Navigation

Main Index

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3




ANNEXES      



Equal Opportunity Model












                         Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."

PREAMBLE
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, therefore, the General Assembly

Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.


To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 



Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non- political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.


To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 



Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.



To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 




Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(Plain language version)



Article 1, Right to equality:
You are born free and equal in rights to every other human being. You have the ability to think and to tell right from wrong. You should treat others with friendship.

Article 2, Freedom from discrimination:
You have all these human rights no matter what your race, skin colour, sex, language, religion, opinions, family background, social or economic status, birth or nationality.

Article 3, Right to life, liberty and personal security:
You have the right to live, to be free and to feel safe.

Article 4, Freedom from slavery:
Nobody has the right to treat you as a slave, and you should not make anyone your slave.

Article 5, Freedom from torture and degrading treatment:
Nobody has the right to torture, harm or humiliate you.

Article 6, Right to recognition as a person before the law:
You have a right to be accepted everywhere as a person according to law.

Article 7, Right to equality before the law:
You have a right to be protected and treated equally by the law without discrimination of any kind.

Article 8, Right to remedy by capable judges:
If your legal rights are violated, you have the right to fair and capable judges to uphold your rights.

Article 9, Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile:
Nobody has the right to arrest you, put you in prison or to force you out of your country without good reasons.

Article 10, Right to fair public hearing:
If you are accused of a crime, you have the right to a fair and public hearing.

Article 11, Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty:
1) You should be considered innocent until it can be proved in a fair trial that you are guilty.
2) You cannot be punished for doing something that was not considered a crime at the time you did it.

Article 12, Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home and correspondence:
You have the right to be protected if someone tries to harm your good name or enter your house, open your letters or email or bother you or your family without good reason.

Article 13, Right to free movement:
1) You have the right to come and go as you wish within your country.
2) You have the right to leave your country to go to another one, and you should be able to return to your country if you want.

Article 14, Right to protection in another country:
1) If someone threatens to hurt you, you have the right to go to another country and ask for protection as a refugee.
2) You lose this right if you have committed a serious crime.

Article 15, Right to a nationality and the freedom to change it:
1) You have the right to belong to a country and have a nationality.
2) No one can take away your nationality without a good reason. You have a right to change your nationality if you wish.


To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 



Article 16, Right to marriage and family:
1) When you are legally old enough, you have the right to marry and have a family without any limitations based on your race, country or religion. Both partners have the same rights when they are married and also when they are separated.
2) Nobody should force you to marry.
3) The family is the basic unit of society, and government should protect it.

Article 17, Right to own property:
1) You have the right to own things.
2) Nobody has the right to take these things from you without a good reason

Article 18, Freedom of thought, conscience and religion:
You have the right to your own thoughts and to believe in any religion. You are free to practice your religion or beliefs and also to change them.

Article 19, Freedom of opinion and information:
You have the right to hold and express your own opinions. You should be able to share your opinions with others, including people from other countries, through any means of communication.

Article 20, Right to peaceful assembly and association:
1) You have the right to meet peacefully with other people.
2) No one can force you belong to a group.

Article 21, Right to participate in government and elections:
1) You have the right to participate in your government, either by holding an office or by electing someone to represent you.
2) You and every one have the right to serve your country.
3) Governments should be elected regularly by fair and secret voting.

Article 22, Right to social security:
The society you live in should provide you with social security and the rights necessary for your dignity and development.

Article 23, Right to desirable work and to join trade unions:
1) You have the right to work, to choose your work and to work in good conditions.
2) People who do the same work should get the same pay.
3) You should be able to earn a salary that allows you to live and support your family.
4) All people who work have the right to join together in unions to defend their interests.

Article 24, Right to rest and leisure:
You have the right to rest and free time. Your workday should not be too long, and you should be able to take regular paid holidays.

Article 25, Right to adequate living standard:
1) You have the right to the things you and your family need for your health and well-being, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and other social services. You have a right to help if you are out of work or unable to work.
2) Mothers and children should receive special care and help.

Article 26, Right to education:
1) You have the right to go to go to school. Primary schooling should be free and required. You should be able to learn a profession or continue your studies as far as you can.
2) At school, you should be able to develop all your talents and learn to respect others, whatever their race, religion or nationality.
3) Your parents should have a say in the kind of education you receive.

Article 27, Right to participate in the cultural life of community:
1) You have the right to participate in the traditions and learning of your community, to enjoy the arts and to benefit from scientific progress.
2) If you are an artist, writer or scientist, your work should be protected and you should be able to benefit from it.

Article 28, Right to a social order:
You have a right to the kind of world where you and all people can enjoy these rights and freedoms.

Article 29, Responsibilities to the community
1) Your personality can only fully develop within your community, and you have responsibilities to that community.
2) The law should guarantee human rights. It should allow everyone to respect others and to be respected.
3) These rights and freedoms should support the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30, Freedom from interference in these human rights:
No person, group or government anywhere in the world should do anything to destroy these rights.

Source: Compasito - manual on human rights education for children (Council of Europe, 2007).


To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 





Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(Summary)



Article 1
Right to Equality
      Article 16
Right to Marriage and Family
Article 2
Freedom from Discrimination
      Article 17
Right to Own Property
Article 3
Right to Life, Liberty, and Personal Security
      Article 18
Freedom of Belief and Religion
Article 4
Freedom from Slavery
      Article 19
Freedom of Opinion and Information
Article 5
Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment
      Article 20
Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association
Article 6
Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law
      Article 21
Right to Participate in Government and in Free
Elections
Article 7
Right to Equality before the Law
      Article 22
Right to Social Security
Article 8
Right to Remedy by Competent Tribunal
      Article 23
Right to Desirable Work and to Join Trade Unions
Article 9
Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Exile
      Article 24
Right to Rest and Leisure
Article 10
Right to Fair Public Hearing
      Article 25
Right to Adequate Living Standard
Article 11
Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven
Guilty
      Article 26
Right to Education
Article 12
Freedom from Interference with Privacy, Family,
Home and Correspondence
      Article 27
Right to Participate in the Cultural Life of
Community
Article 13
Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country
      Article 28
Right to a Social Order that Articulates this
Document
Article 14
Right to Asylum in other Countries from
Persecution
      Article 29
Community Duties Essential to Free and Full
Development
Article 15
Right to a Nationality and the Freedom to Change
It
      Article 30
Freedom from State or Personal Interference in
the above Rights

To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 



Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
(Adopted by the UN General Assembly 13 December 2006;
opened for signature 30 March 2007)



Preamble

The States Parties to the present Convention,

(a) Recalling the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations which recognize the inherent dignity and worth and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

(b) Recognizing that the United Nations, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, has proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind,

(c) Reaffirming the universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and the need for persons with disabilities to be guaranteed their full enjoyment without discrimination,

(d) Recalling the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families,

(e) Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept and that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others,

(f) Recognizing the importance of the principles and policy guidelines contained in the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons and in the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities in influencing the promotion, formulation and evaluation of the policies, plans, programmes and actions at the national, regional and international levels to further equalize opportunities for persons with disabilities,

(g) Emphasizing the importance of mainstreaming disability issues as an integral part of relevant strategies of sustainable development,

(h) Recognizing also that discrimination against any person on the basis of disability is a violation of the inherent dignity and worth of the human person,

(i) Recognizing further the diversity of persons with disabilities,

(j) Recognizing the need to promote and protect the human rights of all persons with disabilities, including those who require more intensive support,

(k) Concerned that, despite these various instruments and undertakings, persons with disabilities continue to face barriers in their participation as equal members of society and violations of their human rights in all parts of the world,

(l) Recognizing the importance of international cooperation for improving the living conditions of persons with disabilities in every country, particularly in developing countries,

(m) Recognizing the valued existing and potential contributions made by persons with disabilities to the overall well-being and diversity of their communities, and that the promotion of the full enjoyment by persons with disabilities of their human rights and fundamental freedoms and of full participation by persons with disabilities will result in their enhanced sense of belonging and in significant advances in the human, social and economic development of society and the eradication of poverty,

(n) Recognizing the importance for persons with disabilities of their individual autonomy and independence, including the freedom to make their own choices,

(o) Considering that persons with disabilities should have the opportunity to be actively involved in decision-making processes about policies and programmes, including those directly concerning them,

(p) Concerned about the difficult conditions faced by persons with disabilities who are subject to multiple or aggravated forms of discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic, indigenous or social origin, property, birth, age or other status,

(q) Recognizing that women and girls with disabilities are often at greater risk, both within and outside the home of violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation,

(r) Recognizing that children with disabilities should have full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children, and recalling obligations to that end undertaken by States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child,

(s) Emphasizing the need to incorporate a gender perspective in all efforts to promote the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities,

(t) Highlighting the fact that the majority of persons with disabilities live in conditions of poverty, and in this regard recognizing the critical need to address the negative impact of poverty on persons with disabilities,

(u) Bearing in mind that conditions of peace and security based on full respect for the purposes and principles contained in the Charter of the United Nations and observance of applicable human rights instruments are indispensable for the full protection of persons with disabilities, in particular during armed conflicts and foreign occupation,

(v) Recognizing the importance of accessibility to the physical, social, economic and cultural environment, to health and education and to information and communication, in enabling persons with disabilities to fully enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms,

(w) Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he or she belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the International Bill of Human Rights,

(x) Convinced that the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State, and that persons with disabilities and their family members should receive the necessary protection and assistance to enable families to contribute towards the full and equal enjoyment of the rights of persons with disabilities,

(y) Convinced that a comprehensive and integral international convention to promote and protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities will make a significant contribution to redressing the profound social disadvantage of persons with disabilities and promote their participation in the civil, political, economic, social and cultural spheres with equal opportunities, in both developing and developed countries,


To Top
To Top
 / Page Up
Page Up / 



Have agreed as follows:

Article 1, Purpose
The purpose of the present Convention is to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity.

Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

Article 2, Definitions
For the purposes of the present Convention:

"Communication" includes languages, display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia as well as written, audio, plain-language, human-reader and augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, including accessible information and communication technology;

"Language" includes spoken and signed languages and other forms of non-spoken languages;

"Discrimination on the basis of disability" means any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability which has the purpose or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal basis with others, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. It includes all forms of discrimination, including denial of reasonable accommodation;

"Reasonable accommodation" means necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;

"Universal design" means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. “Universal design” shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups of persons with disabilities where this is needed.


Article 3, General principles
The principles of the present Convention shall be:

(a)Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons;

(b)Non-discrimination;

(c) Full and effective participation and inclusion in society;

(d) Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity;

(e) Equality of opportunity;

(f) Accessibility;

(g) Equality between men and women;

(h) Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities.





Article 4, General obligations
1. States Parties undertake to ensure and promote the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all persons with disabilities without discrimination of any kind on the basis of disability. To this end, States Parties undertake:

(a) To adopt all appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention;

(b) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices that constitute discrimination against persons with disabilities;

(c) To take into account the protection and promotion of the human rights of persons with disabilities in all policies and programmes;

(d) To refrain from engaging in any act or practice that is inconsistent with the present Convention and to ensure that public authorities and institutions act in conformity with the present Convention;

(e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability by any person, organization or private enterprise;

(f) To undertake or promote research and development of universally designed goods, services, equipment and facilities, as defined in article 2 of the present Convention, which should require the minimum possible adaptation and the least cost to meet the specific needs of a person with disabilities, to promote their availability and use, and to promote universal design in the development of standards and guidelines;

(g) To undertake or promote research and development of, and to promote the availability and use of new technologies, including information and communications technologies, mobility aids, devices and assistive technologies, suitable for persons with disabilities, giving priority to technologies at an affordable cost;

(h) To provide accessible information to persons with disabilities about mobility aids, devices and assistive technologies, including new technologies, as well as other forms of assistance, support services and facilities;

(i) To promote the training of professionals and staff working with persons with disabilities in the rights recognized in this Convention so as to better provide the assistance and services guaranteed by those rights.

2. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, each State Party undertakes to take measures to the maximum of its available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international cooperation, with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of these rights, without prejudice to those obligations contained in the present Convention that are immediately applicable according to international law.

3. In the development and implementation of legislation and policies to implement the present Convention, and in other decision-making processes concerning issues relating to persons with disabilities, States Parties shall closely consult with and actively involve persons with disabilities, including children with disabilities, through their representative organizations.

4. Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of persons with disabilities and which may be contained in the law of a State Party or international law in force for that State. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the human rights and fundamental freedoms recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Convention pursuant to law, conventions, regulation or custom on the pretext that the present Convention does not recognize such rights or freedoms or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.

5. The provisions of the present Convention shall extend to all parts of federal states without any limitations or exceptions.

Article 5, Equality and non-discrimination

1. States Parties recognize that all persons are equal before and under the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law.

2. States Parties shall prohibit all discrimination on the basis of disability and guarantee to persons with disabilities equal and effective legal protection against discrimination on all grounds.

3. In order to promote equality and eliminate discrimination, States Parties shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided.

4. Specific measures which are necessary to accelerate or achieve de facto equality of persons with disabilities shall not be considered discrimination under the terms of the present Convention.




Article 6, Women with disabilities

1. States Parties recognize that women and girls with disabilities are subject to multiple discrimination, and in this regard shall take measures to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by them of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the full development, advancement and empowerment of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental freedoms set out in the present Convention.

Article 7, Children with disabilities

1. States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment by children with disabilities of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children.

2. In all actions concerning children with disabilities, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

3. States Parties shall ensure that children with disabilities have the right to express their views freely on all matters affecting them, their views being given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity, on an equal basis with other children, and to be provided with disability and age-appropriate assistance to realize that right.

Article 8, Awareness-raising

1. States Parties undertake to adopt immediate, effective and appropriate measures:
(a) To raise awareness throughout society, including at the family level, regarding persons with disabilities, and to foster respect for the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities;
(b) To combat stereotypes, prejudices and harmful practices relating to persons with disabilities, including those based on sex and age, in all areas of life;
(c) To promote awareness of the capabilities and contributions of persons with disabilities.

2. Measures to this end include:
(a) Initiating and maintaining effective public awareness campaigns designed:
(i) To nurture receptiveness to the rights of persons with disabilities;
(ii) To promote positive perceptions and greater social awareness towards persons with disabilities;
(iii) To promote recognition of the skills, merits and abilities of persons with disabilities, and of their contributions to the workplace and the labour market;
(b) Fostering at all levels of the education system, including in all children from an early age, an attitude of respect for the rights of persons with disabilities;
(c) Encouraging all organs of the media to portray persons with disabilities in a manner consistent with the purpose of the present Convention;
(d) Promoting awareness-training programmes regarding persons with disabilities and the rights of persons with disabilities.

Article 9, Accessibility

1. To enable persons with disabilities to live independently and participate fully in all aspects of life, States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications, including information and communications technologies and systems, and to other facilities and services open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas. These measures, which shall include the identification and elimination of obstacles and barriers to accessibility, shall apply to, inter alia:
(a) Buildings, roads, transportation and other indoor and outdoor facilities, including schools, housing, medical facilities and workplaces;
(b) Information, communications and other services, including electronic services and emergency services.

2. States Parties shall also take appropriate measures to:
(a) Develop, promulgate and monitor the implementation of minimum standards and guidelines for the accessibility of facilities and services open or provided to the public;
(b) Ensure that private entities that offer facilities and services which are open or provided to the public take into account all aspects of accessibility for persons with disabilities;
(c) Provide training for stakeholders on accessibility issues facing persons with disabilities;
(d) Provide in buildings and other facilities open to the public signage in Braille and in easy to read and understand forms;
(e) Provide forms of live assistance and intermediaries, including guides, readers and professional sign language interpreters, to facilitate accessibility to buildings and other facilities open to the public;
(f) Promote other appropriate forms of assistance and support to persons with disabilities to ensure their access to information;
(g) Promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet;
(h) Promote the design, development, production and distribution of accessible information and communications technologies and systems at an early stage, so that these technologies and systems become accessible at minimum cost.

Article 10, Right to life

States Parties reaffirm that every human being has the inherent right to life and shall take all necessary measures to ensure its effective enjoyment by persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.

Article 11, Situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies

States Parties shall take, in accordance with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, all necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of persons with disabilities in situations of risk, including situations of armed conflict, humanitarian emergencies and the occurrence of natural disasters.





Article 12, Equal recognition before the law

1. States Parties reaffirm that persons with disabilities have the right to recognition everywhere as persons before the law.

2. States Parties shall recognize that persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life.

3. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disabilities to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity.

4. States Parties shall ensure that all measures that relate to the exercise of legal capacity provide for appropriate and effective safeguards to prevent abuse in accordance with international human rights law. Such safeguards shall ensure that measures relating to the exercise of legal capacity respect the rights, will and preferences of the person, are free of conflict of interest and undue influence, are proportional and tailored to the person’s circumstances, apply for the shortest time possible and are subject to regular review by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body. The safeguards shall be proportional to the degree to which such measures affect the person’s rights and interests.

5. Subject to the provisions of this article, States Parties shall take all appropriate and effective measures to ensure the equal right of persons with disabilities to own or inherit property, to control their own financial affairs and to have equal access to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit, and shall ensure that persons with disabilities are not arbitrarily deprived of their property.

Article 13, Access to justice

1. States Parties shall ensure effective access to justice for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others, including through the provision of procedural and age-appropriate accommodations, in order to facilitate their effective role as direct and indirect participants, including as witnesses, in all legal proceedings, including at investigative and other preliminary stages.

2. In order to help to ensure effective access to justice for persons with disabilities, States Parties shall promote appropriate training for those working in the field of administration of justice, including police and prison staff.

Article 14, Liberty and security of the person

1. States Parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities, on an equal basis with others:

(a) Enjoy the right to liberty and security of person;
(b) Are not deprived of their liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily, and that any deprivation of liberty is in conformity with the law, and that the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty.

2. States Parties shall ensure that if persons with disabilities are deprived of their liberty through any process, they are, on an equal basis with others, entitled to guarantees in accordance with international human rights law and shall be treated in compliance with the objectives and principles of this Convention, including by provision of reasonable accommodation.

Article 15, Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

1. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his or her free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.

2. States Parties shall take all effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent persons with disabilities, on an equal basis with others, from being subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 16, Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social, educational and other measures to protect persons with disabilities, both within and outside the home, from all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse, including their gender-based aspects.

2. States Parties shall also take all appropriate measures to prevent all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse by ensuring, inter alia, appropriate forms of gender- and age-sensitive assistance and support for persons with disabilities and their families and caregivers, including through the provision of information and education on how to avoid, recognize and report instances of exploitation, violence and abuse. States Parties shall ensure that protection services are age-, gender- and disability-sensitive.

3. In order to prevent the occurrence of all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse, States Parties shall ensure that all facilities and programmes designed to serve persons with disabilities are effectively monitored by independent authorities.

4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote the physical, cognitive and psychological recovery, rehabilitation and social reintegration of persons with disabilities who become victims of any form of exploitation, violence or abuse, including through the provision of protection services. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment that fosters the health, welfare, self-respect, dignity and autonomy of the person and takes into account gender- and age-specific needs.

5. States Parties shall put in place effective legislation and policies, including women- and child-focused legislation and policies, to ensure that instances of exploitation, violence and abuse against persons with disabilities are identified, investigated and, where appropriate, prosecuted.





Article 17, Protecting the integrity of the person

Every person with disabilities has a right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity on an equal basis with others.

Article 18, Liberty of movement and nationality

1. States Parties shall recognize the rights of persons with disabilities to liberty of movement, to freedom to choose their residence and to a nationality, on an equal basis with others, including by ensuring that persons with disabilities:

(a) Have the right to acquire and change a nationality and are not deprived of their nationality arbitrarily or on the basis of disability;
(b) Are not deprived, on the basis of disability, of their ability to obtain, possess and utilize documentation of their nationality or other documentation of identification, or to utilize relevant processes such as immigration proceedings, that may be needed to facilitate exercise of the right to liberty of movement;
(c) Are free to leave any country, including their own;
(d) Are not deprived, arbitrarily or on the basis of disability, of the right to enter their own country.

2. Children with disabilities shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and, as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by their parents.

Article 19, Living independently and being included in the community

States Parties to this Convention recognize the equal right of all persons with disabilities to live in the community, with choices equal to others, and shall take effective and appropriate measures to facilitate full enjoyment by persons with disabilities of this right and their full inclusion and participation in the community, including by ensuring that:
(a) Persons with disabilities have the opportunity to choose their place of residence and where and with whom they live on an equal basis with others and are not obliged to live in a particular living arrangement;
(b) Persons with disabilities have access to a range of in-home, residential and other community support services, including personal assistance necessary to support living and inclusion in the community, and to prevent isolation or segregation from the community;
(c) Community services and facilities for the general population are available on an equal basis to persons with disabilities and are responsive to their needs.

Article 20, Personal mobility

States Parties shall take effective measures to ensure personal mobility with the greatest possible independence for persons with disabilities, including by:
(a) Facilitating the personal mobility of persons with disabilities in the manner and at the time of their choice, and at affordable cost;
(b) Facilitating access by persons with disabilities to quality mobility aids, devices, assistive technologies and forms of live assistance and intermediaries, including by making them available at affordable cost;
(c) Providing training in mobility skills to persons with disabilities and to specialist staff working with persons with disabilities;
(d) Encouraging entities that produce mobility aids, devices and assistive technologies to take into account all aspects of mobility for persons with disabilities.

Article 21, Freedom of expression and opinion, and access to information

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that persons with disabilities can exercise the right to freedom of expression and opinion, including the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas on an equal basis with others and through all forms of communication of their choice, as defined in article 2 of the present Convention, including by:
(a) Providing information intended for the general public to persons with disabilities in accessible formats and technologies appropriate to different kinds of disabilities in a timely manner and without additional cost;
(b) Accepting and facilitating the use of sign languages, Braille, augmentative and alternative communication, and all other accessible means, modes and formats of communication of their choice by persons with disabilities in official interactions;
(c) Urging private entities that provide services to the general public, including through the Internet, to provide information and services in accessible and usable formats for persons with disabilities;
(d) Encouraging the mass media, including providers of information through the Internet, to make their services accessible to persons with disabilities;
(e) Recognizing and promoting the use of sign languages.

Article 22, Respect for privacy

1. No person with disabilities, regardless of place of residence or living arrangements, shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence or other types of communication or to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation. Persons with disabilities have the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

2. States Parties shall protect the privacy of personal, health and rehabilitation information of persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.

Article 23, Respect for home and the family

1. States Parties shall take effective and appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against persons with disabilities in all matters relating to marriage, family, parenthood and relationships, on an equal basis with others, so as to ensure that:

(a) The right of all persons with disabilities who are of marriageable age to marry and to found a family on the basis of free and full consent of the intending spouses is recognized;
(b) The rights of persons with disabilities to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to age-appropriate information, reproductive and family planning education are recognized, and the means necessary to enable them to exercise these rights are provided;
(c) Persons with disabilities, including children, retain their fertility on an equal basis with others.

2. States Parties shall ensure the rights and responsibilities of persons with disabilities, with regard to guardianship, wardship, trusteeship, adoption of children or similar institutions, where these concepts exist in national legislation; in all cases the best interests of the child shall be paramount. States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to persons with disabilities in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities.

3. States Parties shall ensure that children with disabilities have equal rights with respect to family life. With a view to realizing these rights, and to prevent concealment, abandonment, neglect and segregation of children with disabilities, States Parties shall undertake to provide early and comprehensive information, services and support to children with disabilities and their families.

4. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. In no case shall a child be separated from parents on the basis of a disability of either the child or one or both of the parents.

5. States Parties shall, where the immediate family is unable to care for a child with disabilities, undertake every effort to provide alternative care within the wider family, and failing that, within the community in a family setting.





Article 24, Education

1. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. With a view to realizing this right without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunity, States Parties shall ensure an inclusive education system at all levels and life long learning directed to:

(a) The full development of human potential and sense of dignity and self-worth, and the strengthening of respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and human diversity;
(b) The development by persons with disabilities of their personality, talents and creativity, as well as their mental and physical abilities, to their fullest potential;
(c) Enabling persons with disabilities to participate effectively in a free society.

2. In realizing this right, States Parties shall ensure that:
(a) Persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability, and that children with disabilities are not excluded from free and compulsory primary education, or from secondary education, on the basis of disability;
(b) Persons with disabilities can access an inclusive, quality and free primary education and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live;
(c) Reasonable accommodation of the individual’s requirements is provided;
(d) Persons with disabilities receive the support required, within the general education system, to facilitate their effective education;
(e) Effective individualized support measures are provided in environments that maximize academic and social development, consistent with the goal of full inclusion.

3. States Parties shall enable persons with disabilities to learn life and social development skills to facilitate their full and equal participation in education and as members of the community. To this end, States Parties shall take appropriate measures, including:

(a) Facilitating the learning of Braille, alternative script, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication and orientation and mobility skills, and facilitating peer support and mentoring;
(b) Facilitating the learning of sign language and the promotion of the linguistic identity of the deaf community;
(c) Ensuring that the education of persons, and in particular children, who are blind, deaf or deafblind, is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social development.

4. In order to help ensure the realization of this right, States Parties shall take appropriate measures to employ teachers, including teachers with disabilities, who are qualified in sign language and/or Braille, and to train professionals and staff who work at all levels of education. Such training shall incorporate disability awareness and the use of appropriate augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, educational techniques and materials to support persons with disabilities.

5. States Parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities are able to access general tertiary education, vocational training, adult education and lifelong learning without discrimination and on an equal basis with others. To this end, States Parties shall ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided to persons with disabilities.

Article 25, Health

States Parties recognize that persons with disabilities have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without discrimination on the basis of disability. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure access for persons with disabilities to health services that are gender-sensitive, including health-related rehabilitation. In particular, States Parties shall:

(a) Provide persons with disabilities with the same range, quality and standard of free or affordable health care and programmes as provided to other persons, including in the area of sexual and reproductive health and population-based public health programmes;
(b) Provide those health services needed by persons with disabilities specifically because of their disabilities, including early identification and intervention as appropriate, and services designed to minimize and prevent further disabilities, including among children and older persons;
(c) Provide these health services as close as possible to people’s own communities, including in rural areas;
(d) Require health professionals to provide care of the same quality to persons with disabilities as to others, including on the basis of free and informed consent by, inter alia, raising awareness of the human rights, dignity, autonomy and needs of persons with disabilities through training and the promulgation of ethical standards for public and private health care;
(e) Prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the provision of health insurance, and life insurance where such insurance is permitted by national law, which shall be provided in a fair and reasonable manner;
(f) Prevent discriminatory denial of health care or health services or food and fluids on the basis of disability.

Article 26, Habilitation and rehabilitation

1. States Parties shall take effective and appropriate measures, including through peer support, to enable persons with disabilities to attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability, and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life. To that end, States Parties shall organize, strengthen and extend comprehensive habilitation and rehabilitation services and programmes, particularly in the areas of health, employment, education and social services, in such a way that these services and programmes:

(a) Begin at the earliest possible stage, and are based on the multidisciplinary assessment of individual needs and strengths;
(b) Support participation and inclusion in the community and all aspects of society, are voluntary, and are available to persons with disabilities as close as possible to their own communities, including in rural areas.

2. States Parties shall promote the development of initial and continuing training for professionals and staff working in habilitation and rehabilitation services.

3. States Parties shall promote the availability, knowledge and use of assistive devices and technologies, designed for persons with disabilities, as they relate to habilitation and rehabilitation.





Article 27, Work and employment

1. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal basis with others; this includes the right to the opportunity to gain a living by work freely chosen or accepted in a labour market and work environment that is open, inclusive and accessible to persons with disabilities. States Parties shall safeguard and promote the realization of the right to work, including for those who acquire a disability during the course of employment, by taking appropriate steps, including through legislation, to, inter alia:

(a) Prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability with regard to all matters concerning all forms of employment, including conditions of recruitment, hiring and employment, continuance of employment, career advancement and safe and healthy working conditions;
(b) Protect the rights of persons with disabilities, on an equal basis with others, to just and favourable conditions of work, including equal opportunities and equal remuneration for work of equal value, safe and healthy working conditions, including protection from harassment, and the redress of grievances;
(c) Ensure that persons with disabilities are able to exercise their labour and trade union rights on an equal basis with others;
(d) Enable persons with disabilities to have effective access to general technical and vocational guidance programmes, placement services and vocational and continuing training;
(e) Promote employment opportunities and career advancement for persons with disabilities in the labour market, as well as assistance in finding, obtaining, maintaining and returning to employment;
(f) Promote opportunities for self-employment, entrepreneurship, the development of cooperatives and starting one’s own business;
(g) Employ persons with disabilities in the public sector;
(h) Promote the employment of persons with disabilities in the private sector through appropriate policies and measures, which may include affirmative action programmes, incentives and other measures;
(i) Ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided to persons with disabilities in the workplace;
(j) Promote the acquisition by persons with disabilities of work experience in the open labour market;
(k) Promote vocational and professional rehabilitation, job retention and return-to-work programmes for persons with disabilities.

2. States Parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities are not held in slavery or in servitude, and are protected, on an equal basis with others, from forced or compulsory labour.

Article 28, Adequate standard of living and social protection

1. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions, and shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the realization of this right without discrimination on the basis of disability.

2. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to social protection and to the enjoyment of that right without discrimination on the basis of disability, and shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the realization of this right, including measures:

(a) To ensure equal access by persons with disabilities to clean water services, and to ensure access to appropriate and affordable services, devices and other assistance for disability-related needs;
(b) To ensure access by persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities and older persons with disabilities, to social protection programmes and poverty reduction programmes;
(c) To ensure access by persons with disabilities and their families living in situations of poverty to assistance from the State with disability-related expenses, including adequate training, counselling, financial assistance and respite care;
(d) To ensure access by persons with disabilities to public housing programmes;
(e) To ensure equal access by persons with disabilities to retirement benefits and programmes.

Article 29, Participation in political and public life

States Parties shall guarantee to persons with disabilities political rights and the opportunity to enjoy them on an equal basis with others, and shall undertake to:
(a) Ensure that persons with disabilities can effectively and fully participate in political and public life on an equal basis with others, directly or through freely chosen representatives, including the right and opportunity for persons with disabilities to vote and be elected, inter alia, by:

(i) Ensuring that voting procedures, facilities and materials are appropriate, accessible and easy to understand and use;
(ii) Protecting the right of persons with disabilities to vote by secret ballot in elections and public referendums without intimidation, and to stand for elections, to effectively hold office and perform all public functions at all levels of government, facilitating the use of assistive and new technologies where appropriate;
(iii) Guaranteeing the free expression of the will of persons with disabilities as electors and to this end, where necessary, at their request, allowing assistance in voting by a person of their own choice;

(b) Promote actively an environment in which persons with disabilities can effectively and fully participate in the conduct of public affairs, without discrimination and on an equal basis with others, and encourage their participation in public affairs, including:

(i) Participation in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country, and in the activities and administration of political parties;
(ii) Forming and joining organizations of persons with disabilities to represent persons with disabilities at international, national, regional and local levels.





Article 30, Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport

1. States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to take part on an equal basis with others in cultural life, and shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that persons with disabilities:
(a) Enjoy access to cultural materials in accessible formats;
(b) Enjoy access to television programmes, films, theatre and other cultural activities, in accessible formats;
(c) Enjoy access to places for cultural performances or services, such as theatres, museums, cinemas, libraries and tourism services, and, as far as possible, enjoy access to monuments and sites of national cultural importance.

2. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to enable persons with disabilities to have the opportunity to develop and utilize their creative, artistic and intellectual potential, not only for their own benefit, but also for the enrichment of society.

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate steps, in accordance with international law, to ensure that laws protecting intellectual property rights do not constitute an unreasonable or discriminatory barrier to access by persons with disabilities to cultural materials.

4. Persons with disabilities shall be entitled, on an equal basis with others, to recognition and support of their specific cultural and linguistic identity, including sign languages and deaf culture.

5. With a view to enabling persons with disabilities to participate on an equal basis with others in recreational, leisure and sporting activities, States Parties shall take appropriate measures:
(a) To encourage and promote the participation, to the fullest extent possible, of persons with disabilities in mainstream sporting activities at all levels;
(b) To ensure that persons with disabilities have an opportunity to organize, develop and participate in disability-specific sporting and recreational activities and, to this end, encourage the provision, on an equal basis with others, of appropriate instruction, training and resources;
(c) To ensure that persons with disabilities have access to sporting, recreational and tourism venues;
(d) To ensure that children with disabilities have equal access with other children to participation in play, recreation and leisure and sporting activities, including those activities in the school system;
(e) To ensure that persons with disabilities have access to services from those involved in the organization of recreational, tourism, leisure and sporting activities.

Article 31, Statistics and data collection

1. States Parties undertake to collect appropriate information, including statistical and research data, to enable them to formulate and implement policies to give effect to the present Convention. The process of collecting and maintaining this information shall:

(a) Comply with legally established safeguards, including legislation on data protection, to ensure confidentiality and respect for the privacy of persons with disabilities;
(b) Comply with internationally accepted norms to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and ethical principles in the collection and use of statistics.

2. The information collected in accordance with this article shall be disaggregated, as appropriate, and used to help assess the implementation of States Parties’ obligations under the present Convention and to identify and address the barriers faced by persons with disabilities in exercising their rights.

3. States Parties shall assume responsibility for the dissemination of these statistics and ensure their accessibility to persons with disabilities and others.

Article 32, International cooperation

1. States Parties recognize the importance of international cooperation and its promotion, in support of national efforts for the realization of the purpose and objectives of the present Convention, and will undertake appropriate and effective measures in this regard, between and among States and, as appropriate, in partnership with relevant international and regional organizations and civil society, in particular organizations of persons with disabilities. Such measures could include, inter alia:

(a) Ensuring that international cooperation, including international development programmes, is inclusive of and accessible to persons with disabilities;
(b) Facilitating and supporting capacity-building, including through the exchange and sharing of information, experiences, training programmes and best practices;
(c) Facilitating cooperation in research and access to scientific and technical knowledge;
(d) Providing, as appropriate, technical and economic assistance, including by facilitating access to and sharing of accessible and assistive technologies, and through the transfer of technologies.

2. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the obligations of each State Party to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention.

Article 33, National implementation and monitoring

1. States Parties, in accordance with their system of organization, shall designate one or more focal points within government for matters relating to the implementation of the present Convention, and shall give due consideration to the establishment or designation of a coordination mechanism within government to facilitate related action in different sectors and at different levels.

2. States Parties shall, in accordance with their legal and administrative systems, maintain, strengthen, designate or establish within the State Party, a framework, including one or more independent mechanisms, as appropriate, to promote, protect and monitor implementation of the present Convention. When designating or establishing such a mechanism, States Parties shall take into account the principles relating to the status and functioning of national institutions for protection and promotion of human rights.

3. Civil society, in particular persons with disabilities and their representative organizations, shall be involved and participate fully in the monitoring process.





Article 34, Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

1. There shall be established a Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereafter referred to as “the Committee”), which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall consist, at the time of entry into force of the present Convention, of twelve experts. After an additional sixty ratifications or accessions to the Convention, the membership of the Committee shall increase by six members, attaining a maximum number of eighteen members.

3. The members of the Committee shall serve in their personal capacity and shall be of high moral standing and recognized competence and experience in the field covered by the present Convention. When nominating their candidates, States Parties are invited to give due consideration to the provision set out in article 4.3 of the present Convention.

4. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, representation of the different forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems, balanced gender representation and participation of experts with disabilities.

5. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by the States Parties from among their nationals at meetings of the Conference of States Parties. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

6. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of entry into force of the present Convention. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit the nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the State Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.

7. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election once. However, the term of six of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these six members shall be chosen by lot by the chairperson of the meeting referred to in paragraph 5 of this article.

8. The election of the six additional members of the Committee shall be held on the occasion of regular elections, in accordance with the relevant provisions of this article.

9. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause she or he can no longer perform her or his duties, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert possessing the qualifications and meeting the requirements set out in the relevant provisions of this article, to serve for the remainder of the term.

10. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.

11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention, and shall convene its initial meeting.

12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee’s responsibilities.

13. The members of the Committee shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

Article 35, Reports by States Parties

1. Each State Party shall submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, a comprehensive report on measures taken to give effect to its obligations under the present Convention and on the progress made in that regard, within two years after the entry into force of the present Convention for the State Party concerned.

2. Thereafter, States Parties shall submit subsequent reports at least every four years and further whenever the Committee so requests.

3. The Committee shall decide any guidelines applicable to the content of the reports.

4. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports, repeat information previously provided. When preparing reports to the Committee, States Parties are invited to consider doing so in an open and transparent process and to give due consideration to the provision set out in article 4.3 of the present Convention.

5. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of fulfilment of obligations under the present Convention.

Article 36, Consideration of reports

1. Each report shall be considered by the Committee, which shall make such suggestions and general recommendations on the report as it may consider appropriate and shall forward these to the State Party concerned. The State Party may respond with any information it chooses to the Committee. The Committee may request further information from States Parties relevant to the implementation of the present Convention.

2. If a State Party is significantly overdue in the submission of a report, the Committee may notify the State Party concerned of the need to examine the implementation of the present Convention in that State Party, on the basis of reliable information available to the Committee, if the relevant report is not submitted within three months following the notification. The Committee shall invite the State Party concerned to participate in such examination. Should the State Party respond by submitting the relevant report, the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article will apply.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make available the reports to all States Parties.

4. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries and facilitate access to the suggestions and general recommendations relating to these reports.

5. The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, funds and programmes of the United Nations, and other competent bodies, reports from States Parties in order to address a request or indication of a need for technical advice or assistance contained therein, along with the Committee's observations and recommendations, if any, on these requests or indications.

Article 37, Cooperation between States Parties and the Committee

1. Each State Party shall cooperate with the Committee and assist its members in the fulfilment of their mandate.

2. In its relationship with States Parties, the Committee shall give due consideration to ways and means of enhancing national capacities for the implementation of the present Convention, including through international cooperation.





Article 38, Relationship of the Committee with other bodies

In order to foster the effective implementation of the present Convention and to encourage international cooperation in the field covered by the present Convention:
(a) The specialized agencies and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite specialized agencies and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;

(b) The Committee, as it discharges its mandate, shall consult, as appropriate, other relevant bodies instituted by international human rights treaties, with a view to ensuring the consistency of their respective reporting guidelines, suggestions and general recommendations, and avoiding duplication and overlap in the performance of their functions.

Article 39, Report of the Committee

The Committee shall report every two years to the General Assembly and to the Economic and Social Council on its activities, and may make suggestions and general recommendations based on the examination of reports and information received from the States Parties. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be included in the report of the Committee together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

Article 40, Conference of States Parties
1. The States Parties shall meet regularly in a Conference of States Parties in order to consider any matter with regard to the implementation of the present Convention.

2. No later than six months after the entry into force of the present Convention, the Conference of the States Parties shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The subsequent meetings shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations biennially or upon the decision of the Conference of States Parties.

Article 41, Depositary

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of the present Convention.

Article 42, Signature

The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States and by regional integration organizations at United Nations Headquarters in New York as of 30 March 2007.

Article 43, Consent to be bound
The present Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States and to formal confirmation by signatory regional integration organizations. It shall be open for accession by any State or regional integration organization which has not signed the Convention.

Article 44, Regional integration organizations

1. "Regional integration organization" shall mean an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention. Such organizations shall declare, in their instruments of formal confirmation or accession, the extent of their competence with respect to matters governed by this Convention. Subsequently, they shall inform the depositary of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

2. References to “States Parties” in the present Convention shall apply to such organizations within the limits of their competence.

3. For the purposes of article 45, paragraph 1, and article 47, paragraphs 2 and 3, any instrument deposited by a regional integration organization shall not be counted.

4. Regional integration organizations, in matters within their competence, may exercise their right to vote in the Conference of States Parties, with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

Article 45, Entry into force
1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State or regional integration organization ratifying, formally confirming or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth such instrument, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit of its own such instrument.

Article 47, Amendments

1. Any State Party may propose an amendment to the present Convention and submit it to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall communicate any proposed amendments to States Parties, with a request to be notified whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and deciding upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of two thirds of the States Parties present and voting shall be submitted by the Secretary-General to the General Assembly for approval and thereafter to all States Parties for acceptance.

2. An amendment adopted and approved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the number of instruments of acceptance deposited reaches two thirds of the number of States Parties at the date of adoption of the amendment. Thereafter, the amendment shall enter into force for any State Party on the thirtieth day following the deposit of its own instrument of acceptance. An amendment shall be binding only on those States Parties which have accepted it.

3. If so decided by the Conference of States Parties by consensus, an amendment adopted and approved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article which relates exclusively to articles 34, 38, 39 and 40 shall enter into force for all States Parties on the thirtieth day after the number of instruments of acceptance deposited reaches two thirds of the number of States Parties at the date of adoption of the amendment.

Article 48, Denunciation
A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The denunciation shall become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 49, Accessible format
The text of the present Convention shall be made available in accessible formats.

Article 50, Authentic texts
The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of the present Convention shall be equally authentic.

In witness thereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.





CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
(Unofficial Plain-language Version)

PREAMBLE

The countries that agree to this document recognize:

a. The founding documents of the UN say that we are all equal and we are all members of the human family. This is important for freedom, justice, and peace in the world,
b. We are all equal, and all of us have the same human rights,
c. All human beings everywhere in the world have all human rights. These rights cannot be divided. People with disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and they must not be discriminated against,
d. There are seven other international agreements that promote and protect human rights,
e. Disability is something that changes all the time. It is the environment and people's attitudes that create disability,
f. It is important to keep in mind what the Standard Rules and the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons are trying to achieve when trying to make laws, rules, decisions, programs, and practice better for people with disabilities,

g. It is very important to make sure that the situation of people with disabilities is always equally taken into consideration when governments and international organizations make plans about a country’s growth (for example, about how to get people out of poverty or get them jobs),
h. When someone discriminates against people with disabilities, he or she takes away their dignity and value as human beings,
i. There are many differences among people with disabilities,
j. All people with disabilities must have their rights, including people with disabilities who need extra support,
k. The rights of people with disabilities are still being taken away, even though there are agreements that protect their rights,
l. It is important that countries work with one another to make life better for people with disabilities, especially in poor countries,
m. If people with disabilities are fully included and enjoy their rights, they help make their countries better,
n. It is very important that people with disabilities are free to make their own decisions,
o. People with disabilities should be included in the making of policies and programs, especially those that are directly related to them,
p. People with disabilities are not only discriminated against because of their disabilities, but also for many other reasons, including their race and sex.

q. Women and girls with disabilities are more often abused, beaten, injured, or taken advantage of,
r. Children with disabilities have the same rights as all other children, and that the international agreement on children's rights also applies to them,
s. It is important for a country to consider the situations of both women and men in everything it does for the human rights of people with disabilities,
t. It is also very important to remember that most people with disabilities are poor, and it is necessary to find out how their poverty affects them,
u. We must have peace and security to make sure people with disabilities can have their rights, especially when they live in war zones or in countries that are not run by their own government,
v. It is very important for people with disabilities to be able to enjoy all areas of life, to have good health care, to go to school, and to have the information they need so that they can use their rights,
w. Every person has the duty to make sure everyone else enjoys his or her rights,
x. The family is the main group in a society, and people with disabilities and their families should get the protection and help they need to be able to work for their human rights,
y. An Agreement that covers all areas of life will be very helpful in making lives of people with disabilities better and in making sure that people with disabilities are treated equally and equally included in all areas of life, and in poor and richer countries.

Because of all the things listed here, the countries that decide to be part of this Agreement agree to the following:


ARTICLE 1: PURPOSE
This Agreement is made is to make sure that

  • the human rights and freedoms of all people with disabilities are enjoyed, promoted, and protected;
  • respect for the dignity of people with disabilities is promoted.
People with disabilities include those who have long-term impairments (for example, physical, psycho-social, intellectual) and who are not included in society for different reasons (for example, because of barriers like attitudes, language, physical barriers, laws).






ARTICLE 2: DEFINITIONS
"Communication" means all the ways that people can communicate (for example, spoken language, sign language, text, Braille, touch, large print, written, audio, plain language, human reader).

"Language" means all kinds of languages (for example, spoken, signed, and types of language that are not spoken).

"Discrimination on the basis of disability" means a person may be excluded, shut out, or prevented from doing things because of their disability. This discrimination can be in all areas of life.

"Reasonable Accommodation" means that a person may need to have changes made so they are able to enjoy their rights (for example, changes where they live or work). If some changes are too expensive or too difficult, then they may not have to be made.

"Universal Design" means that things are made, programs created, and places designed so that they can be used by all people. Sometimes someone with a particular type of disability may need something specially made so they can enjoy their rights.


ARTICLE 3: GENERAL PRINCIPLES
This Agreement is based on these principles:

  • Dignity
  • Ability to choose
  • Independence
  • Non-discrimination
  • Participation
  • Full inclusion
  • Respect for difference
  • Acceptance of people with disabilities as part of humanity
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Accessibility
  • Equality of men and women
  • Respect for children.


ARTICLE 4: GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
1. The countries that agree to this Agreement promise to make sure that all human rights apply to all people, without discrimination because of disability. To fulfill this promise, they will:

a. Make new laws, policies, and practices in their country that are like those in this Agreement;
b. Change or get rid of old rules, laws, and customs that discriminate against people with disabilities;
c. Make sure that the human rights of people with disabilities are included in all policies and programs;
d. Not do anything that goes against this Agreement, and make sure others respect the Agreement;
e. Take action to stop individuals, organizations, or businesses from discriminating because of disability;
f. Work on developing and making available affordable goods, services, equipment, and facilities that people with disabilities all over the world can use;
g. Work on developing affordable new technologies in all aspects of life that are useful for people with disabilities;
h. Provide information about all types of assistance, including technologies, in a way that all people with disabilities can understand;
i. Promote trainings about the rights in this Agreement for those who work with people with disabilities.

2. Put into practice laws and rules that relate to economic, social, and cultural rights as much as they can with resources they have. If need be, they can cooperate with other countries to put these rights into practice. All other rights must be put into practice right away.

3. When making laws and rules about this Agreement, the countries will talk to and involve people with disabilities, including children with disabilities, through the organizations that represent them.

4. Not let this Agreement change any laws or rules that are better for the rights of people with disabilities. Countries must not use the Agreement as an excuse to not put into practice human rights that already exist.

5. Apply this Agreement to the country as a whole.


ARTICLE 5: EQUALITY AND NON-DISCRIMINATION
1. All people with disabilities are equal before the law and protected by the law without any discrimination.

2. Discrimination because of a disability will not be allowed and people with disabilities will be protected from such discrimination.

3. If a person with a disability needs changes made to his or her environment in order to enjoy his or her rights, then those changes will be made.

4. If people with disabilities need special actions in order to become equal to others, this type of treatment is not unfair to others.






ARTICLE 6: WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES
1. Women and girls with disabilities face many kinds of discrimination. Countries will make sure girls and women enjoy full and equal human rights and freedoms.

2. Countries will take action to support the growth and empowerment of women with disabilities so that they can use and enjoy their rights.


ARTICLE 7: CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES
1. Children with disabilities have the same rights as other children.

2. Anything concerning children with disabilities must be done for the good of the child.

3. Children with disabilities have the right to give their opinions and have their opinions listened to. Children with disabilities should get the help they need to give their opinions.


ARTICLE 8: AWARENESS-RAISING
1. The countries will:
a. Help families and all people in society be more aware of the issues facing people with disabilities. They will work to make sure that the rights and dignity of people with disabilities are respected;
b. Fight against stereotypes and prejudices about people with disabilities; (Stereotypes are general and incorrect beliefs that some people have about other people. These beliefs are often damaging and lead to discrimination.)
c. Help everyone be aware what people with disabilities can do and how they can help the country grow.

2. The countries will also:
a. Make everyone aware of the rights of people with disabilities:

I. Show that people with disabilities have the same rights as everyone else;
II. Highlight disability in the community and change misunderstandings about disability;
III. Show the skills of people with disabilities and how they can be put to use.
b. Make sure that schools teach respect for the rights of people with disabilities;
c. Encourage media (for example, radio, television, newspapers and magazines) to show images of people with disabilities that promote the rights of people with disabilities;
d. Promote training programs to make people aware of the rights of people with disabilities.


ARTICLE 9: ACCESSIBILITY
1. The countries will get rid of barriers that people with disabilities face. This way people with disabilities can live independently and fully live their lives.

The countries will get rid of barriers in;
a. Buildings, roads, transportation and indoor and outdoor objects (for example, in schools, housing, hospitals, health centers, and workplaces);
b. Information, communications, and other services (for example, electronic services and emergency services).

2. The countries will also;
a. Set standards for accessibility of public places and services;
b. Make sure that private businesses and organizations open to the public are accessible;
c. Train people about what people with disabilities need when it comes to accessibility;
d. Have Braille signs and easy to read and understand information in public buildings;
e. Provide help so people with disabilities can access buildings open to the public (for example, readers, sign language interpreters, and guides);
f. Provide other types of help people with disabilities need to get access to information;
g. Promote to new technologies for people with disabilities;
h. Promote new technology that improve access to information and communications for people with disabilities.


ARTICLE 10: RIGHT TO LIFE
All people with disabilities have the right to life. The countries will act to make sure people with disabilities can use this right.


ARTICLE 11: SITUATIONS OF RISK AND HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES
The countries will make sure that people with disabilities are protected in times of war, natural disasters, or other emergencies.


ARTICLE 12: EQUAL RECOGNITION AS A PERSON BEFORE THE LAW
1. People with disabilities have the right to be recognized as people before the law.

2. People with disabilities are capable like all other people on legal issues in all areas of their lives.

3. People with disabilities have a right to get support if they need it to make decisions about legal issues.

4. When people with disabilities need support on legal or financial issues:

  • They will be protected from abuse;
  • Their rights and their choices will be respected;
  • People who give support will not pressure people with disabilities into making a decision;
  • They get the help they need, only for the time they need it and only as much as they need;
  • The courts will review the support received.
5. The countries will make sure that people with disabilities:
  1. Have the right to own or get property;
  2. Have the right to control their money or other financial affairs;
  3. Have the same opportunities as other people to get bank loans, mortgages and credit;
  4. Cannot have property taken away without a reason.






ARTICLE 13: ACCESS TO JUSTICE
1. The countries will make sure that people with disabilities can access the justice system in their countries just like all other people. Any rules about how things should be done should be adapted so that people with disabilities can be involved in all stages of legal processes, (for example, being a witness).

2. People working in the justice system (for example, police and prison staff) should have training in how to improve access for people with disabilities.


ARTICLE 14: LIBERTY AND SECURITY
1. The countries will:
a. Make sure that people with disabilities have the same right to liberty and security as all other people;
b. Make sure that this right is not taken away from people with disabilities because they have a disability or in any illegal way.

2. The countries will make sure that if a person has had his or her liberty taken, he or she will be protected by law. They will also make sure that changes are made to the individual's environment if they are needed for that person to enjoy his or her human rights.


ARTICLE 15: FREEDOM FROM TORTURE OR CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT
1. Nobody will be tortured, or be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way. Nobody will be forced to take part in medical or scientific experiments.

2. The countries agree to pass laws, and take other action to make sure that people with disabilities are protected from torture just like all other people.


ARTICLE 16: FREEDOM FROM EXPLOITATION, VIOLENCE AND ABUSE
The countries will:

1. Pass laws and take other action to make sure people with disabilities are not exploited or abused, both inside and outside their home.

2. Take action to prevent abuse of people with disabilities by giving help and appropriate information to people with disabilities and their families.

3. Make sure that places and programs serving people with disabilities are regularly looked at to make sure there is no violence or abuse.

4. Support people with disabilities with their recovery and reintegration into society if they have been victims of violence and abuse.

5. Create laws and policies to investigate and punish people who abuse or mistreat people with disabilities. These laws and policies will include the needs of women and children.


ARTICLE 17: PROTECTING INTEGRITY
People with disabilities have the same right as everyone else to have their physical and mental selves respected.


ARTICLE 18: FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND NATIONALITY
1. People with disabilities have the same rights as others to move around in their country or between countries, to choose where they live, and to have a nationality.

The countries will make sure that people with disabilities:
a. Have the right to get and to change their nationality. Nobody can take away their nationality without a reason or because of a disability;
b. Cannot have their passports or other identification of nationality taken away without a reason or because of a disability, and that they are allowed to try to move to another country;
c. Are free to leave their own country and any other country;
d. Cannot be stopped from entering their own country without a reason or because of a disability.

2. Children with disabilities will be registered immediately after they are born. They will have the right to a name, to a nationality, and as much as possible the right to know their parents and be raised by their own parents.


ARTICLE 19: LIVING INDEPENDENTLY AND BEING INCLUDED IN THE COMMUNITY
All people with disabilities have the same right as anyone else to live in the community, to be fully included and to participate in the community.

The countries will make sure that people with disabilities:
a. Have the same opportunities as other people to choose whom they live with and where they live. They should not be forced to live in institutions or in other living arrangements that they do not like;
b. Have a range of choices on where and how to live in the community, including personal assistance to help with inclusion in the community and prevent them from being isolated;
c. Can use community services that are available to the public, which may need to be adapted to a particular person's needs.






ARTICLE 20: PERSONAL MOBILITY
The countries will make sure that people with disabilities can move around with the greatest possible independence, including:
a. Assisting people to move around in the way at the time they choose, and at a cost that they can afford;
b. Assisting people with disabilities to access mobility aids and technology, including making sure they do not cost a lot;
c. Providing training in mobility skills for people with disabilities and staff working with them;
d. Encouraging those that produce mobility aids and technology to take into account all aspects of movement.

ARTICLE 21: FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND OPINION AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION
The countries will make sure that people with disabilities have the right to say what they think through Braille, sign language, or any other types of communication that they choose.

The countries will make sure people with disabilities have the same right as other people to give and receive information, including:
a. Providing information intended for the general public to people with disabilities in formats that are adequate for them without extra cost (for example, Braille);
b. Accepting the use of different ways people with disabilities communicate in official situations;
c. Encouraging private businesses and organizations that serve the public to make their services more accessible for people with disabilities;
d. Encouraging the media to make their information accessible to people with disabilities;
e. Agreeing to, and promoting the use of, sign language


ARTICLE 22: RESPECT FOR PRIVACY
1. No matter where people with disabilities live, no one can interfere in their private life, enter their home, open their mail, bother their family, or harm their good name without a good reason. People with disabilities have the right to be protected by the law from such attacks.

2. Information about people with disabilities, their health, and rehabilitation is private and protected.


ARTICLE 23: RESPECT FOR HOME AND THE FAMILY
1. The countries will stop discrimination against people with disabilities when it comes to marriage and family relations and make sure that:
a. People with disabilities have the same right as other people to marry and have a family;
b. People with disabilities have the same rights as other people to have children and to decide how many children to have and when to have them. They should get information on reproduction and family planning and help to understand this information;
c. People with disabilities have the same right as everyone else to keep their fertility.

2. People with disabilities have the rights and responsibilities related to caring for or adopting children, with the most important concern being what is best for the child. The countries will give people with disabilities any help they need to raise their children.

3. Children with disabilities have the same rights as everyone else to a family life. To prevent abuse, the countries will provide information, services, and support to children with disabilities and their families.

4. Children must not be taken away from their parents against their will, unless it is best for them and is done legally. A child cannot be separated from parents because of the parent's or the child’s disability.

5. If close family members cannot care for a child with a disability, the countries will look for another relative or someone in the local community to care for the child.


ARTICLE 24: EDUCATION
1. All people with disabilities have the right to education. The countries will make sure that the entire education system includes people with disabilities, and that the educational system works to:
a. develop everyone’s human potential, sense of dignity, and self worth, as well as respect for human rights, freedoms, and diversity;
b. develop the personality and talents of people with disabilities to their fullest potential;
c. make it possible for people with disabilities to be involved in society.

2. To do this, the countries will make sure that:
a. People with disabilities are not kept out of education because of their disability, and children with disabilities are not kept out of free and required primary or from secondary education because of their disability;
b. All people with disabilities can choose education that includes them, is accessible and is in their own community;
c. Reasonable changes are made to make sure that people with disabilities get the most out of their education;
d. People with disabilities get the help they need to get the most out of their education;
e. The individual needs of students with disabilities receive are met.

3. The countries will make it possible for people with disabilities to learn social and life skills they need to go to schools and be in the community. They will do this by:
a. Arranging that students learn skills for communication (for example, Braille) and movement, and that they get support from other people with disabilities of their own age;
b. Teaching sign language;
c. Making sure that especially children who are blind, deaf or deafblind are educated in the most appropriate types of communication so that they get the most out of their education.

4. To help make sure that these rights are put into practice, the countries will hire teachers who are people with disabilities, teachers who are qualified in Braille and sign languages, and will train teachers and staff at all levels of education on how to give quality education to people with disabilities.

5. Countries will make sure that people with disabilities have equal access to vocational training, to universities and to lifelong learning like all other people, and will make any changes needed to make that happen.






ARTICLE 25: HEALTH
All people with disabilities have the same right to quality health care, without discrimination because of their disability. The countries will make sure that health and rehabilitation services are available, including:
a. Making sure that people with disabilities get the same variety, quality, and standard of free and affordable health care as other people;
b. Making sure that people with disabilities can get services they need because of their disability and to protect them from further disability;
c. Having health services in people’s own communities;
d. Making sure through training and standards that health workers give the same quality care to people with disabilities as to others, including getting their agreement;
e. Stopping discrimination against people with disabilities about health insurance and life insurance;
f. Making sure that people with disabilities will not be discriminated against and denied health care or health services, or food and fluids, because of their disability.


ARTICLE 26: HABILITATION AND REHABILITATION
1. The countries will take action (for example, by promoting peer support) to make it possible for people with disabilities to enjoy maximum independence, their full abilities, and inclusion in all aspects of life. To make sure this happens, the countries will make available services that cover all areas of life, both in habilitation and rehabilitation, so that they:
a. Begin as early as possible, and are suited to a person's strengths and needs;
b. Help people with disabilities be involved in the community and are voluntary and available as close as possible to their communities. (Habilitation is a process that helps people who are born with a disability or acquire a disability at an early age get new skills, abilities, and knowledge. Rehabilitation refers to the process of re-gaining lost skills or abilities.)

2. The countries will promote training for people working in habilitation and rehabilitation services.

3. The countries will promote the use of assistive devices and other types of aid as they relate to habilitation and rehabilitation.


ARTICLE 27: WORK AND EMPLOYMENT
1. People with disabilities have the same right to work as other people. They have the right to earn a living from work they choose in a work environment that is open and accessible to all people. The countries will pass laws and take other action needed to:
a. Stop discrimination because of disability in all work situations, including trying to get jobs, getting hired, keeping a job, being promoted and working in safe and healthy conditions;
b. Protect the rights of people with disabilities to equal pay for equal work, equal opportunity, safe and healthy working conditions, and the ability to make complaints;
c. Make sure that people with disabilities can organize and join labor unions and trade unions like everyone else;
d. Make it possible for people with disabilities to get career counseling and job trainings;
e. Promote job opportunities and promotions and help people with disabilities to find and keep jobs;
f. Promote self-employment, business opportunities, cooperatives, and start-up businesses;
g. Hire people with disabilities in the government;
h. Encourage and help employers to hire people with disabilities;
i. Make it easy for people with disabilities to be in the work place and work environment by making sure reasonable adjustments are made for them;
j. Make sure that people with disabilities can gain work experience in the labor market;
k. Promote programs to support people with disabilities to return to work and keep their jobs.

2. The countries will make sure that people with disabilities are not made slaves. They will protect people with disabilities from forced labor as all other people are protected.


ARTICLE 28: ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING AND SOCIAL PROTECTION
1. People with disabilities have the right to a good standard of living for themselves and their families. This includes enough food, clothing, housing, and continued improvement of their living conditions.

2. People with disabilities have the right to social protection by the government, without discrimination because of disability. The countries will protect this right, including by making sure that:
a. People with disabilities can get the services, equipment, and help they need;
b. People with disabilities have access to financial assistance and programs that help them get out of poverty. This especially applies to women and girls and older people with disabilities;
c. People with disabilities and their families who live in poverty get help from the government to be able to pay for expenses related to their disability;
d. People with disabilities have access to government housing programs;
e. People with disabilities can get pensions.


ARTICLE 29: PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL AND PUBLIC LIFE
People with disabilities have the rights same political rights as all other people. The countries will:

  1. Make sure that people with disabilities can be fully involved in political and public life, for example by having the right to vote and be elected. To do this they should make sure:
    1. That voting is easy to understand and accessible;
    2. That people with disabilities can vote in secret and to be elected and hold office;
    3. That people with disabilities can get help in voting from someone of their choice.
  2. Encourage people with disabilities to be involved in the government and public affairs, including:
    1. Being involved in non-governmental organizations and associations focused on the activities of political parties and civil society;
    2. Making and belonging to organizations to represent people with disabilities internationally, nationally, regionally and locally.






ARTICLE 30: PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL LIFE, RECREATION, LEISURE AND SPORT
1. People with disabilities have the right to take part in cultural life. The countries will take action to make sure that:
a. People with disabilities have access to literature and the arts in formats they can use;
b. People with disabilities can get television programs, film, theatre and other cultural activities in a way that they will understand, for example with captioning and sign language;
c. People with disabilities can access cultural performances and services such as libraries, museums, theatres and important places.

2. The countries will make it possible for people with disabilities to develop and use their creative, artistic, and intellectual talents.

3. The countries will make sure that laws that protect documents and other writings and inventions from forgery or copying do not discriminate against people with disabilities.

4. People with disabilities have the right, just like everyone else, to have their culture and language recognized, for example sign languages and deaf culture.

5. People with disabilities have the same right as others to take part in recreation, leisure and sports. The countries will take action to:
a. Promote and encourage people with disabilities to take part in sports with people without disabilities at all levels;
b. Make sure that people with disabilities have a chance to organize and participate in sport activities, and to receive the same training and support as other people;
c. Make sure that people with disabilities can get to sports and recreation arenas as other people can;
d. Make sure that children with disabilities can participate in play and sports at school like other children;
e. Make sure that person with disabilities can get services to help organize recreational and sporting activities.


ARTICLE 31: STATISTICS AND DATA COLLECTION
1. The countries will collect and look at information about people with disabilities to put into practice this Agreement. In collecting and using this information they will:
a. Respect people's right to privacy. The information should be given only if people agree;
b. Respect human rights and ethics.

2. The information collected will be put in useful groups so that the countries can learn more about barriers that exist for people with disabilities and understand better how to put this Agreement into practice.

3. The countries are responsible for giving out this information and making sure that people with disabilities can read and understand it.


ARTICLES 32 – 50: DUTIES OF GOVERNMENTS
These articles explain how people and governments should work together to make sure all people with disabilities get all their rights The main ideas are:

  • The countries should they work together to put this Agreement into practice.
  • People with disabilities and their organizations must be included in this work.
  • A UN Committee on the Rights of People with Disabilities will be created to make sure the countries keep their promises to this Agreement
  • The countries will write regular reports for the Committee telling how they’re putting this Agreement into practice.
  • The Committee will report regularly to the UN General Assembly and other groups and make suggestions on how this Agreement is being respected.
  • The countries that sign this agreement have the responsibility to put it into practice. However, they can decide not to accept certain parts that they disagree with.
  • This agreement should be made available in ways that people with disabilities can read or understand it.
Note: The United Nations General Assembly adopted this Agreement in December, 2006. Countries are now promising to put it into practice. When enough countries have done this, the Agreement will become international law.



Rights Of Persons With Disabilities









Respect For The Individual





Inclusion In The Community









Change In Society





HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

The following are the internet addresses for the principal instruments cited in Human Rights. YES!







ANNEX 2
FACILITATING HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION


Human Rights. YES! calls for a way of learning in which the participants are at the center of the experience and share authority and "ownership" for their own learning. The learning activities do not need a teacher but a facilitator, for everyone in the group is a learner engaged in a common effort towards a shared goal. Together they examine their own experiences and seek to come to individual conclusions. Because people cannot be told what to think, the goal of a learning activity is not some "right answer" or even agreement, but a cooperative exploration of ideas and issues.

Because this methodology assumes that everyone has the right to an opinion and respects individual differences, it is especially appropriate to a human rights learning. It encourages critical analysis of real-life situations and can lead to thoughtful and effective action to create change.

THE ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR

Facilitation does not usually come naturally. Mastering the art of facilitation requires both practice and a clear understanding of the role of the facilitator:

  • To establish a relationship of equality and cooperation with participants. The facilitator is "first among equals," but responsibility for learning rests with the whole group;
  • To create an environment of trust and openness. The facilitator helps everyone feel safe to speak honestly in a situation where differences of opinion, as well as differences in ability, are respected;
  • To ensure that everyone feels included and is enabled to participate;
  • To provide a structure for learning, which might include setting and observing meeting times, opening and closing sessions, and keeping to an agenda. The facilitator continually consults participants about the effectiveness of the structure.
  • To make sure the logistics are handled appropriately. This might include gathering and preparing materials, setting up the meeting space, notifying participants, and seeing that necessary preparations are made. Facilitating learning for people with disabilities also includes providing accommodations so that everyone can participate fully.

A facilitator is NOT -

  • a teacher or "the person in charge": The whole group is responsible for learning. The facilitator's role is to help that learning happen more effectively. The facilitator is a co-learner, exploring all subjects as an equal partner and contributing individual experience to that of others.
  • a judge: In active learning no one, least of all the facilitator, determines that some opinions are "correct" or "better."
  • necessarily an expert: Although preparing each session, the facilitator may not know as much about a subject as some other members of the group.
  • the center of attention: A good facilitator generally speak less than other participants; instead she or he draws others into the discussion.
  • the housekeeper: While the facilitator takes initial leadership in coordinating the sessions, she or he should not become the only person who takes responsibility.

As with any skill, the best way to learn to facilitate learning is to practice often and have a self-critical attitude, always seeking to improve.


INTERACTIVE LEARNING

The process of learning is more important than the content! The activities in Human Rights. Yes! are designed to actively involve participants in their own learning and acknowledge the differences in the ways that adults learn. Each session seeks to encourage participants in ­

  • concrete experience: to involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences;
  • reflective observation: to observe and to reflect on these experiences from many perspectives;
  • abstract conceptualization: to create concepts that integrate their observations into coherent theories;
  • active experimentation: to use these theories to make decisions, solve problems and take action.

The effectiveness of interactive learning techniques has been interpreted quantitatively by the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine, USA in an analysis that measured and contrasted average retention rates across a variety of teaching styles.


                    Method                                Average Retention Rate           
Lecture 5%
Reading 10%
Audio Visual 20%
Demonstration 30%
Group Discussion 75%
Teaching Others 80%





LEADING DISCUSSION

Discussion is one of the most important ways for people to participate in their own learning. Therefore every facilitator needs to learn to lead discussion skillfully.

  1. Ask open or leading questions. Most of the questions for discussion in Human Rights. YES! fall into these categories.

    An open question encourages a wide range of answers from the personal ("This reminds me of a time when I was a little girl...") to the objective ("I have heard that in some countries people with disabilities are not allowed to marry"). Open questions cannot be answered by "yes" or "no." For example, these are open questions:
    • How do you define "reasonable accommodation"?
    • Can a leader also be a follower?

    Leading questions take participants step by step towards a learning goal. Each question builds on the previous answer and leads to another question. Because the Greek philosopher Socrates used leading questions in his teaching, it is sometimes called the "Socratic method." For example, this is a series of leading questions:
    • Do you remember a time when you were not consulted about your opinion on something important that concerned you?
    • How might things have turned out differently if you had been consulted?
    • What are some results of this failure to permit you to express an opinion?
    • Why do you think that the CRPD has emphasized the right of people with disabilities to an opinion?

    Avoid too many subjective questions, which invite a strictly personal response and do not necessarily lead to dialogue or discussion. For example (e.g., Did I summarize what you said accurately? Are you ready for a break?). Also avoid closed questions that can be answered with a fact or just "yes" or "no" (e.g., What time is it? Did you enjoy that activity?).

  2. Respect all answers or opinions. The role of the facilitator is not to judge, and all participants need to have their opinions acknowledged and respected, regardless of what the facilitator thinks personally. However, comments that are disrespectful of other participants or contrary to the ethics of the learning partnership need to be addressed.

  3. Repeat and restate. The facilitator often needs to acknowledge that participants' comments were heard and understood. Sometimes the facilitator may need to restate a comment to make sure that it was understood, but it is important to get the participant's assent that the restatement was accurate ("Did I understand what you just said?").

  4. Signal attention. In addition to verbal responses, the facilitator can communicate attention in many ways, including tone of voice, "body language," writing down comments, and making eye contact,

  5. Resist imposing opinions. The facilitator's role is to invite sharing of opinions, not impose his or her opinions. As co-learner, facilitators may, of course, add their own views to the discussion, but only with discretion and tact.

  6. Control the traffic. The facilitator needs to ensure that no one dominates the conversation, that everyone gets a chance to speak, and that the discussion stays on topic.


ACCOMMODATING PARTICIPANTS WITH DISABILITIES

  1. Before the Workshop
    • If possible, find out well in advance who will attend and what accommodations they may need in order to participate fully.
    • Adapt your learning materials, agenda, and activities to ensure that everyone can participate (e.g., large print, Braille, plain language handouts.
    • Arrange any aids to communication that may be needed (e.g., sign language interpreters).
    • Brief any speakers or additional facilitators on making their presentations accessible.
    • Consider the safety and accessibility of the location:
      • Transportation to and from the meeting place
      • Access to the building
      • Access to and inside all meeting rooms
      • Access to bathrooms and eating areas.

  2. During the Workshop
    • Ask at the beginning if anyone is aware of barriers you have not anticipated.
    • Invite participants to let you know during the workshop if new barriers arise.
    • Be sensitive to differences among participants.
    • As a general practice, both write and speak aloud important points made by both you and participants.
    • Ask participants to decide when and for how long breaks will occur.
    • Plan extra time for participants with limited mobility to break into groups.
    • Be creative. Be prepared with more than one way of explaining important concepts, processes and instructions.

  3. Concluding and Following up the Workshop
    • Encourage participants to find ways to take action appropriate to their concerns, disabilities, and advocacy.
    • In your evaluation ask everyone whether they felt they were able to participate fully and equally.
    • Ask for feedback and advice on how to make future workshop more accessible.





PLANNING WORKSHOPS

Although workshops differ in their purpose, setting and duration, the chart below shows the basic component of any interactive workshop and may serve as a planning tool.

OPENING AND INTRODUCTIONS

  • Plan what happens when participants arrive (e.g., how they are greeted, get information, orient themselves). Be prepared to accommodate different kinds of disability.
  • Plan how participants will get to know each other. Consider using several modes (e.g., verbal such as self-introductions, visual such as nametags).

GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS

  • State the purpose and goals of the workshop orally and in writing.
  • Some goals may be general and process orientated: to understand, to appreciate, to now, to recognize. It is usually difficult to evaluate your learning impact with goals of this type (e.g., at the end of the workshop participants will understand shared leadership).
  • Other goals deal with concrete skills that you hope participants will acquire: to make, to write, to plan, to construct, to produce, to identify, to compare, to assemble, to draw, to solve, to measure.

PARTICIPANT EXPECTATIONS

  • Allow a time at the beginning for participants to state what they wanted to get out of the workshop.
  • Be willing to admit that some expectations are not possible to meet, (e.g., not within the capacity of the staff, the needs of the organization or the limitations for the funders), but also be willing to change the direction of the workshop to include expectations where possible, especially if many participants express that expectation.

AGENDA SETTING

  • Post a written agenda with times and names of presenters so participants know what to expect.
  • The agenda belongs to the group. Consult with participants about the agenda. Does it meet their needs (e.g., for covering the topic, allowing for breaks and rest)?
  • Especially in a workshop of several days, consult daily about the content and structure of the agenda.
  • Read this aloud at the start of every session on the agenda.

PRESENTATIONS AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  • If possible, have several different speakers and facilitators.
  • Use a variety of methodologies, keeping in mind that participants will have many different learning styles.
  • Adapt activities to the needs, interests and abilities of the participants.
  • Anticipate sleepy after-lunch and early-morning periods.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR REFLECTION AND QUESTIONING

  • Plan on time within the workshop for participants to reflect on what they are learning and experiencing. This might be some kind of journal, discussion in pairs or small groups, or simply a period of quiet.
  • Encourage participants to interject their questions or responses during the course of the workshop and/or set aside several periods for open comments.

SUMMING UP AND EVALUATION

  • At the end of the workshop (or every day in a long workshop), remind participants of the original goals and the activities and presentations that they have experienced in pursuit of that goal.
  • Prepare some anonymous method for participants to evaluate the workshop, both in terms of accomplishing its goals but also from the perspective of their individual experience. Make available alternatives to written evaluations for those who need it.
  • Summarize and keep the evaluation feedback from very workshop you do. Use it to improve your facilitation skills.

FOLLOWING UP

  • Provide a method for participants to stay in touch with each other and you and your organization if they wish.
  • Evaluations done several weeks after a workshop can give you a different and often more accurate sense of the effectiveness of your facilitation.

SAMPLE WORKSHOPS
With the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, disability rights are now on the agenda of many groups and disability advocates are likely be called upon to teach or lead workshops on human rights. Workshops based on the exercises and materials provided in Human Rights. YES! may be highly effective for education and advocacy for a wide range of groups, including:

  • Disabled people's organizations
  • Mainstream human rights organizations
  • Parliamentary human rights committees
  • National human rights institutions
  • Election officials
  • Primary and high school teachers
  • Employer associations
  • Tourism authorities
  • Faith-based communities
  • Development and humanitarian organizations
A more detailed set of sample workshops will be provided on the Human Rights. YES! website (http://www.humanrightsyes.org). The following examples, which are derived from successful workshops, provide some basic models for building workshops:





1. HALF-DAY/ 3 1/2 - HOUR WORKSHOP MODEL

The Human Right of Persons with Disabilities to Education


Topic: The human right of persons with disabilities to education
Setting: In-service workshop for high school teachers
Participants: High school teachers
Objective: To raise awareness about inclusive education


  

 



Introductions (10 minutes)
Each participant can pair off with another and share who they are and what brought them to the workshop and/or what they hope to get from it. Then each partner introduces the other to the whole group.

Agenda and Objectives of Workshop (5 minutes)
Facilitator reviews the workshop agenda and objectives, commenting on how it can or cannot fulfill participants' expectations.

Exercise 13.2: Experiencing Education (45 minutes)
Exercise is designed for participants to share personal stories of the education system and persons with disabilities and evaluate ideas for how it ought to be.

Presentation: Introduction to the CRPD (15 minutes)

Exercise 13.1: What Rights to Education Does the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities Affirm? (30 minutes)
Exercise introduces participants to the provisions and key concepts on education in the CRPD.

BREAK (10 minutes)

Exercise 13.3: Identifying the Causes of Discrimination in Education (30 minutes)
Exercise encourages participants to examine discrimination in education systems and consider how to take action against it

Exercise 13.4: Speaking Up for Education (30 minutes)
Exercise allows participants to examine discrimination in education systems and consider how to take action against it.

Closing Exercise 13.5: Making a Commitment (30 minutes)
Closing exercise allows participants to reflect on the notion that human rights involve both rights and responsibilities and encourages them to take action to support the right of people with disabilities to an education.

Evaluation (5 minutes)
Distribute evaluation forms and collect.





2. ONE-DAY/ 6-HOUR WORKSHOP MODEL

An Introduction to the Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities


Topic: Introduction to the human rights of persons with disabilities
Setting: National Disability Conference workshop
Participants: Disability advocates with little previous human rights education
Objective:
  1. To understand and explore human rights concepts and advocacy strategies;
  2. To build human rights learning environments for disability advocates to
    advance their advocacy around human rights issues;
  3. To learn skills that participants can apply to their home communities.













Introductions (10 minutes)
Each participant can pair off with another and share who they are and what brought them to the workshop and/or what they hope to get from it. Then each partner introduces the other to the whole group.

Agenda and Objectives of Workshop (5 minutes)
Facilitator reviews the workshop agenda and objectives, commenting on how it can or cannot fulfill participants' expectations.

Exercise 1.1: The Impact of Myths and Stereotypes about Persons with Disabilities (45 minutes)
Exercise designed to allow participants to share lived experiences with discrimination based on myths and stereotypes and begin thinking about their impact on human rights.

Presentation: The Human Rights Framework (15 minutes)
To introduce the fundamentals of human rights,

Exercise 1.2: The Interdependence of Rights (45 minutes)
Exercise designed to examine the fundamental human rights contained in the UDHR and to raise awareness of how these rights relate to each other.

Break (15 minutes)

Presentation: The CRPD (15 minutes)
To introduce the CRPD and rights-based approach to disability.

Exercise 1.3: Tree of Rights (45 minutes)
Exercise designed to identify the range of human rights to which people with disabilities are entitled.

Exercise 5: Language & Rights (45 minutes)
Exercise to help understand the role that language can play in supporting both positive and negative attitudes about the role of people with disabilities in society.

Lunch (1 hour)

Energizer (5 minutes)
Re-engage the group with a quick energizer activity, such as "Calling the Names" in which the group forms a circle and thinks of individuals who support, inspire or guide them in their work. Each member calls out the name of that person, one by one. (Source: Nancy Flowers, The Human Rights Education Handbook, 2000: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hrhandbook/activities/6.htm).

Exercise 13.1: What Rights to Education Does the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities Affirm? (30 minutes)
Exercise introduces participants to the provisions and key concepts on education in the CRPD.

Break (10 minutes)

Exercise 13.4: Speaking Up for Education (60 minutes)
Exercise allows participants to examine discrimination in education systems and consider how to take action against it.

Closing Exercise 13.5: Making a Commitment (45 minutes)
Closing exercise allows participants to reflect on the notion that human rights involve both rights and responsibilities and encourages them to take action to support the right of people with disabilities to an education.

Evaluation (5 minutes)
Distribute evaluation forms and collect.





ANNEX 3
GENERAL RESOURCES


Web-based International Human Rights Law Libraries

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (International Human Rights Instruments): http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts

General Resources on Human Rights and Disability

ACT (Advocating Change Together) (Information on disability rights advocacy particularly for self-advocates with developmental disabilities): http://www.selfadvocacy.org

Theresia Degener and Yolan Koster-Dreese, eds., Human Rights and Disabled Persons: Essays and Relevant Human Rights Instruments (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1995).

Disabled Peoples' International, Ratification Toolkit (On ratification advocacy for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities): http://www.icrpd.net/ratification/en/index.htm

Disabled Peoples' International, Implementation Toolkit (On implementation advocacy for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities): http://www.icrpd.net/implementation/en/index.htm

Harvard Project on Disability, Harvard Law School (Information on the range of law, policy and advocacy initiatives of the Project): (website pending at time of publication)

National Council on Disability, Understanding the Role of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: An analysis of the legal, social, and practical implications for policy makers and disability and human rights advocates in the United States (May 2002): http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/2002/unwhitepaper_05-23-02.htm

Gerard Quinn and Theresia Degener, et. al., Human Rights Are for All: A Study on the Current Use and Future Potential of the UN Human Rights Instruments in the Context of Disability (OHCHR, February 2002): http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/disability/study.htm

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Website offering info on the UN Program on Disability and disability specific resources): http://www.un.org/disabilities

World Enable (Internet accessibility initiative providing information on a range of topics, including the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities): http://www.worldenable.net


ANNEX 4:
A GLOSSARY FOR DISABILITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS


Note: Terms in this glossary are found in bold-face type in the text of Human Rights. YES!

Adoption: Usually refers to the initial diplomatic stage at which the official text of a treaty is accepted (in the case of a UN treaty, by the General Assembly). After adoption, a treaty must usually be ratified by individual governments.

Affirmative action (also positive discrimination, reverse discrimination): Action taken by a government or private institution to make up for past discrimination in education, employment, or promotion on the basis of gender, race, ethnic origin, religion, or disability.

African Charter on Human and People's Rights (African Charter): A regional human rights treaty for the African continent adopted by the Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) in 1981.

American Convention on Human Rights (American Convention, Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica): A regional human rights treaty adopted by the Organisation for American States (OAS) in 1969. It covers North, Central and South America.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Passed in 1990, this US Federal law provides comprehensive civil rights protections with the aim of achieving full integration in society of people with disabilities. By far the most forward-thinking disability legislation of its time, the ADA has become a model for legislation in many other countries.

Article: A numbered section of a legal document such as a treaty or declaration. For example, Article 7 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities addresses children with disabilities.

Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners: Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1990, this document sets out standards of good practice in the treatment of prisoners and management of penal institutions. The main emphasis is on the need to safeguard the human rights of the inmates.

Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment: Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1992, this document sets out standards for treatment of people held in any form of imprisonment, whether in a state prison or some other form of detention.

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) by its States Parties.




Convention: Legally binding agreement between states; used synonymously with Treaty and Covenant. Conventions are stronger than declarations because they are legally binding for governments that have ratified them. When the UN General Assembly adopts a convention, it creates international norms and standards. Once a convention is adopted by the UN General Assembly, Member States can then sign and ratify the convention, promising to uphold it. Governments that violate the standards set forth in a convention can then be censured by the UN.

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT Torture Convention) (adopted 1984; entered into force 1987): Treaty defining and prohibiting torture.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, Women’s Convention) (adopted 1979; entered into force 1981): The first legally binding international document prohibiting discrimination against women and obligating governments to take affirmative action to advance the equality of women.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (adopted 2006; opened for signing 2007): Treaty defining the rights of persons with disabilities under international human rights law; first international treaty on disability rights.

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, Children's Convention) (adopted 1989; entered into force 1990): Treaty setting forth a full spectrum of civil, cultural, economic, social, and political rights for children.

Covenant: Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with convention and treaty. The major international human rights covenants, both adopted by the General Assembly in 1966, are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

Declaration: Document stating agreed-upon standards but which is not legally binding. UN conferences (e.g., the1993 UN Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, the 1995 World Conference for Women in Beijing) usually produce two sets of declarations: an official document written by government representatives and an unofficial document written by Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). The UN General Assembly often issues influential but legally nonbinding declarations.

Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National, or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (adopted 1992): Instrument that recognizes and protects the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities.

De facto equality: Equality that exists in practice and people's lived experience as well as in law. De facto equality is achieved only when discrimination is truly absent and people enjoy their rights on an equal basis with others.

Entry into force: The process through which a treaty becomes fully binding on the states that have ratified it. This happens when the minimum number of ratifications called for by the treaty has been achieved.

Equality of opportunity: Equality based on people's ability to be included and enjoy opportunities on the same basis as all other people.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention, European Convention on Human Rights, ECHR): A regional human rights treaty adopted in 1950 by the Council of Europe. All Council of Europe member states are party to the ECHR, and new members are expected to ratify the convention at the earliest opportunity.

Formal equality: Concept of equality that people who are alike should be treated equally and judged on their actual characteristics. Formal equality in employment, for example, would demand that applicants for a job be evaluated on their relevant experience, background, and skills, and that the selection process neither favor nor disfavor anyone based on other factors, such as race, social standing, family connections or other non-relevant matters.

Fulfill human rights: The obligation to "fulfill" human rights means that States must take positive action to ensure that everyone, including people with disabilities can exercise their human rights. They must adopt laws and policies that promote human rights. They must develop programs and take other measures to implement these rights. They must allocate the necessary resources to enforce laws and fund programmatic efforts.

General Comment: A written statement by the committee that monitors a UN treaty (e.g., Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) advising States Parties how best to fulfill their obligations under that treaty. They also analyze and interpret the meaning, content and scope of a treaty.

Habilitation: Effective and appropriate measures aimed to help people attain and maintain maximum independence and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life and for the benefit of people who are born with a disability or acquire a disability at an early age, to empower them to reach their full potential as they learn and grow. By contrast, rehabilitation refers to re-gaining and maintaining maximum independence and full inclusion after acquiring a disability or a change in one's disability.

Human Rights Committee: The body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by its States Parties.

Inalienable: Refers to the principle that human rights belong to every person and cannot be taken from a person under any circumstances. Human rights automatically belong to each human being. They are not given to people by their government or any other authority, nor can they can be taken away.

Inclusive education: The education of all children, youth and adults - with and without disabilities - in the general education system of their community. Inclusion involves having access to education with appropriate networks of support and changing the policies, practices, and attitudes within the school system to remove barriers to their learning.

Independent living movement: Part of global advocacy for disability rights, the independent living movement is based on the premise that any person with disabilities should have the choice of living in the community. This can be accomplished through the creation of personal assistance services allowing an individual to manage his or her personal care, to keep a home, to have a job, go to school, worship, and otherwise participate in the life of the community.

Indivisible: Refers to the principle that each human right is of equal importance. A person cannot be denied a right because someone decides it is "less important" or "nonessential."

Informed consent: Refers to the process by which a person is provided with the information necessary to fully participate in decisions about his or her health care. Based on a patient's right to direct what happens to his or her body and the ethical duty of the physician to involve the patient in decision-making.

Inherent: Principle that human rights are a natural part of who you are. The text of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) begins "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."

Instrument: A formal, written, official document, such as a treaty or declaration, in which a State expresses its intention to uphold certain human rights principles or norms. May be legally binding or nonbinding. May be global, regional, or national.

Integrated Education: Placing children with disabilities in the general education system with the expectation that they adapt or “fit in” to the existing system and culture and without providing necessary supports and removing barriers to their learning; differs from inclusive education, which supplies these supports and accommodations.

Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities: Treaty adopted by the Organisation for American States (OAS) in 1999; first regional treaty specifically addressing disability rights.




Interdependent: Refers to the complementary and interrelated framework of human rights law. For example, your ability to participate in your government is directly affected by your right to express yourself, to get an education, and even to obtain the necessities of life.

Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs): Organizations sponsored by several governments that seek to coordinate their efforts; some are regional (e.g., the Council of Europe, the Organisation of American States), some are alliances (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization); and some are dedicated to a specific purpose (e.g., the World Health Organisation, International Labour Organisation).

International Bill of Human Rights: The combination of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) , the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and its Optional Protocol, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD, Race Convention) (adopted 1965; entered into force 1969): Treaty defining and prohibiting racial discrimination.

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW) (adopted 1990; entered into force 1998): Treaty defining the rights of migrant workers and their families.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)(Adopted 1966; entered into force 1976): The ICCPR declares that all people have a broad range of civil and political rights. One of the components of the International Bill of Human Rights.

International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (Adopted 1966; entered into force 1976): The ICESCR declares that all people have a broad range of economic, social, and cultural rights. One of the components of the International Bill of Human Rights.

International humanitarian law: Part of international law that applies in times of armed conflict; creates protected status for certain persons including civilians, help for victims and limits to methods of warfare to minimize destruction, loss of life and unnecessary human suffering. Mainly comprises the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

International Labor Organisation (ILO): An intergovernmental organization established in 1919 as part of the Versailles Peace Treaty to improve working conditions and promote social justice; the ILO became a Specialized Agency of the UN in 1946.

Interrelated: Refers to the concept that human rights are complementary and affect each other.

Legal capacity: 1) the recognition of someone as a person before the law; ensures that people are legally considered persons and not just objects or the property of others; and 2) the capacity to act; ensures that people are able to exercise their legal capacity, for example regarding financial matters.

Nonbinding: A document, like a declaration, that carries no formal legal obligations. It may, however, carry moral obligations or attain the force of law as customary international law.

Nongovernmental organization (NGO): An organization formed by people outside of government. NGOs monitor the proceedings of human rights bodies such as the Human Rights Committee. Some are large and international (e.g., the Red Cross/Crescent, Amnesty International, the Scouts); others may be small and local (e.g., an organization to advocate for people with a particular kind of disability in a particular city). NGOs play a major role in influencing UN policy; many of them have official consultative status at the UN.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR): An office of the United Nations Secretariat mandated to promote and protect all rights established in international human rights laws and treaties. Located in Geneva, the OHCHR works to prevent human rights violations, secure respect for all human rights, promote international cooperation to protect human rights, and coordinate related activities throughout the United Nations.

Protocol: A treaty which relates to or modifies another treaty (e.g., adding additional procedures or substantive provisions); Called an "optional protocol" because a government that has ratified the original treaty can choose whether or not to ratify the changes made in the protocol.

Positive discrimination: See affirmative action.

Protect human rights: The obligation to "protect" human rights means that the State is required to protect everyone, including people with disabilities, against abuses by non-State actors, such as individuals, businesses, institutions, or other private organizations.

Ratification, Ratify: Process by which the legislative body of a state confirms a government's action in signing a treaty; formal procedure by which a state becomes bound to a treaty after acceptance.

Reasonable accommodation: Necessary and appropriate modifications or adjustment to a practice, program, or physical environment so that it is accessible, appropriate, and usable for a person with disabilities on an equal basis with others. Under US law such modifications should not involve "undue hardship" on the person or entity required to provide it.

Rehabilitation: Effective and appropriate measures aimed at helping people attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life as a result of acquiring a disability or a change in one's disability or circumstances. By contrast, habilitation refers to helping people who are born with a disability or acquire one at an early age attain and maintain maximum independence and full inclusion.

Respect for human rights: The obligation to "respect" human rights means that States must not interfere with the exercise and enjoyment of the rights of people with disabilities. They must refrain from any action that violates human rights. They must also eliminate laws, policies and practices that are contrary to human rights.

Reverse discrimination: See affirmative action.

Signing, Sign: In human rights the first step in ratification of a treaty; to sign a Convention, or one of the Covenants constitutes a promise to refrain from undermining the principles in the document and to honor its spirit.

Special Rapporteur: A person chosen by the UN to report on a particular theme (e.g., on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography; on violence against women) or on the human rights situation in a particular country. In 1993 the Standard Rules established a Special Rapporteur on Disability, who reports annually on the implementation of the Standard Rules and whose mandate is subject to periodic renewal.

Standard Rules: See UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunity for Persons with Disabilities.

State: Often synonymous with "country"; a group of people permanently occupying a fixed territory having common laws and government and capable of conducting international affairs.

State Party (plural States Parties): Those countries that have Ratified a Covenant or a Convention and are thereby bound to conform to its provisions.




Treaty: Formal agreement between states that defines and modifies their mutual duties and obligations; used synonymously with Convention and Covenant. When conventions are adopted by the UN General Assembly, they create legally binding international obligations for the Member States who have signed the treaty. When a national government ratifies a treaty, the articles of that treaty become part of its domestic legal, constitutional obligations.

United Nations Charter: Initial document of the UN setting forth its goals, functions, and responsibilities; adopted in San Francisco in 1945.

UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (Standard Rules): Adopted by the General Assembly in 1993, this nonbinding instrument represents a strong moral and political commitment of governments to take action to attain equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities. Its 22 rules cover all aspects of life of disabled persons and serve as a basis for policy-making and technical and economic cooperation.

A Special Rapporteur monitors the implementation of the Rules.

Universal: Human rights apply to every person in the world, regardless of their race, color, sex, ethnic or social origin, religion, language, nationality, age, sexual orientation, disability, or other status. They apply equally and without discrimination to each and every person. The only requirement for having human rights is to be human.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (Adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948): Primary UN document establishing human rights standards and norms. All UN Member States have agreed to uphold the UDHR. Although the UDHR was intended to be nonbinding, through time its various provisions have become so respected by states that it can now be said to be customary international law. One component of the International Bill of Rights.

Universal design: the design of products, environments, programs and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. A curb cut, for example, serves many people (e.g., parents with strollers, people with rolling luggage, wheelchair users, blind people on the curb, cyclists).

World Health Organisation (WHO): an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations that works to promote health worldwide.


ANNEX 5: INDEX


Abuse:  Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse

  • In prison setting:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse
  • Of children:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse
  • Of women:  Chapter 16, Women

Accessibility:  Chapter 2, Accessibility

  • Attitudinal:  Chapter 2, Accessibility
  • Informational:  Chapter 2, Accessibility;
  • Chapter 3, Expression and Opinion
  • Institutional:  Chapter 2, Accessibility;
  • Chapter 3, Expression and Opinion
  • Physical Chapter 2, Accessibility
  • To courts and legal services:  Chapter 12, Access to Justice
  • To healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health; Chapter 16, Women
  • To justice system:  Chapter 12, Access to Justice
  • To public services:  Chapter 3, Participation in Political and Public Life
  • To rehabilitative services:  Chapter 16, Women
  • To sports and cultural events:  Chapter 14, Sport and Culture

Advanced Health Care Directives:  Chapter 8, Health

  • Armed conflict:  Part 1, Human Rights; Chapter 5, Right to Life
  • Assisted suicide:  Chapter 5, Right to Life
  • Children:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Abuse of:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family;
  • Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse
  • In institutions:  Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse
  • Parents and families of:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Personal integrity:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family
  • Right to education:  Chapter 13, Education; Chapter 15, Children
  • Right to participation:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Right to play:  Chapter 14, Sport and Culture

Advanced Health Care Directives:  Chapter 8, Health

  • Armed conflict:  Part 1, Human Rights; Chapter 5, Right to Life
  • Assisted suicide:  Chapter 5, Right to Life
  • Children:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Abuse of:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family;
  • Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse
  • In institutions:  Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse
  • Parents and families of:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Personal integrity:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family
  • Right to education:  Chapter 13, Education; Chapter 15, Children
  • Right to participation:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Right to play:  Chapter 14, Sport and Culture

Cultural and Linguistic Identity:  Chapter 14, Sport and Culture
Decision Making

  • In healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Supported decision making:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity
  • In development decision:  Chapter 18, Other Populations




Cultural and Linguistic Identity:  Chapter 14, Sport and Culture
Decision Making

  • In healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Supported decision making:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity
  • In development decision:  Chapter 18, Other Populations

Development Discrimination:  Chapter 17, Other Populations

  • In health care:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Multiple discriminations:  Part 1, Human Rights; Chapter 18, Other Populations

Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) Order:  Chapter 5, Right to Life
Education

  • Children's right to:  Chapter 15, Children
  • Inclusive:  Chapter 13, Education
  • Integrated:  Chapter 13, Education
  • Qualified teachers:  Chapter 13, Education
  • Quality education:  Chapter 13, Education
  • Right to:  Chapter 13, Education
  • Women's right to Chapter 16, Women

Emergencies and Natural Disasters:  Chapter 5, Right to Life
Equality and Non-discrimination

  • De facto equality:  Chapter 1, Equality and Non-discrimination
  • Equality of opportunity:  Chapter 1, Equality and Non-discrimination
  • Formal equality:  Chapter 1, Equality and Non-discrimination
  • In healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Women:  Chapter 16, Women

Eugenics:  Chapter 5, Right to Life

Euthanasia:  Chapter 5, Right to Life

Exploitation:  Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse

Family

  • Decision making in:  Chapter 16, Women
  • Right to:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family
  • Rights to live with:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family
  • Rights to marry:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family;
  • Chapter 16, Women

Gender Discrimination:  Chapter 16, Women

Health/Healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health

  • And habilitation/rehabilitation:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Decision making:  Chapter 8, Health
  • Reproductive:  Chapter 16, Women

Habilitation/Rehabilitation:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation

  • Women's access to Chapter 16, Women

HIV-AIDS:  Chapter 8, Health; Chapter 17, Other Populations

Independent Living:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity

  • Independent Living Movement:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation;
  • Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity;
  • Chapter 16, Women
  • Right to:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity

Indigenous Peoples:  Chapter 17, Other Populations

Informed Consent Chapter 8, Health

Information

  • Access to
  • In plain language:  Chapter 4, Freedom of Expression and Opinion
  • Privacy of:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family
  • To Internet:  Chapter 4, Freedom of Expression and Opinion

Institutional Living

  • Children in:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse
  • Dangers to life:  Chapter 5, Right to Life
  • Independent living:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity
  • Violence in:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse




Internet

  • Access to Chapter 2, Accessibility; Chapter 3, Participation in Political and Public Life

International Labour Organisation (ILO):  Chapter 10, Work;

Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation

Legal Capacity:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity

Marriage:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family

  • Women's right to Chapter 16, Women

Myths and Stereotypes:  Part I, Human Rights; Chapter 8, Health
Participation

  • Of children:  Chapter 15, Children
  • In decision making:  Chapter 11, Independence and Dignity;
  • Chapter 17, Other Populations
  • In designing programs:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation; Chapter 16, Women
  • In elections:  Chapter 3, Participation in Political and Public Life
  • In healthcare decisions:  Chapter 8, Health
  • In organizations:  Chapter 3, Participation in Political and Public Life
  • In political and public life:  Chapter 3, Participation in Political and Public Life

Peer Counseling:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation

Personal Assistants:  Chapter 7, Privacy

Physician Assisted Suicide:  Chapter 5, Right to Life

Poverty:  Chapter 17, Other Population

Prison Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse
Psycho-social disabilities

  • Abuse of people with:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture/Abuse
  • Habilitation and rehabilitation:  Chapter 8, Health

Reasonable accommodation

  • and accessibility:  Chapter 2, Accessibility
  • compared to habilitation:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation
  • defined:  Part 1, Human Rights
  • essential to equality:  Chapter 1, Equality and Non-discrimination
  • in education: Chapter 13, Education

Reasonable accommodation

  • and accessibility:  Chapter 2, Accessibility
  • compared to habilitation:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation
  • defined:  Part 1, Human Rights
  • essential to equality:  Chapter 1, Equality and Non-discrimination
  • in education: Chapter 13, Education

Rehabilitation:  Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation

Sexuality Chapter 7, Privacy

  • Reproductive health care:  Chapter 16, Women
  • Sexual violence and abuse:  Chapter 6, Torture and Abuse; Chapter 16, Women
  • Sexual privacy:  Chapter 7, Privacy

Sport:  Chapter 14, Cultural Life/Sport

Torture:  Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture
and Other Forms of Abuse

Transportation/Travel:  Chapter 14, Cultural Life/Sport

  • Security checks:  Chapter 7, Privacy
  • Tourism:  Chapter 14, Cultural Life/Sport

Universal Design

  • And accessibility:  Chapter 2, Accessibility
  • For learning:  Chapter 13, Education
  • In healthcare:  Chapter 8, Health




Violence Chapter 6, Freedom from Torture
and Other Forms of Abuse

  • Against children:  Chapter 7, Privacy, Integrity, Home, and the Family;
  • Chapter 15, Children; Chapter 16, Women
  • Against women:  Chapter 16, Women
  • From caregivers:  Chapter 16, Women

Women with Disabilities:  Chapter 16, Women

  • As activists:  Chapter 16, Women

Work:  Chapter 10, Right to Work

  • Awareness raising:  Chapter 10, Right to Work
  • Discrimination against women:  Chapter 16, Women

World Health Organisation (WHO):  Chapter 8, Health;

Chapter 9, Habilitation/Rehabilitation




«– Main Index