The right to adequate housing

(Article. 11[1] of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)

1.   Pursuant to article 11(1) of the Covenant, States parties "recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including ade­quate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living condi­tions." The human right to adequate hous­ing, which is thus derived from the right to an adequate standard of living, is of central importance for the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights.

2.   The Committee has been able to accumulate a large amount of information pertaining to this right. Since 1979, the Committee and its predecessors have examined 75 reports dealing with the right to adequate housing. The Committee has also devoted a day of general discussion to the issue at each of its third (see E/1989/22, para. 312) and fourth sessions (E/1990/23, paras. 281-285). In addition, the Committee has taken careful note of information generated by the Inter­national Year of Shelter for the Homeless (1987) including the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000 adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 42/191 of 11 December 1987. [1]   The Committee has also reviewed relevant reports and other documentation of the Commission on Human Rights and the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. [2]

3.   Although a wide variety of international instruments address the different dimen­sions of the right to adequate housing, [3] article 11(1) of the Covenant is the most comprehensive and perhaps the most important of the relevant provisions.

4.   Despite the fact that the international com­munity has frequently reaffirmed the importance of full respect for the right to adequate housing, there remains a disturb­ingly large gap between the standards set in article 11(1) of the Covenant and the situa­tion prevailing in many parts of the world. While the problems are often particularly acute in some developing countries which confront major resource and other constraints, the Committee observes that significant problems of homelessness and inadequate housing also exist in some of the most economically developed societies. The United Nations estimates that there are over 100 million persons homeless worldwide and over 1 billion inadequately housed. [4]   There is no indication that this number is decreasing. It seems clear that no State party is free of significant problems of one kind or another in relation to the right to housing.

5.       In some instances, the reports of States par­ties examined by the Committee have acknowledged and described difficulties in ensuring the right to adequate housing. For the most part, however, the information provided has been insufficient to enable the Committee to obtain an adequate picture of the situation prevailing in the State con­cerned. This General Comment thus aims to identify some of the principal issues which the Committee considers to be important in relation to this right.

6.   The right to adequate housing applies to everyone. While the reference to "himself and his family" reflects assumptions as to gender roles and economic activity patterns commonly accepted in 1966 when the Covenant was adopted, the phrase cannot be read today as implying any limitations upon the applicability of the right to individuals or to female-headed households or other such groups. Thus, the concept of  "family" must be understood in a wide sense. Fur­ther, individuals, as well as families, are entitled to adequate housing regardless of age, economic status, group or other affilia­tion or status and other such factors. In particular, enjoyment of this right must, in accordance with article 2(2) of the Cove­nant, not be subject to any form of discrimi­nation.

7.   In the Committee’s view, the right to hous­ing should not be interpreted in a narrow or restrictive sense which equates it with, for example, the shelter provided by merely having a roof over one’s head or views shelter exclusively as a commodity. Rather it should be seen as the right to live some­where in security, peace and dignity. This is appropriate for at least two reasons. In the first place, the right to housing is integrally linked to other human rights and to the fundamental principles upon which the Covenant is premised. Thus  "the inherent dignity of the human person" from which the rights in the Covenant are said to derive requires that the term "housing" be inter­preted so as to take account of a variety of other considerations, most importantly that the right to housing should be ensured to all persons irrespective of income or access to economic resources. Secondly, the reference in article 11 (1) must be read as referring not just to housing but to adequate housing. As both the Commission on Human Settle­ments and the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000 have stated:  "Adequate shelter means . . . adequate privacy, adequate space, adequate security, adequate lighting and ventilation, adequate basic infrastruc­ture and adequate location with regard to work and basic facilities-all at a reasonable cost."

8.   Thus the concept of adequacy is particularly significant in relation to the right to housing since it serves to underline a number of factors which must be taken into account in determining whether particular forms of shelter can be considered to constitute  "adequate housing" for the purposes of the Covenant. While adequacy is determined in part by social, economic, cultural, climatic, ecological and other factors, the Committee believes that it is nevertheless possible to identify certain aspects of the right that must be taken into account for this purpose in any particular context. They include the following:

(a) Legal security of tenure. Tenure takes a variety of forms, including rental (public and private) accommodation, cooperative housing, lease, owner-occupation, emergency housing and informal settlements, including occupa­tion of land or property. Notwithstand­ing the type of tenure, all persons should possess a degree of security of tenure which guarantees legal protec­tion against forced eviction, harassment and other threats. States parties should consequently take immediate measures aimed at conferring legal security of tenure upon those persons and house­holds currently lacking such protection, in genuine consultation with affected persons and groups;

(b) Availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure. An ade­quate house must contain certain facili­ties essential for health, security, comfort and nutrition. All beneficiaries of the right to adequate housing should have sustainable access to natural and common resources, safe drinking water, energy for cooking, heating and light­ing, sanitation and washing facilities, means of food storage, refuse disposal, site drainage and emergency services;

(c) Affordability. Personal or household financial costs associated with housing should be at such a level that the attainment and satisfaction of other basic needs are not threatened or com­promised. Steps should be taken by States parties to ensure that the percent­age of housing-related costs is, in general, commensurate with income levels. States parties should establish housing subsidies for those unable to obtain affordable housing, as well as forms and levels of housing finance which adequately reflect housing needs. In accordance with the principle of affordability, tenants should be pro­tected by appropriate means against unreasonable rent levels or rent increases. In societies where natural materials constitute the chief sources of building materials for housing, steps should be taken by States parties to ensure the availability of such materials;

(d) Habitability. Adequate housing must be habitable, in terms of providing the inhabitants with adequate space and protecting them from cold, damp, heat, rain, wind or other threats to health, structural hazards, and disease vectors. The physical safety of occupants must be guaranteed as well. The Committee encourages States parties to comprehen­sively apply the Health Principles of Housing [5] prepared by WHO which view housing as the environmental fac­tor most frequently associated with conditions for disease in epidemiologi­cal analyses; i.e., inadequate and defi­cient housing and living conditions are invariably associated with higher mor­tality and morbidity rates;

(e) Accessibility. Adequate housing must be accessible to those entitled to it. Disadvantaged groups must be accorded full and sustainable access to adequate housing resources. Thus, such disad­vantaged groups as the elderly, children, the physically disabled, the terminally ill, HIV-positive individuals, persons with persistent medical problems, the mentally ill, victims of natural disasters, people living in disaster-prone areas and other groups should be ensured some degree of priority consideration in the housing sphere. Both housing law and policy should take fully into account the special housing needs of these groups. Within many States parties increasing access to land by landless or impover­ished segments of the society should constitute a central policy goal. Discernible governmental obligations need to be developed aiming to sub­stantiate the right of all to a secure place to live in peace and dignity, including access to land as an entitlement;

(f) Location. Adequate housing must be in a location which allows access to employment options, health-care serv­ices, schools, child-care centres and other social facilities. This is true both in large cities and in rural areas where the temporal and financial costs of getting to and from the place of work can place excessive demands upon the budgets of poor households. Similarly, housing should not be built on polluted sites nor in immediate proximity to pollution sources that threaten the right to health of the inhabitants;

(g) Cultural adequacy. The way housing is constructed, the building materials used and the policies supporting these must appropriately enable the expression of cultural identity and diversity of hous­ing. Activities geared towards develop­ment or modernization in the housing sphere should ensure that the cultural dimensions of housing are not sacri­ficed, and that, inter alia, modern tech­nological facilities, as appropriate, are also ensured.

9.   As noted above, the right to adequate hous­ing cannot be viewed in isolation from other human rights contained in the two Interna­tional Covenants and other applicable inter­national instruments. Reference has already been made in this regard to the concept of human dignity and the principle of non-discrimination. In addition, the full enjoy­ment of other rights-such as the right to freedom of expression, the right to freedom of association (such as for tenants and other community-based groups), the right to free­dom of residence and the right to participate in public decision-making-is indispensable if the right to adequate housing is to be realized and maintained by all groups in society. Similarly, the right not to be sub­jected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with one’s privacy, family, home or corre­spondence constitutes a very important dimension in defining the right to adequate housing.

10. Regardless of the state of development of any country, there are certain steps which must be taken immediately. As recognized in the Global Strategy for Shelter and in other international analyses, many of the measures required to promote the right to housing would only require the abstention by the Government from certain practices and a commitment to facilitating  "self-help" by affected groups. To the extent that any such steps are considered to be beyond the maximum resources available to a State party, it is appropriate that a request be made as soon as possible for international cooperation in accordance with articles 11 (1), 22 and 23 of the Covenant, and that the Committee be informed thereof.

11. States parties must give due priority to those social groups living in unfavourable condi­tions by giving them particular considera­tion. Policies and legislation should corre­spondingly not be designed to benefit already advantaged social groups at the expense of others. The Committee is aware that external factors can affect the right to a continuous improvement of living condi­tions, and that in many States parties overall living conditions declined during the 1980s. However, as noted by the Committee in its General Comment 2 (1990) (E/1990/23, annex III), despite externally caused prob­lems, the obligations under the Covenant continue to apply and are perhaps even more pertinent during times of economic contraction. It would thus appear to the Committee that a general decline in living and housing conditions, directly attributable to policy and legislative decisions by States parties, and in the absence of accompanying compensatory measures, would be incon­sistent with the obligations under the Cove­nant.

12. While the most appropriate means of achieving the full realization of the right to adequate housing will inevitably vary significantly from one State party to another, the Covenant clearly requires that each State party take whatever steps are necessary for that purpose. This will almost invariably require the adoption of a national housing strategy which, as stated in para­graph 32 of the Global Strategy for Shelter,  "defines the objectives for the development of shelter conditions, identifies the resources available to meet these goals and the most cost-effective way of using them and sets out the responsibilities and time-frame for the implementation of the neces­sary measures." Both for reasons of rele­vance and effectiveness, as well as in order to ensure respect for other human rights, such a strategy should reflect extensive genuine consultation with, and participation by, all of those affected, including the homeless, the inadequately housed and their representatives. Furthermore, steps should be taken to ensure coordination between ministries and regional and local authorities in order to reconcile related policies (economics, agriculture, environment, energy, etc.) with the obligations under article 11 of the Covenant.

13. Effective monitoring of the situation with respect to housing is another obligation of immediate effect. For a State party to satisfy its obligations under article 11(1) it must demonstrate, inter alia, that it has taken whatever steps are necessary, either alone or on the basis of international cooperation, to ascertain the full extent of homelessness and inadequate housing within its jurisdiction. In this regard, the revised general guidelines regarding the form and contents of reports adopted by the Committee (E/C.12/1991/1) emphasize the need to  "provide detailed information about those groups within . . . society that are vulnerable and disadvan­taged with regard to housing." They include, in particular, homeless persons and families, those inadequately housed and without ready access to basic amenities, those living in  "illegal" settlements, those subject to forced evictions and low-income groups.

14. Measures designed to satisfy a State party’s obligations in respect of the right to ade­quate housing may reflect whatever mix of public and private sector measures consid­ered appropriate. While in some States public financing of housing might most use­fully be spent on direct construction of new housing, in most cases, experience has shown the inability of Governments to fully satisfy housing deficits with publicly built housing. The promotion by States parties of  "enabling strategies," combined with a full commitment to obligations under the right to adequate housing, should thus be encour­aged. In essence, the obligation is to dem­onstrate that, in aggregate, the measures being taken are sufficient to realize the right for every individual in the shortest possible time in accordance with the maximum of available resources.

15. Many of the measures that will be required will involve resource allocations and policy initiatives of a general kind. Nevertheless, the role of formal legislative and adminis­trative measures should not be underesti­mated in this context. The Global Strategy for Shelter (paras. 66-67) has drawn atten­tion to the types of measures that might be taken in this regard and to their importance.

16. In some States, the right to adequate housing is constitutionally entrenched. In such cases the Committee is particularly interested in learning of the legal and practical signifi­cance of such an approach. Details of specific cases and of other ways in which entrenchment has proved helpful should thus be provided.

17. The Committee views many component elements of the right to adequate housing as being at least consistent with the provision of domestic legal remedies. Depending on the legal system, such areas might include, but are not limited to: (a) legal appeals aimed at preventing planned evictions or demolitions through the issuance of court-ordered injunctions; (b) legal procedures seeking compensation following an illegal eviction; (c) complaints against illegal actions carried out or supported by land­lords (whether public or private) in relation to rent levels, dwelling maintenance, and racial or other forms of discrimination; (d) allegations of any form of discrimination in the allocation and availability of access to housing; and (e) complaints against land­lords concerning unhealthy or inadequate housing conditions. In some legal systems it would also be appropriate to explore the possibility of facilitating class action suits in situations involving significantly increased levels of homelessness.

18. In this regard, the Committee considers that instances of forced eviction are prima facie incompatible with the requirements of the Covenant and can only be justified in the most exceptional circumstances, and in accordance with the relevant principles of international law.

19. Finally, article 11(1) concludes with the obligation of States parties to recognize  "the essential importance of international cooperation based on free consent." Tradi­tionally, less than 5 per cent of all interna­tional assistance has been directed towards housing or human settlements, and often the manner by which such funding is provided does little to address the housing needs of disadvantaged groups. States parties, both recipients and providers, should ensure that a substantial proportion of financing is devoted to creating conditions leading to a higher number of persons being adequately housed. International financial institutions promoting measures of structural adjust­ment should ensure that such measures do not compromise the enjoyment of the right to adequate housing. States parties should, when contemplating international financial cooperation, seek to indicate areas relevant to the right to adequate housing where external financing would have the most effect. Such requests should take full account of the needs and views of the affected groups.


  [1] . Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-third Session, Supplement No. 8, ad­dendum (A/43/8/Add.1).

  [2] . Commission on Human Rights resolutions 1986/36 and 1987/22; reports by Mr. Danilo Türk, Special Rapporteur of the Sub-Com­mission (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1990/19, paras. 108-120; E/CN.4/Sub.2/1991/17, paras. 137-139); see also Sub-Commission resolution 1991/26.

  [3] . See, for example, article 25 (1) of the Uni­versal Declaration on Human Rights, article 5 (e) (iii) of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Dis­crimination, article 14 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Dis­crimination against Women, article 27 (3) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, article 10 of the Declaration on So­cial Progress and Development, section III (8) of the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, 1976 (Report of Habitat: United Nations Conference on Human Set­tlements (United Nations publi­cation, Sales No. E.76.IV.7 and corrigen­dum, chap. I), article 8 (1) of the Declara­tion on the Right to Development and the ILO Recommenda­tion Concerning Workers’ Housing, 1961 (No. 115).

  [4] . See endnote 1.

  [5] . Geneva, World Health Organization, 1990.

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