Articles 6, 7, and
8, single mothers face discrimination on the basis of sex
and because of their children. Alimony (if paid at all), government
cash benefits, and survivor's pensions do not effectively
offset the lack of a second income.
Economic reforms have largely eliminated
the availability of inexpensive childcare,
which could somewhat ease the financial
burden of single mothers. Even when beneficial Soviet-era
guarantees have continued into the 1990s and 2000s, related
costs often take a toll on a family's budget: though 97% of
children study at free government schools, parents must pay
for books and school repairs, in addition to other various
school and parents' committee-related charges.
Single elderly women also have a very high
risk of poverty.
Because of their concentration in low-paying
jobs, time taken off for pregnancy and childcare, and earlier
retirement age, women's pensions are only 40%-60% of men's
A 2000 study published by the World Bank
found that, in the absence of additional income, Russians
surviving only on pensions are not able to attain a minimum
level of subsistence.
Few pensioners can afford to pay for medical
services, and drug discounts lack the funding to be effective.
Among the retired, senior single women
are the poorest subgroup.
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia
has both been a receiving and sending country for women coerced
into the sex trade. Traffickers recruit young women on promises
of high-paying jobs abroad, but, upon arriving in the receiving
country, force the women to work as prostitutes. Angel Coalition,
a consortium of Russian NGOs, estimates that 50,000 Russian
women are trafficked annually.
For years, the
Russian government has failed to take significant action to
end trafficking. In response to the U.S. State Department's
2002 Trafficking in
Persons Report, which ranked Russia as among the worst
countries in combating trafficking,
Duma deputies and representatives from
other governmental and nongovernmental organizations drafted
an anti-trafficking bill, which was introduced in February,
Currently, traffickers are prosecuted on
charges of illegally operating a business or kidnapping;
the draft law would add to the Criminal
Code seven new crimes relating to trafficking. In addition
to passing the draft bill, the government should aggressively
prosecute traffickers and fund rehabilitation groups for victims
COVENANT ARTICLE 12:
Right to Physical and Mental Health
Childbearing, Abortion and Maternal Mortality
Though the rate
of abortions has declined in the post-Soviet era, abortions
are still very common: for every ten births, there are about
In an attempt to reduce the number of abortions
and boost the birth rate, the Ministry of Health recently
issued a decree that will limit access to abortions.
Previously, abortions were allowed during
the second trimester for a variety of social reasons, including
low income, pregnancy resulting from rape, and an existing
family of three or more children.
The new decree limits abortions between
the 12th and 22nd weeks to cases of rape, imprisonment, death
or severe disability of a husband, or a court decree stripping
the women of her parental rights.
Abortions are, as before, available without
restrictions in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and at any
time if the fetus has severe disabilities or if the mother's
life is threatened.
The restrictions on abortion are part of a
larger trend by the government to discourage birth control.
In 1997, the Health Ministry abandoned its sex education program
in schools; a year later, the Duma eliminated funding for
family planning clinics.
Some city and regions, however, funded
their own programs, with impressive results: in the Altai
region, almost half of women use modern means of contraception.
In contrast, contraceptive prevalence in
the entire Russian Federation is only at 21% for all methods,
13% for modern methods.
Federally-funded family planning clinics
and education programs aimed at women, men, and children are
a good strategy for reducing the rate of abortion without
restricting women's reproductive choices.
Russia's maternal mortality rate–50 per 100,000
live births–is nearly 10 times greater than the rate in Western
Though maternal mortality declined during
the 1980s, the trend did not continue in the post-Soviet transition.
The high rate of maternal deaths in Russia
have been attributed to abortion-related complications, hemorrhages,
and toxemia; at least half of such deaths are believed to
A deputy health minister recently estimated
that 80% of Russian women had complications during childbirth.
The head of the
Ministry of Health's Federal AIDS Center has said that an
estimated 1.5 million Russians are infected with HIV.
Whereas in the 1990s, HIV was mostly spread
through needle sharing and homosexual transmission, heterosexual
transmission is expected to become the primary form of transmission,
with more women and children infected.
In 2002, women were 33% of new HIV cases,
an increase from 2001, when they comprised 25% of new cases.
AIDS is a particular problem among prisoners
towards HIV are characterized by fear and ignorance.
Despite the trend toward increased heterosexual
transmission, government officials still treat AIDS as mostly
a drug users' problem.
Not surprisingly, government programs on
AIDS are often counterproductive. Voluntary testing is discouraged
by laws making it a crime for an HIV-positive person to have
sex, even with a condom, and a 1995 law allows the police
to close down needle exchanges.
Russia only recent accepted a loan offered
in 1999 by the World Bank to combat HIV and tuberculosis.
Women in Russian
prisons suffer from inadequate nutrition, and poor hygiene
and health care.
Women prisoners are reportedly denied sanitary
supplies, a policy which the European Committee for the Prevention
of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment, has characterized
The mass release of women prisoners in
2002 led to many tuberculosis carriers being released into
the general population.
Women in police
custody are subject to acts of violence, including sexual
The absence of gender-specific training
for officials regarding torture, as well as the unwillingness
of prosecutors to initiate proceedings against violent officers,
has allowed ill treatment of women to continue.
nations, Russia has both the highest teen birth rate and the
highest teen abortion rate.
Despite high levels of sexual activity
among teenagers, few are aware of reliable forms of contraception.
A 1999 survey in Ivanovo reported that, though over three
quarters of 15 and 16 year olds considered their knowledge
of contraception sufficient, only 9% could accurately answer
a questionnaire on contraception and half did not know where
to obtain family planning information.
The high price of contraception is an additional
Violence Against Women
is a very serious problem in Russia. According to a recent
poll by Moscow State University and the Academy of Sciences'
Sociology Institute, nearly one in every five women in Russia
is severely beaten on a regular basis.
Regional monitors have confirmed that domestic
violence is widespread: the women's organization Femina in
the Republic of Tatarstan estimates that over half of women
face physical violence in the home.
The Russian government's most recent report
under CEDAW states that 14,000 women die as a result of domestic
abuse each year, a number which is also cited by local NGOs
and international organizations.
A 1997 report by Human Rights Watch severely
criticized Russian inaction on violence against women, specifically
with regard to victims of domestic and sexual violence. It
found that police are reluctant to investigate incidents of
violence in the home and, when they do, their actions are
often inadequate: men are held over night, only to return
home the next day to batter again.
The report also detailed the problems women
face in seeking shelter from abuse, which include both a lack
of temporary shelters and a housing market that forces many
victims to continue living with abusive husbands.
Since the report's release, the Russian government
has done little to improve the situation of victims of domestic
violence. Police are still unwilling to investigate or prosecute
claims of abuse, and no national law addressing domestic violence
has been adopted.
Russian NGOs have tried to fill the gap,
creating crisis centers and hotlines, some with the co-operation
of the government, but they can only reach a small number
of the many victims of violence.
The Human Rights Watch report also detailed
the obstacles that victims of sexual violence face at every
stage of bringing a complaint in the Russian justice system,
including police refusal to pursue complaints, inadequate
and abusive forensic exams, failure to protect victims' physical
and psychological well being, and a low prosecution rate.
The report notes that "victims seeking redress for sexual
violence regularly confront law enforcement institutions and
individuals hostile to and suspicious of their motives and
In Chechnya, women
have been sexually abused or raped by soldiers in villages,
at checkpoints, and in detention centers.
Access to justice for Chechens is generally
undermined by an inefficient and unresponsive Russian justice
system and fear of further abuse or detention; victims of
rape are additionally deterred by the stigma of being a rape
The failure of Russian authorities to end
human rights violations in Chechnya may contribute to a climate
of impunity among security officers.
COVENANT ARTICLES 13 AND 14:
Right to Education
In Russia, women
are more educated than men, both in terms of terms of numbers
enrolled and average educational attainment.
A woman in an NGO focus group in the Stavrapol
territory commented that the only women's right observed is
the right to education.
Still, stereotypes about "male"
and "female" professions create obstacles for women
in higher education.
ACTIONS TAKEN BY OTHER UN HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS
Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination: Russian Federation 21 March 2003 (CERD/C/62/CO/7)
No recommendations concerning women were issued by this committee
Conclusions and recommendations of the Committee against Torture: Russian
Federation 28 May
subjects of concerns:
• Despite numerous allegations of violence against
women in custody, no formal complaint has been received regarding
• The number of women in prison has doubled
in between 1992 and 2002.
Consideration of reports of state parties: Russian Federation 28 January
2002 (CEDAW/C/2002/I/CRP.3/Add.3.) (Draft Report of Committee
on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women)
Principal areas of concern and recommendations:
• The Constitutional provision of equal rights
is not being used as an effective social or legal policy.
Russia should provide procedures and remedies for enforcing
this equality and ensuring that the legal profession and the
population at large appreciate this equality.
• The Constitution should prohibit discrimination
on the basis of sex. The government should create procedures
and remedies to prohibit discrimination by state and private
• Discrimination against women is not
being treated as a distinct structural problem. Legislation,
including specific prohibitions and civil remedies, should
be undertaken to overcome barriers to prosecution, particularly
with regard to domestic violence, sexual violence, employment
and sexual harassment.
• The Commission on Enhancement of the Status
of Women should be given jurisdictional powers and sufficient
resources to be effective.
• The Committee is concerned with legislation
in the state Duma based on traditional stereotypes of women
and men in family and in society.
• Awareness-raising programs should be
implemented, including ones targeting men, to emphasize that
women's rights are human rights and to change stereotypes.
• Women are poorly represented in the State
Duma, as deputies in the constituent entities of the Russian
Federation, and on the Council of the Federation. Since 1997,
no women have held the post of federal minister.
• Hiring and wage discrimination are problems.
Legislation should be passed prescribing equal opportunity,
equal pay for equal work, and procedures and remedies for
individuals and NGOs challenging job and wage discrimination.
Temporary special measures should be introduced to accelerate
• Though women constitute over half the civil
service, they are in few positions of leadership.
• 12% of women work in hazardous conditions.
Russia should require all employers to comply with health
and safety standards.
• Those there are some exceptions, women of
childbearing age are banned from many jobs. The number should
be reduced, in consultation with women's NGOs.
• Data should be collected regarding the feminization
of poverty and special measures undertaken to alleviate women's
• There is a high level of domestic violence
in Russia. Specific remedies should be undertaken, including
facilitating the prosecution of offenders, training of law
enforcement and the judiciary, measures of protection for
victims, and an awareness campaign dispelling the myth that
violence is a "private matter."
• The government has taken little action on
violence against women in pre-detention centers and in prison,
and in the armed conflict with Chechnya.
• Prostitution has increased, with the
poverty of women and girls as a main cause. Existing programs
for street children should be modified to assist women forced
into prostitution by poverty. People living off the earnings
of prostitutes or other sexual exploitation should be prosecuted.
• Trafficking of women (to and from Russia)
for exploitation has not been adequately prosecuted. A comprehensive
strategy should be established to deal with trafficking.
• The government's HIV/AIDS programs should
not regard HIV/AIDS as primarily resulting from drug use and
alcoholism. The power differential aspect of infection should
be addressed. Awareness-raising and education programs should
be strengthened and women and girls should be ensured access
to detection, health care, and social services.
• The state of women's health is deteriorating.
Sex education should be included in school curriculum, a life-cycle
approach to women's health should be implemented, family planning
should be strengthened, and women in all regions should have
access to contraception.
• Rural women should be more economically empowered.
More data should be collected on rural women.
Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child :Russian
Federation. 10 November 1999. (CRC/C/15/Add.110.)
Principal subjects of concerns, suggestions and recommendations:
• Girls in rural areas are in a disadvantaged
situation with regard to access to education, health, and
protection from sexual abuse and exploitation.
• The Committee expressed concern over the high
incidence of violence against women, and its impact on children.
• There are increasing dropout and decreasing
enrollment rates in vocational and secondary technical education,
especially among girls. Data needs to be collected on dropouts.
CIA, The World Factbook, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html.
"Hundred of Thousands of Russians Live in Extreme
Poverty: Official," Agence France Presse, 23 June 2003,
Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi, Governance
Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996-2002 (The World
Bank: 2003), http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/govmatters3.pdf.
"Russia: Observers Call Chechen Referendum Free
and Fair," 24 March 2003, BBC Monitoring International
Reports, Lexis-Nexis; "Chechen Rebel Leader Should
Beg Forgiveness: Pro-Russian Official," 28 March 2003,
Agence France Presse, Lexis-Nexis.
"Facing the Dismal State of Women in Russia Ahead
of National Holiday," 6 March 2003, Agence France Presse, Lexis-Nexis; Valerie Sperling, "The Gender
Gap in Russian Politics and Elections," PONARS Policy
Memo No. 259, (The Center for Strategic and International
Studies, 2002), http://www.csis.org/ruseura/ponars/policymemos/pm_0259.pdf.
Valerie Sperling, Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia:
Engendering Transition (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1999), 119.
Centre for Russian Studies, "1999 State Duma Elections
Official Results – Party Lists," http://www.nupi.no/russland/elections/1999_SD_final.html.
Robert G. Moser, Unexpected Outcomes: Electoral Systems,
Political Parties, and Representation in Russia (Pittsburgh:
University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001) 64-65.
S. Kovaleva and S. Lukashevskiy, "Discrimination
in the Sphere of Electoral Politics," Discrimination
Against Women in Contemporary Russia (Moscow Helsinki Group,
Svetlana Aivazova and Grigory Kertman, "Introduction,"
Men and Women at the Elections: Gender Analysis of the Electoral
Campaigns of 1999 and 2000 in Russia, (Consortium of Women's
Nongovernmental Associations: Moscow, 2000), http://www.owl.ru/eng/books/election/introduction.htm.
Sandra Upson, "Vote May Signal Change for Women
in Politics," St. Petersburg Times, Lexis-Nexis, 8
S. Kovaleva and S. Lukashevskiy, "Electoral Politics."
Sperling, Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia, 137-38.
Upson, "Vote May Signal Change."
Kovaleva and Lukashevskiy, "Electoral Politics."
Constitution of the Russian Federation, art. 19, http://www.fipc.ru/fipc/constit/ch2.html.
Russian Federation, Consideration of Reports Submitted
by States Parties Under Article 18 of the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women:
Fifth Periodic Reports of State Parties, (United Nations,
1999), 13, http://www.bayefsky.com/reports/russia_cedaw_c_usr_5_1999.pdf.
Russian Federation, Fifth Periodic Report under CEDAW,
Amnesty International, The Russian Federation: Denial
of Justice (London: Amnesty International Publications,
2002), 10, http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engeur460272002.
Nick Paton Walsh, "Liberated Women," The Guardian,
11 April 2002, Lexis-Nexis.
Russian Federation, Fifth Periodic Report under CEDAW,
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in Legislation," Discrimination Against Women in Contemporary
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Human Rights Watch, Neither Jobs nor Justice: State Discrimination
Against Women in Russia (Human Rights Watch, 1995), http://www.hrw.org/reports/1995/Russia2a.htm;
Sperling, Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia, 156.
S. Kovaleva and S. Lukashevskiy, "The Right to Equal
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Periodic Reports Submitted by States Parties in Accordance
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Sperling, Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia, 123.
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All labor code citations from Federal Law No. 197-FZ
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"New Technologies of Women NGOs Collaboration with
Alexei Rubtsov, "Draft New Labour Code to Be Passed
Before Year's End," TASS, 2 October 2001, Lexis-Nexis.
Kovaleva and Lukashevskiy, "Equal Opportunities
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Nick Paton Walsh, "Women Get a Moscow Man – By the
Hour," The Observer, 17 August 2003, Lexis-Nexis.
"So Where Are All the Men?," The Economist,
3 August 2002, Lexis-Nexis.
Ovcharova et al., Feminization of Poverty in Russia.
Sperling, Organizing Women in Contemporary Russia, 153.
Ovcharova et al., Feminization of Poverty in Russia.
Michael Manville, "Russia Moves on Sex Trade,"
Toronto Star, 4 May 2003, Lexis-Nexis.
United States Department of State, Trafficking and Violence
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Michael Manville, "Russia Moves on Sex Trade."
Nabi Abdullaev, "Without a Law, Sex Slavery Flourishes,"
Moscow Times, 5 November 2003, Lexis-Nexis.
Mara D. Bellaby, "Russian Abortion Rate Declines
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Fred Weir, "Russia Begins to Reconsider Wide Use
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Vakhim Ismailov, "Contraception Catches On in Russia"
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Rafael Behr, "Rising Tide of AIDS Threatens to Wash
Away Russia's Young," Financial Times, 17 May 2003,
Sarah E. Mendelson, Julie Sawyer, and Celeste Wallander,
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Michael Wines, "HIV Infection Rates Rise Quickly
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Behr, "Rising Tide of AIDS."
"Saying Versus Doing," The Economist, 21 June
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Walsh, "Liberated Women."
Amnesty International, Denial of Justice, 28.
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Russian Federation, Fifth Periodic Report under CEDAW,
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Amnesty International, Justice for Everybody: Human Rights
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Human Rights Watch, "State Response to Sexual Violence,"
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Human Rights Watch , "Russian Federation: Serious
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Amnesty International, Denial of Justice, 69, 62.
S. Kovaleva and S. Lukashevskiy, "The Right to Equal
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