Outside resource people can greatly enrich learning, but such voices should never silence or devalue those of participants. Identify people with special expertise in human rights, perhaps because of their information (e.g., journalists, academics, researchers), their work (e.g., judges, medical professionals, government officials, staff of non-profit organizations), or their experience (e.g., former prisoners, refugees) and invite them to speak to the participants.

1. Lectures and Formal Addresses: Lectures and speeches should be kept to a minimum as they tend to inspire passive listening and disempowering deference. Several short lectures are more effective than one long lecture. Facilitators should seek ways to permit personal interchanges between speakers and participants (e.g., a shared meal, a question period, small group discussions, an interview technique).

2. Formal Panels: In the typical panel format, experts make prepared statements or read papers on a topic, followed by questions from the audience. Usually the panelists do not address each other and only a few assertive participants speak.

Examples of Method:

The Human Rights Education Handbook: "Model 4: Three-day Workshop," p. 124; "Model 5: Five-day Workshop," p. 126;

"Model 6: Seven-day Workshop," p. 130.

ABC: "Minority Group Speakers," "Speakers on Disability," "Speakers on Development Issues," "Speakers from the Business Community."[]

3. Informal Panels: Diverse informal panel formats exist, all characterized by interaction, both among panelists and between panelists and the audience.

• One method is for panelists to hold a discussion "in the round" with members of the audience joining the central discussion or members of the panel joining small groups of the audience. See "Technique 3: Fishbowl," p. 76.

• Another effective method is "Question Time": Announce a question or topic daily during a workshop (ideally one drawn from participant suggestions) and invite anyone who wishes to speak on that topic to take a seat at the presenters' table. Generally speakers are strictly timed and only allowed to speak once. After all have spoken, participants in the audience may offer questions and comments.

4. Participant Presentations: Participants may need opportunities to present their research, narrate experiences, or express their opinions to the whole group. Facilitators should structure these presentations so that no one dominates and all who wish can have a chance to speak. See also "Technique 1: Carousel," p. 75, "Technique 3: Fishbowl," p. 76, and "Technique 4: Gallery Walk," p. 76.

5. Report Backs: When participants work in small groups, they need a way to report back to everyone on their group's activity. In the Plenary Method, a spokesperson from each small group reports to the whole group. In Paired Sharing, two or three small groups combine to compare and discuss their work. The "Carousel" or "Gallery Walk" technique can also be used for reporting back. See Part IV, "Techniques for Human Rights Education," p. 75.

Example of Method:

The Human Rights Education Handbook: "Think Quick for Human Rights," p. 51.