University of Minnesota

World Medical Association, Resolution on Human Rights (1990; 1993; 1995).


Adopted by the 42nd World Medical Assembly Rancho Mirage, California, USA, October 1990

and amended by the
45th World Medical Assembly, Budapest, Hungary, October 1993
46th General Assembly, Stockholm, Sweden, September 1994
47th General Assembly, Bali, Indonesia, September 1995


Having regard to the fact that:
1. The World Medical Association and its member associations have always sought to advance the cause of human rights for all people, and have frequently taken actions endeavoring to alleviate violations of human rights.
2. Members of the medical profession are often amongst the first to become aware of violations of human rights.
3. Medical Associations have an essential role to play in calling attention to such violations in their countries.

The World Medical Association again calls upon its member associations
1. To review the situation in their own countries so as to ensure that violations are not concealed as a result to fear of reprisals form the responsible authorities and to request strict observance of civil and human rights when violations are discovered.
2. To provide clear ethical advice to doctors working in the prison system.
3. To provide effective machinery for investigating unethical practices by physicians in the field of human rights.
4. To use their best endeavours to ensure that adequate health care is available to all human beings without distinction.
5. To protest alleged human rights violations through communications that urge the humane treatment of prisoners, and that seek the immediate release of those who are imprisoned without just cause.
6. To support individual physicians who call attention to human rights violations in their own countries.

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