SECTION 3 PERSPECTIVES OF SPECIFIC GROUPS
CHILDREN AND ESC RIGHTS
The Purpose of Module 5
The purpose of this module is to provide an overview of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and its provisions related to ESC rights.
The module discusses:
The Convention on the Rights of the Child
In 1959, the UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child.  It was the first major international instrument exclusively devoted to childrens rights. It proclaimed the principle that the best interests of the child should guide the actions of those affecting children. The Declaration provided the moral and legal basis for developing a binding treaty on the rights of the child.
The United Nations proclaimed 1979 as the Year of the Child to mark the twentieth anniversary of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. In the same year the UN Human Rights Commission began drafting a binding treaty on the subject. The decision to start the process of drafting the Convention was, however, not obvious. One objection was that children as much as adults were covered by the existing human rights treaties. Moreover, there were special provisions in these treaties relating to children in particular. In some cases this was by implication, as in articles relating to the right to education. In other cases the formulations explicitly made clear that the child, or the family, was the subject of the provision. For example, the ICESCR recognizes the right of everyone to education. It prescribes, inter alia, that primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all (art. 13). The formulations on the right to health also include that governments should take steps to reduce infant mortality and provide for the healthy development of the child (art. 12).
The Covenant also raises the question of child labor:
The European Social Charter has similar norms, somewhat more detailed (art. 7). More concrete regulations relating to child labor are codified in the ILO conventions, in particular through Convention Nos. 138 and 182.
Discrimination against girls is indeed one aspect of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). One obligation expressed therein is that measures should be taken to reduce female dropout rates in the schools.  CEDAW also contains provisions aimed at protecting the woman as mother during and after pregnancy. Family education should, according to the Convention, make clear the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing and development of their children, it being understood that the interest of the children is the primordial consideration in all cases. 
The decision within the United Nations to go ahead with the treaty project on childrens rights in spite of the above mentioned and other existing standards was partly in response to pressure. Strong lobby groupsas there had been in the case of womens rightsargued that more precise norms were needed and that some important aspects of the rights of the child were, in fact, not covered by existing treaties. One aspect that NGOs emphasized was that it had become more obvious with time that the interests of children did not always and necessarily coincide with those of their guardians. This point could be more clearly made in a comprehensive text focused on the rights of the child.
In 1989, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The text, which emerged after the decade-long drafting process, is the uniquely comprehensive list of human rights norms relating to children. It includes child-related provisions of the other human rights treaties, such as those mentioned above. Furthermore, the text includes novel aspects such as survival, protection and development of children, as well as provisions for other rights, including the right to participation. The CRC takes into account the situation of children of minority and indigenous groups, and deals with children threatened by drug abuse and neglect.
An important aspect of the CRC is that it defines some general principles, which together form an approach to the rights of the child that guides national programs of implementation. The CRC also involves UN bodies and NGOs in the monitoring and implementation efforts.
Convention on the Rights of the Childgeneral principles
The Convention on the Rights of the Child is rooted in some basic values about the treatment of children, their protection and participation in society. These ideas are expressed in some of the early articles in the text. The choice of these articles as general principles was made by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child during its first session in September-October 1991, when it agreed on guidelines on how the initial reports by governments should be written and structured. That was the context for the important decision to give special emphasis to articles 2, 3, 6 and 12. 
These articles were put under a special heading in the guidelines before norms on civil rights, family aspects, health, education and the other more substantive provisions. It was made clear that the committee wanted governments also to report on the application of these principles in relation to the realization of the other articles in the CRC. Thereby the convention became something more than a mere list of obligations; it offered a comprehensive message.
Best interests of the child
A major aspect of the philosophy behind the CRC is that children are equals; as human beings they have the same inherent value as grown-ups. The affirmation of the right to play underlines the fact that childhood is valuable in itself and these years are not merely a training period for the adult life. The idea that children have equal value may sound like a truism, but it is, in fact, a radical thoughtone not at all respected today.
Childrenespecially when very youngare vulnerable and need special support to be able to enjoy their rights in full. How can children be granted equal value and at the same time the necessary protection? Part of the answer lies in the principle of the best interests of the child, formulated in article 3(1):
Whenever official decisions are taken which affect children, their interests should be seen as important. The interests of the parents or the state should not be the all-important consideration. This is indeed one of the major messages of the CRC.
Views of the child
This first principle, by its very nature, gives importance to another principle, one about respecting the views of the child. In order to know what actually is in the interests of the child, it is only logical to listen to him or her. The principle is formulated in article 12(1):
This has been termed by some commentators the participation element in the CRC. The idea is that the child has the right to be heard and have his/her ideas taken seriously. The reports by states parties so far have been vague on this article; some have stated that children of, for instance, twelve years of age have the right to reject an adoption or a change of name or nationality. Few have displayed a comprehensive approach to this principle which affects life in schools and familiesand in politics.
Right to survival and development
The principle most directly related to childrens economic and social rights is formulated in the right to life article. Article 6(2) goes further than just granting children the right not to be killed. It includes the right to survival and to development:
The word survival is unusual in human rights treaties; it is borrowed from the terminology used in development discussions. The purpose was to introduce a dynamic aspect to the right to life, thus including the need for preventive action, such as immunization.
The term development relates to the individual child and should be interpreted in a broad sense. It adds a qualitative dimension to the article. Not only physical health is intended but also mental, emotional, cognitive, social and cultural development.
Article 6 could be seen as the platform for all other articles in the CRC dealing with ESC rights for children. Its wording about the maximum extent possible implies a recognition that implementation requires resources and that certain measures may not be possible for poorer countries. At the same time, the formulation indicates that priority should be given to the implementation of this requirement in all countries.
Much of the debate about childrens right to life has focused on the issue of abortion. There is a reference to the unborn child in the preamble of the CRC, which has caused some confusion: the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth. It is understandable that the antiabortion lobby has found support in this formulation, but the preamble is not part of the formal treaty obligations. In fact, when an article against abortion was proposed during the drafting process, this was rejected.
There are, however, several other aspects of the protection and development of the unborn child that can be discussed on the basis of the CRC. The Committee on the Rights of the Child has emphasized the importance of health care for pregnant women. Children born of malnourished or sick mothers will have a bad start. It is important to encourage pregnant women to avoid the use of alcohol and other drugs as well as smoking. When tackling these problems, it may not matter much whether action is based on a right to protection for the unborn child or the right of the born child to have a healthy beginning.
Modern child psychology has made clear how important the first days, weeks and months are for the future development of the child. This should also be considered in serious efforts of implementing article 6. It is absolutely essential that the child from the very beginning have a possibility to relate to and communicate fully with the mother and/or another adult. Do all parents know these fundamental facts? Are they given a chance to be with their children? Recent surveys in several industrialized countries indicate that parent education is unsatisfactory and that time for children is a scarce commodity. Day-care centers, nursery and ordinary schools are other critical social environments for children in which it should be possible for children to develop their personalities.
The fourth general principle of the CRC, as identified by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, is that all children should enjoy their rights and no child should suffer discrimination. The obligation to provide equality of opportunities among children is expressed in article 2, the first paragraph of which reads:
The message is about equality of rights. Girls should be given the same opportunities as boys. Refugee children and children of indigenous or minority groups should have the same rights as all others. Children with disabilities should be given the same possibility to lead a decent life as the rest.
The Rights of the Child and ESC Rights
On the whole, it seems that the CRC has contributed to a renewed and more positive discussion about ESC rights in general. By its very nature the convention gives support to the position that all rights are indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. This has been further amplified by the holistic approach the UN committee has taken in its monitoring work. Most articles of the CRC have elements of protection, participation and development; they are kin to both of the Covenants.
In view of the CRCs holistic approach, it is not obvious which of the substantive articles should be seen as belonging to the category of ESC rights. However, the articles which the UN committee grouped together under the heading of Basic Health and Welfare are definitely of relevance in this context. The same is true for the provisions under Education, Leisure and Cultural Activities. Other articles of interest in this connection are some of those described as Special Protection Measures, which relate to vulnerable groups of children or children in situations of risk. Some of these aim at protecting children against various forms of exploitation, including hazardous labor.
A complete analysis of the social rights of the CRC would also deal with some of the articles under Family Environment and Alternative Care.
Basic health and welfare
All provisions in the CRC relating to health and welfare can be deduced from the principle of the right of the child to survive and develop. The emphasis on development is paramount in the article about disabled children. They should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the childs active participation in the community (art. 23).
The point about nondiscrimination is also made in the key health article: Governments should strive to ensure that no child is deprived of access to health care services (art. 24). The article further states that governments should take appropriate measures to diminish infant and child mortality; to develop a primary health care system for children; to combat disease and malnutrition through, inter alia, the provision of nutritious food and clean water; to ensure pre- and post-natal care for mothers; to spread awareness about child health and nutrition, including information on the advantages of breast-feeding, hygiene, and environmental sanitation and on the prevention of accidents; and to develop guidance for parents and family planning. (See Module 14 on the right to health.)
Further, the same article takes a position against female circumcision. The formulation is that governments should take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children (art. 24). (See Module 17 on cultural rights and Module 4, Culture and Womens Rights: Female Genital Mutilation, p. 87).
The CRC also raises the issue of social security benefits. States parties should recognize the right of the child in this context and take necessary measures (art. 26). Children of working parents have the right to benefit from child care services (art. 18). The right of development is the basis also for the article about a reasonable standard of living: States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the childs physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development (art. 27). They shall, in case of need, provide material assistance, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing (art. 27).
For obvious reasons, there are reservations in these articles relating to resources. Special care for disabled children is subject to available resources and the states shall take measures in regard to the childs standard of living within their means.
International cooperation is mentioned both in relation to the rights of disabled children and the provisions in the key health article. The latter also introduces the concept of progressive implementation:
Education, leisure and cultural activities
The provisions on education, leisure and culture in the CRC are also related to the principle of the right to development. The aspect of nondiscrimination is emphasized in the key article about the right to education. Primary education should be compulsory and available free to all. In addition, secondary education should be available and accessible to every child; financial assistance should be offered in case of need. Higher education should be accessible to all on the basis of capacity (art. 28).
The same article requests governments to take measures to reduce dropout rates. This is an aspect that the Committee on the Rights of the Child has stressed in its discussions with states parties. In particular, there have been questions on what has been done to guarantee school attendance of girls as compared to boys. In some countries children of minority groups are also disadvantaged in this respect. The real costs to the family of a childs being at school could be prohibitive. Another important factor in this context is whether education is given in the language of the child.
School is not only about learning facts and figures. The CRC expresses views both about the spirit in the school and the values to be taught. The pedagogic methods should be child- oriented. School discipline should be administered in a manner consistent with the childs human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention (art. 28). The UN committee interprets this to mean that corporal punishment should not be allowed in schools.
Education should aim at developing the childs personality and talents as well as mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential. It should prepare the child for a responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin. Respect for human rights and the natural environment are also specifically mentioned (art. 29).
Another article (art. 31) covers the right of the child to rest, leisure and play. His/her right to participate fully in cultural and artistic life should be promoted. The government should encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity. Also, in article 28(3) it is specified that international cooperation might be desirable.
Protection against exploitation
All provisions of the CRC are relevant to all children. Take, for example, the rights of the refugee child; these are not limited to aspects raised in article 22, though this one deals especially with the rights of such a child. The intention is that all other provisions also should be available for the refugee child. Some of the articles dealing with special protection for children in particularly difficult circumstances were grouped together by the committee under the heading Special Protection Measures. Some of them clearly relate to ESC rights. Article 30 deals with the right of a child belonging to a minority group or one of the indigenous peoples to enjoy his or her culture.
Exploitation in various forms is banned in five separate articles. One deals with economic exploitation and protection against work likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the childs education, or to be harmful to the childs health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. It makes a reference to the provisions of other international instruments such as the relevant ILO conventions. It requests states to provide for rules about minimum age of employment, for regulation of hours and conditions of employment, and for inspections and the possibility of sanctions in order to enforce these standards (art. 32).
This article was discussed in some detail at a General Discussion organized by the Committee on the Rights of the Child in October 1993. Representatives of some Latin American nongovernmental groups suggested that there is a clash between this protective article and the right of the child to work. They argued that some children have to work for their own, or their families, living. An age limit could make their work illegal and prevent them from organizing themselves for protection.
This is the other side of the coin of a holistic approach. If important provisions of the CRC are not implemented, certain rules intended to support the child could have a repressive effect. The conclusion of the committee, however, was not to question the validity of the article, but to emphasize that children should not be put in situations of such negative choices. This approach in itself has repercussions for economic policy, also on a macro level.
In fact, article 32 allows for different minimum ages depending on the nature of the job; lighter work is possible in lower ages. The point is that there should be a conscious policy in this field and that childrens health and possibilities for education should not be undermined. This is also the approach of the relevant ILO conventions.
Another type of exploitation is to be effectively countered: Necessary measures should be taken to protect children from the use of narcotic drugs. Preventive action should also be taken against the use of children in the production and trafficking of such substances (art. 33).
Children should be protected from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. National, bilateral and multilateral measures should be taken against child prostitution and child pornography (art. 34). Likewise, national, bilateral and multilateral measures should be taken to prevent the abduction, sale or trafficking of children (art. 35). Finally, there is an article asking, in general, that governments protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the childs welfare (art. 36).
There is no reference to progressive implementation or to resource problems in these articles. The conclusion is that they should be implemented without delay. The international dimensions mentioned in some of the articles refer to the need for cooperation to counter transnational criminal activities.
Measures of Implementation
General Measures of Implementation
The degree of implementation of the CRC is to a large extent a question of political will. When drafting the reporting guidelines, the committee chose to give heavy emphasis to general measures, including those of a political nature, to make a reality of the principles and provisions of the convention. It proposed a comprehensive approach of reform in the spirit of the CRC, not least the establishment of procedures that would encourage constant scrutiny of what actually is done in this domain.
Of particular interest here is article 4, which describes obligations of conduct rather than of result; the emphasis is on what efforts the state party makes in promoting the implementation of the CRC. The same is true for the other two articles under General Measures of Implementationthose relating to making the Convention and the state party report widely known to the public (arts. 42 and 44).
Legislative, administrative and other measures
A state party should review its legislation and ensure that the laws are consistent with the CRC. This process of legal harmonization is relevant also for many of the rights usually described as economic, social and cultural. Laws are needed for the protection of children against exploitation, for instance, in the formal or informal labor market. Furthermore, it is normal that legislation is enacted to ensure compulsory education. Also, in the fields of health and social welfare most countries have developed legal norms to establish certain principles and guarantee nondiscrimination.
The administrative and other measures could include a range of steps in order to make the implementation effective. Already the reporting guidelines indicate that mechanisms should exist on the national and local level to coordinate policies and to monitor the implementation of the CRC. In some countries there is nowadays an ombudsman, special commission or a similar institution for ombudswork for the rights of the child; the intention in most such cases is to ensure a system of independent monitoring.
Other mechanisms could be created for monitoring the rights of the child, including the establishment of complaint procedures. National commissions with NGOs have been established in a number of countries. The political decision-making itself is, of course, crucial. What procedures are there to ensure that childrens rights matters are taken seriously in both the parliament and local assemblies? There should be opportunities for children themselves and their representatives to be heard. A major purpose of the procedures designed in relation to the CRC is to encourage a free public discussion on the rights of the child.
Another aspect that the committee has raised in this context is the importance of collecting reliable and relevant facts on the situation of children. With precise data the discussion about remedies can be better informed and focused. Improvement of the capacity of the national statistical office can therefore be an essential contribution to the implementation of the CRC.
One important means towards genuine realization of the CRC is education and training of personnel working with childrennursery school teachers and other teachers, child psychologists, pediatricians and other health personnel, the police, social workers and others. A deep understanding among these professionals of the idea of the rights of the child could be immensely important.
In the spirit of respecting the principle that all human rights are indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, there was an intention during the drafting of the CRC to avoid distinguishing between the two sets of rights as defined by the two Covenants. In the text there is only one direct reference to the term economic, social and cultural rights (art. 4, sentence 2).
A general reservation about resource conditionality would have weakened provisions in the CRC that were not intended to be subject to the availability of resources, for instance those relating to civil rights and nondiscrimination (the corresponding articles are unconditional in other human rights treaties). A distinction was therefore made in this very article along the line of the divide between the two Covenants. The formulation was not adjusted to the facts that ESC rights are not the only ones demanding substantial resources for implementation and that there are some aspects of these rights which are less expensive. This left the precise meaning of economic, social and cultural rights in this context less than clear. One interpretation is to include in that category only those articles of the CRC in which resource limitations are expressly made, for example relating to disabled children and the right to an adequate standard of living (arts. 23 and 27).
What precisely does available resources mean? In large part, of course, it means the financial resources at hand. However, there are other types of resources, for instance those related to personnel, know-how and organizational capacity. Traditions, culture and political maturity are other important factors related to the ability of a society to tackle its problems. Values like tolerance, mutual respect and a spirit of solidarity can also be seen as resources.
Furthermore, resources should not be seen as static. Not least for the long range perspective, the dynamic dimension is politically interestingthe mobilization of resources.10 Although the political authorities are directly responsible for the implementation of the CRC, the resources of the whole society matter, including those in the so-called civil society. This ought to be a spur for governments to be open to and encourage the initiatives and work of nongovernmental groups.
The issue of privatization of public services is part of this discussion. One argument for such moves has been precisely to mobilize more resources; private activities have also been regarded as more cost-effective. The CRC does not take a position on whether, for example, health clinics and schools should be in private or public hands. What is important, however, is that the rights of the child are respected, and in that regard, the government will always be responsible.
Another political controversy has affected the discussion about what resources are available for child-related services: To what extent can budgets be trimmed or not trimmed during a period of recession or economic crisis? Programs of structural adjustment have been enforced in most countries during recent years; this has been an economic necessity. How do these policies relate to the rights of the child?
A responsibleand future-orientedeconomic policy is naturally in the interest of children. For them it is desirable that space be created for necessary investments and that foreign debts be reduced. This ought not to be controversial. The problem relates to present priorities, to how cuts and savings are made today. UNICEF and others have discussed structural reform with a human face, with the intention of creating safeguards against cuts with severe social consequences.11 The declaration adopted at the World Summit for Children at the United Nations in September 1990 called for structural adjustments that promote world economic growth, particularly in developing countries, while ensuring the well-being of the most vulnerable sectors of the populations, in particular the children.12
An international exchange of ideas in this sphere is essential and seems indeed to be developing. The emphasis by UNDP and others on human development has contributed to wider awareness of the economic importance of investing in humans. Examples often mentioned in that discussion are key provisions for childrenprimary education and access to basic health services. The World Summit emphasized the principle of first call for children.
Such priority-setting fits well with the wording in article 4 that directs governments to undertake implementation measures to the maximum extent of their available resources. The sentence is not an escape clause for countries with fewer resources; it asks all states parties to give priority within their means to implementation of the CRC.
This has interesting implications. One is that countries with more resources should offer services to children on a higher absolute level than is possible for poor countries. The CRC should not only be seen as a list of minimum requirements. Richer countries should ask more from themselves; they should also put in the maximum extent of their resources. This makes the CRC more relevant to affluent societies.
On the other hand, poor countries should at least endeavor to fulfill the minimum core obligations. They should undertake every effort in using their limited resources to meet these minimum requirements as a matter of priority. Monitoring and the devising of strategies and programs are obligations, whatever the starting point is.
There is one clear difference between article 4 of the CRC and article 2 of the ICESCR: the latter allows for a progressive realization of the rights (with the exception of the aspect of nondiscrimination). This possibility of a gradual approach is not at all included in article 4 of the CRC and, in fact, is limited in the CRC to a few specific articles. The key provision on the right to education uses the language of achieving this right progressively (art. 28). A similar touch is given to the major health article, which recognizes the right of the child to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24).
The very last words of article 4 raise the issue of international cooperation: States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation (emphasis added). On the basis of this reference, it seems that what is intended, at least partly, is development assistance.
Cooperation is mentioned in other articles as well. One was quoted above, relating to means for the provision for the right to health (art. 24). A similar formulation is included in article 28(3) on the right to education and in the article on the rights of disabled children. In article 23(4) there is also an emphasis on exchange of information and knowledge. Furthermore, there are references to international standards and agreements in several of the articles and, as in the case of protection against sexual exploitation, requests for bilateral and multilateral measures in a transnational context (arts. 34 and 35).
There are obligations tied to the clauses about international cooperation in the CRC. For the donor countries the question is what priorityand directionchild-related programs should have in overall development aid policy.
The World Summit discussed other types of cooperation in the economic arena. For example:
Debt relief for children, including debt swaps for investment in social development programmes, should be considered by debtors and creditors. The international community, including private-sector creditors, are urged to work with developing countries and relevant agencies to support debt relief for children.13
Monitoring and Enforcement
The international procedures designed to monitor the implementation of the CRC are not very different from those established in relation to the other UN human rights treaties. (See Module 24 for more details on the Committee on the Rights of the Childs procedures.)
The workings of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, however, are not the most important aspect of the monitoring and enforcement efforts. National procedures are more crucial; that is where the discussion can be sufficiently detailed and well informed to spur genuine improvements. In fact, much of the work of the committee aims at encouraging a good national process. Another intended side effect is catalyzing international organizations to integrate the principles and provisions of the CRC into their programs.
In the same spirit, the committee has tried to develop its thinking on how to measure progress and has initiated an internal discussion on economic and social indicators. In the fields of health and education it has benefited from the goals adopted at the World Summit. Progress in achieving those goals is consistent with the CRC and reflects a political will in support of the rights of the child. Nonetheless, the committee is groping with fundamental problems on how to meaningfully discuss government performance in relation to the CRC. For instance, it still lacks a technique for evaluating official budgets and their provisions for children in a competent manner.
At the same time, the committee has to be aware of the fact that the CRC, like other UN human rights treaties, is defining individual rights. Though there is no procedure for individual complaints in relation to this convention, the committee cannot remain with only global trends. The answer has been to focus a lot on especially vulnerable groups of children and emphasize the aspect of nondiscrimination. While welcoming a high general rate of school attendance, for example, the committee tends to focus on those who drop out: Who are they and what could be done to protect their rights?
A factor of importance in monitoring is the precise nature of the state party obligations. Many articles request the government not only to respect but also to protect a right or to take concrete measures for its realization; this is true not least for the economic and social rights. On many aspects of the CRC, it may not be sufficient to legislate; proactive measures may be needed to ensure enforcement. The approach of the committee has been to assume that the intention is to achieve results. It has therefore focused on the concrete situation of the children concerned and asked whether the CRC is indeed reflected in their daily lives.
Author: The author of this module is Thomas Hammarberg.
1. Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted 20 Nov. 1989, GA Res. 44/25, 44 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 165, UN Doc. A/44/736 (1989), reprinted in 28 ILM 1448 (1989).
2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted 16 Dec. 1966, GA Res. 2200 (XXI), 21 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, arts. 16-25, UN Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 UNTS 3, entered into force 3 Jan. 1976, article 10(3).
3. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted 18 Dec. 1979, GA Res. 34/180, 34 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 46), UN Doc. A/34/46 (1980), 1249 UNTS 13, entered into force 3 Sept. 1981, reprinted in 19 ILM 33 (1980), article 10(f) (hereafter cited as CEDAW].
4. CEDAW, article 5(b). See S. Goonesekere, Womens Rights and Childrens Rights: The United Nations Conventions as Compatible and Complementary International Treaties, Innocenti Occasional Papers, 1992.
5. General guidelines regarding the form and content of initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 44, paragraph 1(a), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. CRC/C/5 (1991); see also Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Sess., Supp. (No. 41), UN Doc. A/47/41, Annex III (1992).
6. This case study was provided by Shomona Khanna, India.
7. Kevin Watkins, Education Now: Break the Cycle of Poverty (Oxford: OXFAM International, 1999), 1-3.
8. Ibid., 131.
9. Myron Weiner, The Child and the State in India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991), 19.
10. J. Himes, Implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource Mobilization and the Obligations of the States Parties, Innocenti Occasional Papers, 1992.
11. Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth, ed. Richard Jolly and Frances Stewart (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987).
12. World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children, World Summit for Children, point 10 (1990).
13. Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s, World Summit for Children, point 31 (1990).