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GUYANA

Second periodic report submitted on 20 September 1999 (CEDAW/C/CUY/2)

   

BASIC COUNTRY INFORMATION

Population, 2000 estimate: 700,000 [1]

Ethnic groups:  51% East Indian, 30% Afro-Guyanese, 14% mixed, 4% Amerindian,  1% Chinese and white

Religion: 50% Christian, 33% Hindu, 9%Muslim, 8% other

GDP per capita, 1999 estimate: US$ 2,500

GDP real growth rate, 1999 estimate:  1.8%

Unemployment rate, 1992 estimate: 12%

Major industries: bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp), textiles, gold mining

Population Growth Rate, 2000 estimate: -0.1%

Fertility Rate, 2000 estimate: 2.11 children born per woman

Maternal Mortality Rate: 172/100,000  births*

Infant Mortality Rate, 2000 estimate: 39.07 deaths per 1000 live births

Life expectancy at birth, 2000:  Total - 64.04 years

             Male - 61.08 years

             Female - 67.15 years

Literacy, 1995 estimate:  Total - 98.1%

             Male - 98.6%

             Female - 97.5%

Sources: The World Factbook 2000 - Guyana, [2]   *PAHO, [3]

Political and Economic Context

Guyana gained independence from Britain in 1966. Political allegiance in multiethnic Guyana is generally split along ethnic and geographic lines: rural Indo-Guyanese prefer the People’s Progressive Party (PPP); urban Afro-Guyanese favor the People’s National Congress (PNC). [4]

The March 2001 presidential election was won by Bharrat Jagdeo of PPP with a voter turnout of 90 percent. [5]   From 1992-2001 Guyana was ruled by the PPP under the leadership of a couple, first Cheddi Jagan and then Janet Jagan, both of whom had been instrumental in the struggle for Guyana’s independence in the 1960s. The opposition PNC Party (which had ruled the country from 1964 to 1992) and its elderly leader,  Desmond Hoyte, vehemently opposed their rule. After losing the 1997 election to Mrs. Jagan, Hoyte’s  supporters alleged fraud and rioted in the capital of Georgetown.  Hoyte and PNC ignored the 1998 independent audit that confirmed the PPP victory. Eventually, however, Hoyte and PNC pressured Jagan to step down as president in August 1999. She named the finance minister Bharrat Jagdeo her successor.  Mrs. Jagan was Guyana’s first female prime minister, vice president, and subsequently president.

Guyana is a country rich in natural beauty, but its people are among the poorest in the Western Hemisphere: poverty stood at 35 percent in 1999. [6]   The country’s economy was in recession until early 1990s.  In addition, a 1998 drought hit the country hard. Guyana still suffers frequent power outages.  Many regions lack trash service, so people often throw garbage in the rivers or canals. School textbooks are often unavailable. Schools and hospitals are in a very bad condition as there is not enough money to fix them. [7]   However, in 2000, the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved $590 million in debt relief for Guyana contingent on the continued implementation of social programs to reduce poverty.  According to the WB, the government has made sufficient progress to warrant continued assistance by reducing poverty by almost 10 percent since 1993. [8]

Human Rights and Freedom of Expression

The Constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press.  According to the Committee to Protect Journalists these rights are generally respected by the government.  The print media have flourished, with the independent newspaper Stabroek News published daily and a host of other publications by religious groups and political parties.  However, Guyanese journalists have criticized the government for not respecting the freedom of the electronic media: for example, the government owns and operates the only radio station.   Private entrepreneurs have alleged that the government denied or did not respond to 20 requests for radio frequency authorizations. [9]  

STATUS OF WOMEN IN GUYANA UNDER SPECIFIC CEDAW ARTICLES:

CONVENTION ARTICLES 1-3

DEFINITION OF DISCRIMINATION; OBLIGATIONS TO ELIMINATE DISCRIMINATION; THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

Institutional Mechanisms

Article 29(1)of the Constitution mandates equal rights for women by stating that “Women and men have equal rights and the same legal status in all spheres of political, economic and social life.” [10]   Furthermore, the same article makes illegal “all forms of discrimination against women on the basis of their sex.” [11]   However, article 149(3)(b) of the Constitution excludes laws concerning marriage, divorce and inheritance from the prohibition of discrimination [12]    The Women’s Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Labor is charged with monitoring women’s legal rights. [13]   In 1990, the government put into practice the Equal Rights Act and in 1997 established the Antidiscrimination Act.  Although these two documents were intended to provide a framework for women and minorities to seek redress for any discriminatory practices, so far no case has been tried under these provisions.  According to critics, the  ineffectiveness of these two Acts stems from the appointment of an overburdened and short-staffed Chief Labor Officer to take charge of such cases. [14] The new draft constitution establishes a Women and Gender Equality Commission to promote the advancement of women, girls and gender issues, but IWRAW does not have information on when or if the constitution is to be adopted. [15]

Beijing Platform for Action

A result of commitments under the Beijing Platform for Action, Guyana has adopted a national plan. [16]   In 1996, the government established the National Commission for Women as the national machinery for implementation of the Platform.  The Commission is to report to the Minister of the Women’s Affairs. [17]   The Commission has worked with a Committee made up of senior officers of several relevant ministries.  The national machinery does not report to the national legislature, and it lacks the authority to start legislative action. Sixty-five NGOs have been involved in the activities of the machinery on all levels from planning to implementation of programs. [18]   Some of the specific programs and policies as part of the implementation have been: anti-poverty programs (US$355,000), support to small business entrepreneurs (US$ 15,300), vocational training and computer literacy programs (70 women), and a Domestic Violence Act in 1996 (see under General Recommendation No. 19: Violence Against Women). [19]

 Women and Ethnicity

The levels of poverty and status of Guyanese women vary markedly across ethnic and social lines.  By far, Amerindian women experience the highest level of poverty and geographic and social isolation. [20]   Moreover, Amerindian women have the highest illiteracy rates, which are higher than the illiteracy rates of Amerindian men. [21]

Generally, Guyana has a high prevalence of female-headed households, and their number has been increasing in the last decade. There are marked differences in the number of such households depending on the ethnic group and geographical location: Fifty-one percent of  Afro-Guyanese households are female-headed as compared to 32.5 percent among Indo-Guyanese and 2.6 percent among Amerindians. [22]   Female-headed households typically have lower incomes.

CONVENTION ARTICLE 7

POLITICAL AND PUBLIC LIFE

Although there are no legal obstacles to women’s participation in the political process, women and minorities are typically underrepresented in higher echelons of the government and politics. Out of 20 Cabinet members, two are women. [23]

The government-sponsored Women’s Leadership Institute was inaugurated in 1999.  It was established by law with a goal of encouraging and facilitating women’s participation in government and in the private sector, and it planned to train 350 women per year on issues related to women’s human rights and leadership.  IWRAW has no information as to the impact of the Institute. [24]

CONVENTION ARTICLE 10

EDUCATION

Access to education is equal for both men and women (although it varies across social and ethnic lines as indicated under Art. 1-3 above).  Women outnumber men at all educational levels except at the Technical and Vocational Schools, where male enrollment stands at 75.6 percent. [25]

CONVENTION ARTICLE 11

EMPLOYMENT

As a result of a 1999 civil service arbitration ruling, the minimum public sector wage increased to US$104 (G$19,000) per month, but there is no legislated private sector minimum wage. Consequently, unorganized workers — particularly women and children who predominate in the informal (private) sector —are often paid much lower wages than sufficient to provide an adequate standard of living. [26]   This is particularly significant because of the many (and increasing number of) women-headed households, particularly in the depressed urban areas. [27]

Even though women in some sectors constitute the majority of workers, they often dominate in the lowest paid occupations.  For instance, in the Guyanese Public Service, women comprise 60 percent of employees.  They also make up 60 percent of the lowest seven salary grades and only 36 percent of the top seven grades. [28]

Sexual Harassment

Women have no legal protection against harassment in the workplace.  The law prohibits dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy, and such dismissals do not happen in practice. [29]

CONVENTION ARTICLE 12

HEALTH CARE AND FAMILY PLANNING

Reproductive Health

According to a survey conducted by the Guyanese women’s NGO Red Thread,  few women in Guyana have regular physical examinations, the majority do not practice breast self-examinations and do not know what a pap smear is. [30]  

The prevalence of contraceptive use for women is low:  Fewer than 50 percent of women use contraceptives (45.2 percent). [31]   Most of the women indicate that they learned about the use of contraceptives from books (70.5 percent) and television (49.1 percent).  Women’s NGOs maintain that sources which are best located to provide information about contraception, i.e. parents and teachers, rated too low as the providers of this information, with 8.1 percent and 7.5 percent, respectively. [32]   According to Red Thread, this indicates that there is a need for educational programs for both parents and teachers encouraging their role in passing on reproductive health information.

At the same time, about 10,000 women per year use the services provided by the Guyana Responsible Parenthood Association (GRPA), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), concerning information on abortion, birth control and prenatal care. Guyana reports 6,500 abortions per year but, according to estimate, thousands are unreported as they are performed in remote regions of the country, raising concerns about their safety. [33]    The IPPF (through grants from USAID) funds 70 percent of GRPA’s operations, including pap smears, HIV screening, diabetes and hypertension tests for poor women.  The Guyanese government funds the remaining part of the operations.  At a time when USAID is cutting support for IPPF, it is expected that outside funding will be severely curbed and many services eliminated or limited.  It is unknown if the Guyanese government has plans to increase its funding to the Association. [34]  

Pregnancy/Child Birth

According to the Red Thread study, about half of all women in Guyana have multiple pregnancies (defined as bearing more than four children during their childbearing years).  The age of the first pregnancy is typically very low: in half of all cases, women were between the age of 17 and 21 at the time of the birth of their first child, and some of them were under 16. [35]

Abortion

The Guyanese Parliament passed the “Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill” in May 1995 after an intense two-year campaign by its supporters and NGOs. This made Guyana the first country in South America to have a liberalized abortion law.  The law has changed the basic power relation between the doctor and the woman seeking abortion.  In the past, both the provider and the woman were outside the law, which opened the possibility of abuse; for example, low quality services that were harmful to a woman’s health could not be reported as the woman had no legal recourse. [36]   Following the passage of the bill, the press was more open to reporting cases of abuse, such as abortion providers’ sexual molestation of the clients. [37]

This law has created a legal framework with the goal of making abortions safer, but it also  stressed the necessity of access to information and education to help women and girls make an informed decision about prevention and abortion. [38]   As part of the law, the government of Guyana was obligated to implement programs of Family Life Education by September 1995. [39]    Reports by the Ministry of Heath indicated that, as of 1997, there was still a high rate of repeat abortions and that counseling was not sufficient. [40] According to the NGO Red Thread study, these programs continue to be ineffective and there is a need to implement even more educational programs.  Surveys undertaken by Red Thread consistently show that women do not have sufficient information concerning their reproductive health.

There is some evidence that the law has had an impact on abortion safety: within six months of its passage, hospital admissions for septic and incomplete abortion dropped by 41 percent. [41]    Overall, between 1995-1997, hospitalizations due to abortion-related complications decreased 65 percent. [42]   Although the passage of the bill has had a positive impact on women’s health and safety, the government has been hesitant to collect data documenting abortion.  The statistics would whether the incidence of abortion has decreased. [43]   In recent years, however, it has been reported that data collection on abortion has improved and it includes demographic information about the woman (length of pregnancy, reasons for abortion, type of procedure, complications, contraceptive method provided to the woman). [44]

STDs/HIV/AIDS

According to NGO information, although women do have knowledge of sexually-transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, the majority  do nothing to protect themselves. [45]    In 1998, Guyana was singled out as one of the seven developing countries — in addition to severely impacted Africa — in Asia and Latin America most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. [46]    The government of Guyana has recognized that the AIDS epidemic is getting out of control, and in 1998 it pledged to design a comprehensive program to combat the problem, including more reliable data collection.  According to available data, by 1996, there were 129 cases (72 men and 57 women) of HIV/AIDS, and by the end of 1997 the number of cases soared to 1,055 (666 men and 371 women).  It is  believed that the HIV/AIDS incidence is underreported. [47]

Prostitution and STDs

Surveys indicate that the prevalence of STDs, including HIV/AIDS, among prostitutes in Guyana is increasing rapidly.  While a 1993 survey of prostitutes in the capital of Georgetown demonstrated that one-fourth of all prostitutes were HIV positive. [48]   a 1997 cross-sectional survey of prostitutes working on the streets and in brothels  showed that almost half of all prostitutes (47 percent) tested positive for HIV (and one-third had syphilis). [49]   These studies indicate that the incidence of HIV among the women engaged in prostitution is increasing rapidly.  Studies also show that many prostitutes are unaware of the seriousness of HIV/AIDS.  For example, in 1993, only 20 percent of the surveyed prostitutes knew that AIDS was untreatable and a third of them did not see themselves at risk of  contracting HIV/AIDS. [50]

Moreover, the 1997 study showed a high correlation between the risk for contracting syphilis, HIV/AIDS and cocaine use. The authors of the survey recommended an integrated risk reduction program focusing on frequent STD checkups, safe sex practices and drug abuse prevention targeting this high risk population. [51]

CONVENTION ARTICLE 13

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Access to Credit

While women’s access to credit is not legally limited, the requirement of high levels of collateral and high interest rates make it impossible for many women to obtain formal credit.

Older Women

Older women (defined by the NGO Red Thread as “menopausal”) in Guyana are often marginalized and isolated.  They face difficulties regarding their health, aging, work and social security.  Fifteen percent of older women live alone and in poverty. [52]   These women still play an important role in the national economy (30 percent of menopausal women are still in the labor force,  18 percent work and 12 percent are unemployed and 50 percent live in female-headed households).  In fact, many of them are forced to re-enter the workforce to support their families and other dependents: many of them support children who are not their own, such as grandchildren.  Many (more than 70 percent in the Red Thread survey) do not have access to pensions or other outside financial support.

Women with Disabilities

No law mandates access for disabled persons.  Appropriate infrastructure to give them access to both public and private buildings is absent, making it difficult to employ the disabled outside the home. [53]    The gender barriers to well-paying jobs, thus become almost impossible to overcome for disabled women.

CONVENTION ARTICLE 14

RURAL WOMEN

Land Ownership

Men hold the majority of land titles to property in Guyana (nationally 71.6 percent in 1993).  However, inequality in land ownership is more pronounced in rural areas where men hold 76.3 percent of titles, compared to 63.3 percent in urban areas.  While legally women have equal right to ownership, the lack of a clear land policy and the ownership criteria frequently used by the Land Selection Committees have been reported to discriminate against women.  Additionally, women often apply for land titles in their husband’s name.  As a result, especially in the context of a housing shortage, women are more vulnerable in case of divorce when they may have difficulty getting an equal share of family assets. [54]

CONVENTION ARTICLE 16

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LAW

A 1990 law protects women’s property rights in common law marriages.   In case of divorce or separation the woman is entitled to half of the couples’ property if she had been working, and to one-third of the property if she had been a housewife. [55]

GENERAL RECOMMENDATION # 19

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

Family and Marital Violence

Violence against women is widespread in Guyana.  NGO-conducted studies of domestic violence indicate that between one-third and one-half of all women become victims of domestic violence.   Among the client base of Help & Shelter (a shelter for abuse victims) of more than 2,000 persons, 86 percent are women, 17 percent are under 20 years old, and 71 percent are victims of spousal abuse. [56]   Health professionals and NGOs report a high incidence of rape of girls and young women, as well as incest. [57]    Such cases, as other cases involving domestic violence, are rarely reported or prosecuted because of the stigma attached.  The press reported 17 deaths resulting from domestic violence between January and October 2000, but the actual number is estimated to be higher. [58]

In 1998, Red Thread surveyed 360 women in greater Georgetown about violence against women.   Out of more than 60 percent of women who were involved in a relationship or union, 27.7 percent reported physical abuse, 26.3 percent had experienced verbal abuse and 12.7 percent experienced sexual violence. Approximately half of the surveyed women responded that one of the likely causes of partner’s abuse was jealously (55.4 percent) or “hot temper”. [59]   Significantly, more than 65 percent of respondents had no knowledge of the Domestic Violence Act (the lack of awareness of the Act was higher among Indo-Guyanese women and stood at 77.3 percent). [60]

Nearly four of every five respondents perceived violence in the family to be very common in Guyana (76.8 percent).  More than one in three knew someone who was currently experiencing domestic violence (35.5 percent). [61]

Legal Recourse

Although there is no public defender system in Guyana, the Georgetown Legal Aid Clinic, supported in part privately, gives advice to persons who cannot afford a lawyer, with special focus on helping women in divorce cases involving an assault and other violence-related cases.  Additionally, the Guyana Association of Women Lawyers provides free legal services in civil cases. [62]  

The 1996 Domestic Violence Act defines domestic violence, makes it a crime, and gives women the right to seek immediate protection.  Magistrates are empowered to issue an interim protection order based on an application for protection filled out by the victim, a police officer or a social worker.  This order is then evaluated by the magistrate, who may decide to issue a permanent order instead of a temporary one.  The Act gives victims the right to seek protection, occupation or tenancy orders.  Occupation orders make it possible for the victim and any children to remain at a home, and the abuser must leave. Tenancy orders require an abuser to leave a rented dwelling, but to continue paying for the rent.  In the event of a violation of protective orders, the abuser may be fined up to US$54 (G$10,000) and imprisoned for up to one year.  But, to date, this law has not been enforced, and while NGOs consider the Act a positive development, they also claim that it has not had a real impact. [63]

NGOs and the Department of Public Prosecutions have made some efforts to sensitize police to domestic violence, but officers are often hesitant to interfere in such cases. [64]    NGOs and the UN Human Rights Committee (during a 2000 review of Guyana) asked the government to make a more sustained effort to train police and other law enforcement staff in providing equal protection to women victims of abuse and in applying punitive measures. [65]   In September 2000, a 14-week domestic violence intervention training program for police officers and social workers was held in Georgetown as part of a larger effort in the Caribbean region.  Speakers at the training have emphasized that a sustained and long-term effort is needed to train enforcement officials in order to curb the problem and to change attitudes of officials and to begin changing societal attitudes. [66]

ACTIONS BY OTHER UN HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS

PERTAINING TO WOMEN’S HUMAN RIGHTS:

Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Guyana. 25 April 2000. CCPR/C/79/Add.121.

 Positive aspects

·        The enactment of the Domestic Violence Act in 1996 and its extension to protection of children.

Concerns and Recommendations

·        the low level of participation by women in the workforce and in the conduct of public affairs; lack of information on the application and effect of the Anti-Discrimination Act of 1997 or the Equal Rights Act of 1990; an apparent conflict between article 29 of the Constitution, which mandates equal rights for women and men, and article 149 (3) (b), which excludes from the prohibition on discrimination laws dealing with marriage, divorce, and inheritance.  Take positive measures to ensure equality of opportunity for women in all fields and to ensure that the principles of equality and non-discrimination on all grounds and in all areas of activity are fully implemented in the new Constitution.

·        The Domestic Violence Act of 1996 appears to have been applied in very few cases and at the lack of information relating to its impact in reducing the level of violence against women; police and other law enforcement personnel should be trained to understand the importance of ensuring that women who are victims of violence are accorded equal protection and that preventive and punitive measures are enforced.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination : Guyana. 21 August 1997  A/52/18,paras.484-486.

No recommendations concerning women were issued by this Committee.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women: Guyana. 31 May 1995. A/50/38, paras. 616-626.

Principal subjects of concern

·        That the provisions of the Convention were not integrated into the Constitution of Guyana and that some laws still needed to be amended in order to comply fully with the Convention.

·        The lack of family planning services and the numbers of illegal abortions because of it.

·        That women were still underrepresented in many of the political, administrative and economic higher decision-making echelons, thereby depriving society of women's knowledge and experience.

Suggestions and recommendations

·        Include more concrete data on measures implemented on obstacles encountered and provide the Committee with more statistics to illustrate change.

·        Provide more information on violence against women and measures to combat it.

·        Pursue a comprehensive approach of legal reform relating to the family; it also encourages the Government to seek further assistance from international agencies or on a bilateral level to improve women's material situation in Guyana: should be assigned to enhancing women's economic situation.

 

[1] US Department of State, Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Background Note: Guyana (April 2001), online, available at <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/bgd>, accessed 23 May 2001.

[2] CIA, The World Factbook 2000 -- Guyana, available at <http://ww.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gy.html>, accessed 13 February 2001.

[3] Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Guyana, online, available at <http://www.paho.org/SHA.prflguy.htm>, accessed 5 June 2001.

[4] “Article Background: Guyana,”  The Economist, 15 March 2001, available at <http://www.economist.com/world/la>, accessed 17 April 2001.

[5] “Guyana’s Closely Observed Election,” 15 March 2001, The Economist, available at <http://www.economist.com/world/la>, accessed 17 April 2001.

[6] The World Bank Group, World Bank, IMF Approve $590 million in debt relief for Guyana (press release), 20 November 2000, online, available at <http://www.wbin0018.worldbank.org>, accessed 17 April 2001.

[7] Janice Airhart, “Guyana: Land of Many Waters,” New Moon: The Magazine for Girls and Their Dreams vol.4, no. 3 (28 February 1997): 42.

[8] The World Bank Group, World Bank, IMF Approve $590 million in debt relief for Guyana (press release), 20 November 2000, online, available at <http://www.wbin0018.worldbank.org>, accessed 17 April 2001.

[9] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2000: Guyana (February 2001), online, available at <http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000>, accessed 23 May 2001.

[10] Constitution of the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana Act 1980 (20 February 1980) with 1996 Reforms, online, available at <http://www.georgetown.edu/LatAmerPolitical/Constitutions/Guyana/guyana96/html>, accessed 8 June 2001.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO), Mapping Progress-Assessing Implementation of the Beijing Platform 1998 (1998).

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] The Ministry of Labour of Guyana, Statement on the Situation Affecting Women in Guyana, online, available at <http://www.guyana.org/women_situation.htm>, accessed 5 March 2001.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[24] Ibid.

[25] The Ministry of Labour of Guyana.

[26] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[27] Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Guyana, online, available at <http://www.paho.org/SHA.prflguy.htm>, accessed 5 June 2001.

[28] The Ministry of Labour of Guyana.

[29] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[30] Red Thread, Women Researching Women: Selected Findings of a Survey on Domestic Violence and Women’s Reproductive and Sexual Health in Guyana (April 2000), online, available at <http://www.sdnp.org.gy/hands/wom-surv.htm>, accessed 27 March 2001.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Bert Wilkinson, “Women in Developing World May be Hardest Hit by U.S. Aid Cuts,” Associated Press, 1 February 2000, Nexis.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Red Thread, Women Researching Women: Selected Findings of a Survey on Domestic Violence and Women’s Reproductive and Sexual Health in Guyana (April 2000), online, available at <http://www.sdnp.org.gy/hands/wom-surv.htm>, accessed 27 March 2001.

[36] Yvette M. Delph and Frederick E. Nunes, “Making Abortion Law Reform Work-Steps and Slips in Guyana,” Reproductive Health Matters, no. 9 (1997): 66-76.

[37] Ibid.

[38] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Guyana, online, available at <http://www.ippf.org/regions/countries/guy/index.htm>, accessed 21 May 2001.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Yvette M. Delph and Frederick E. Nunes.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Latin American and Caribbean Women’s Health Network, Regional Realities , online, available at <http://www.reddesalud.web.cl/estrategycallsept.html>, accessed 29 May 2001.

[43] Yvette M. Delph and Frederick E. Nunes.

[44] World Health Organization, “Making Abortions Safe: a Matter of Good Public Health Policy and Practice,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 78, no. 5 (2000): 586.

[45] Red Thread.

[46] “Life Expectancy in Africa Cut Short by AIDS,” CNN, online, 18 March 1999, available at <http://www.cnn.com>, accessed 5 June 2001.

[47] Terrence Esseboom, “Guyanese Government Has Arrangements to Combat AIDS Scourge,” UNFPA, Caribbean Young Press Center, online, available at <http://www.caribbeanyouth.com/chroniclearticle.htm>, accessed 5 June 2001.

[48] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Guyana.

[49] Persaud, N.E., Winslow W.K., et al.  “HIV Infection and Syphilis Among Female Commercial Sex Workers in Guyana,” International Conference on AIDS 1998, University of Miami, Florida, Abstract no. 23538, 12:449-550.

[50] International Planned Parenthood Federation, Country Profiles: Guyana.

[51] Persaud, N.E., Winslow W.K., et al.

[52] Red Thread.

[53] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[54] The Ministry of Labour of Guyana.

[55] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[56] Help and Shelter, About Help and Shelter, online, available at www.sdnp.org.gy/hands/about.htm, accessed 27 March 2001.

[57] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Red Thread.

[60] Ibid.

[61] Ibid.

[62] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

[63] Ibid.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Ibid.

[66] “Domestic Violence Legislation Requires Enabling Environment - Dr. Barnett,” Stabroek News (Guyana), 23 September 2000, online, available at <http://www. stabroeknews.com>, accessed 27 March 2001.

 


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