University of Minnesota




Authorities and Precedents in International and Domestic Law for the Proposed American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Inter-Am. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.110, Doc. 22 (2001).


 

SECCIÓN CUARTA

DERECHOS ORGANIZATIVOS Y POLÍTICOS

Article XIV. Rights of association, assembly, freedom of expression and freedom of thought

1. Indigenous peoples have the right of association, assembly and expression in accordance with their values, usages, customs, ancestral traditions, beliefs and religions.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right of assembly and to the use of their sacred and ceremonial areas, as well as the right to full contact and common activities with their members living in the territory of neighboring states.

I. INTERNATIONAL AUTHORITIES AND PRECEDENTS

1. Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN 1994)

Article 35: "Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with other peoples across borders. States shall take effective measures to ensure the exercise and implementation of this right."

2. C 169, Convention on Indigenous and Tribal People (ILO Convention 1989)

Article 32: "Governments shall take appropriate measures, including by means of international agreements, to facilitate contacts and co-operation between indigenous and tribal peoples across borders, including activities in the economic, social, cultural, spiritual and environmental fields."

3. American Convention on Human Rights (OAS 1969)

Article 16(1): "Everyone has the right to associate freely for ideological, religious, political, economic, labor, social, cultural, sports, or other purposes."

4. American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (OAS 1948)

Article IV: “Every person has the right to freedom of investigation, of opinion, and of expression and dissemination of ideals, by any medium whatsoever.”

Article XXII: “Every person has the right to associate with others to promote, exercise, and protect the legitimate interests of a political, economic, religious, social, cultural, professional, labor union or other nature.”

5. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (UN 1966)

Article 21: "The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized”.

Article 22(1): “Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interest."

6. International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (UN 1965)

Article 5(d)(vii): “States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone freedom of thought, conscience and religion;”.

7. Convention on the Rights of the Child (un 1989)

Article 13(1): “…The child shall have the right to freedom of expression...”

Article 14: “State Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.”

Article 15(1): “State Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.”

8. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948)

Article 18: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.”

Article 19: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression...”

Article 20(1): “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.”

9. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities (UN 1990)

Article 2(4): "Persons belonging to minorities have the right to establish and maintain their own associations."

Article 2(5): "Persons belonging to minorities have the right to establish and maintain, without any discrimination, free and peaceful contacts with other members of their group, with persons belonging to other minorities, as well as contacts across frontiers with citizens of other States to whom they are related by national or ethic, religious or linguistic ties."

10. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (UN 1981)

Article 1(1): ”Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have a religion or whatever belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in pubic or in private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.”

11. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Banjul Charter 1981)

Article 10(1): “Every individual shall have the right to free association provided that he abides by the law.

Article 11: “Every individual shall have the right to assemble freely with others."

12. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ROME 1950)

Article 10(1): “…Everyone has the right to freedom of expression...”

Article 11(1): “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.”

13. Jay Treaty, 1794 (Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation between the United States and Great Britain)

Article 3: "It is agreed that it shall at all Times be free ... to the Indians dwelling on either side of the said Boundary Line freely to pass and repass by Land, or Inland Navigation ... and freely to carry on trade and commerce with each other...."

II. DOMESTIC AUTHORITIES AND PRECEDENTS

14. Bolivia

- Constitución Política

Artículo 171. III: "Las autoridades naturales de las comunidades indígenas y campesinas podrán ejercer funciones de administración y aplicación de normas propias como solución alternativa de conflictos, en conformidad a sus costumbres y procedimientos, siempre que no sean contrarias a esta Constitución y las leyes. La Ley compatibilizará estas funciones con las atribuciones de los poderes del Estado”.

- Ley 1.551 de 1994

Artículo 1: "La presente Ley reconoce, promueve y consolida el proceso de Participación Popular, articulando a las Comunidades Indígenas, Pueblos Indígenas, Comunidades Campesinas y Juntas Vecinales, respectivamente, en la vida jurídica, política y económica del país. Procura mejorar la calidad de vida de la mujer y el hombre bolivianos, con una más justa distribución y mejor administración de los recursos públicos. Fortalece los instrumentos políticos y económicos necesarios para perfeccionar la democracia representativa, incorporando la participación ciudadana en un proceso de democracia participativa y garantizando la igualdad de oportunidades en los niveles de representación a mujeres y hombres. "

Artículo 3: "I. Se define como sujetos de la Participación Popular a las Organizaciones Territoriales de Base, expresadas en las comunidades campesinas, pueblos indígenas y juntas vecinales, organizadas según sus usos, costumbres o disposiciones estatutarias. II. Se reconoce como representantes de las Organizaciones Territoriales de Base a los hombres y mujeres, Capitanes, Jilacatas, Curacas, Mallcus, Secretarios(as) Generales y otros(as), designados(as) según sus usos, costumbres y disposiciones estatutarias”.

- Ley 1654 de 1995

Artículo 5: "Atribuciones. El prefecto en el régimen de descentralización administrativa, tiene las siguientes atribuciones además de las establecidas en la Constitución Política del Estado. (k) Promover la participación popular y canalizar los requerimientos y relaciones de las organizaciones indígenas, campesinas y vecinales por medio de las instancias correspondientes del Poder Ejecutivo. (r) Otorgar personalidad jurídica con validez en todo el territorio nacional a las fundaciones, asociaciones y sociedades civiles, constituidas en el territorio nacional o en el extranjero, siempre que éstas hubieren establecido domicilio en su jurisdicción. Registrar la personalidad jurídica de las comunidades campesinas, pueblos indígenas y juntas vecinales”.

15. Brazil

- Decreto 1.141 de 1994

Art. 3: "As ações decorrentes deste Decreto fundamentar-se-ão no reconhecimiento da organização social e política, dos costumes, das línguas, das crenças e das tradições das comunidades indígenas."

- Estatuto das sociedades indígenas (Proyecto de ley)

Art. 4.VI: “assegurar o reconhecimento dos índios e de suas sociedades ou comunidades como grupos etnicamente diferenciados, respeitando suas organizações sociais, usos, costumes, línguas e tradições, seus modos de viver, criar e fazer, seus valores culturais e artísticos e demais formas de expressão;”

16. Canada

- Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)

2. "Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:

(a) freedom of conscience and religion.

(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other means of communication.

(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and

(d) freedom of association."

- Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

“Governments, including Aboriginal governments, recognize the critical role that independent Aboriginal print and broadcast media have in the pursuit of Aboriginal self-determination and self-government, and that they support freedom of expression through:

(a) Policies on open access to information; and

(b) Dedicated funding at arm’s length from political bodies.”

17. Chile

- Ley 19.253 de 1993

Artículo 9. Para los efectos de esta ley se entenderá por Comunidad Indígena, toda agrupación de personas pertenecientes a una misma etnia indígena y que se encuentren en una o más de las siguientes situaciones: a) Provengan de un mismo tronco familiar; b) Reconozcan una jefatura tradicional; c) Posean o hayan poseído tierras indígenas en común, y d) Provengan de un mismo poblado antiguo.

Artículo 36. Se entiende por Asociación Indígena la agrupación voluntaria y funcional integrada por, a lo menos, veinticinco indígenas que se constituyen en función de algún interés y objetivo común de acuerdo a las disposiciones de este párrafo. Las asociaciones indígenas no podrán atribuirse la representación de las Comunidades Indígenas.

Art 60. Son mapuches huilliches las comunidades indígenas ubicadas principalmente en la X Región y los indígenas provenientes de ella.

61. Se reconoce en esta etnia (huilliches) el sistema tradicional de cacicados y su ámbito territorial. Las autoridades del Estado establecerán relaciones adecuadas con los caciques y sus representantes para todos aquellos asuntos que se establecen en el Párrafo 2° del Título III y en el Párrafo 1° del Título V.

18. Ecuador

Constitución Política del Estado Ecuatoriano

Artículo 84: El Estado reconocerá y garantizará a los pueblos indígenas, de conformidad con esta Constitución y la ley, el respeto al orden público y a los derechos humanos, los siguientes derechos colectivos a los pueblos indígenas: (7) Conservar y desarrollar sus formas tradicionales de convivencia y organización social, de generación y ejercicio de la autoridad.

19. Guatemala

Constitución Política de la República de Guatemala

Artículo 33: "Derecho de reunión y manifestación. Se reconoce el derecho de reunión pacífica y sin armas.

Artículo 34: Derecho de asociación. Se reconoce el derecho de libre asociación.

Artículo 35: “Libertad de emisión del pensamiento. Es libre la emisión del pensamiento por cualesquiera medios de difusión, sin censura ni licencia previa. Este derecho constitucional no podrá ser restringido por ley o disposicón gubernamental alguna”.

20. Peru

Constitución Política del Perú

Artículo 2: "Toda persona tiene su derecho: ...A las libertades de información, opinión, expresión y difusión del pensamiento mediante la palabra oral o escrita o la imagen, por cualquier medio de comunicación social, sin previa autorización ni censura ni impedimento algunos, bajo las responsabilidades de ley”.

21. St. Kitts and Nevis

Constitution of St. Kitts and Nevis

Article 12(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication is to the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence."

Article 13(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assembly freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests or to form or belong to political parties or other political associations."

22. St. Vincent and St. Grenadines

Constitution of St. Vincent and St. Grenadines (1979)

Article 10(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons and freedom from interference with his correspondence."

Article 11(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belongs to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests."

Article 10(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons and freedom from interference with his correspondence."

Article 11(1): "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belongs to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests."

23. Suriname

Constitution of Suriname

Article 19: "Everyone has the right to make public his thoughts or feelings and to express his opinion through the printed press or other means of communication, subject to the responsibility of all as set forth in the law.

Article 20: “Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful association and assembly, taking into consideration the rules to be determined by law for the protection of public order, safety, health and morality."

24. The Commonwealth of Dominica Constitution Order 1978

Article 1: "Whereas every person in Dominica is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms, that is to say, the rights whatever his race, place of origins, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association."

25. Trinidad and Tobago

Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Article 4: "It is hereby recognized and declared that in Trinidad and Tobago there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, origin, colour, religion or sex, the following fundamental human rights and freedoms, namely:

e. the right to join political parties and to express political views;

i. freedom of thought and expression;

j. freedom of association and assembly

 



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