Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
11-29 July 2011
2 August 2011
Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Republic of Italy
1. The Committee considered the sixth periodic report of Italy (CEDAW/C/ITA/6) at its 982nd and 983rd meetings, on 14 July 2011 (CEDAW/C/SR.982 and 983). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/ITA/Q/6, and the responses of Italy are contained in CEDAW/C/ITA/Q/6/Add.1.
2. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its sixth periodic report, which, in general, followed the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of reports, although it was overdue and exceeded the word limit. The Committee regrets the descriptive nature of the information provided, the patchy information given on the situation of women and girls throughout the territory of Italy and the sporadic reference to the concluding observations adopted by the Committee upon consideration of the State party’s previous report .
3. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its oral presentation, the written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the Committee’s pre-session working group and for the further clarification to the questions posed orally by the Committee. It also expresses appreciation for the supplementary written information provided to the Committee after the meetings at which the sixth periodic report was considered, but notes that some questions raised by the Committee were not always answered in a clear and precise manner.
4. The Committee commends the State party for its delegation, which was headed by the President of the Inter-ministerial Committee on Human Rights and included representatives of various Government ministries and national institutions, some of whom participated in the constructive dialogue via videoconference. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the members of the Committee.
5. The Committee welcomes the adoption, since the consideration of the previous report, of several new laws and amendments aimed at eliminating discrimination and violence against women, including:
(a) Act No. 7/2006 on provisions concerning the prevention and prohibition of the practice of female genital mutilation;
(b) Act No. 11/2009, which introduced a crime of stalking and mandatory detention of perpetrators of acts of sexual violence;
(c) Legislative Decree No. 198/2006 by which the code of equal opportunities between women and men was adopted and Legislative Decree No. 5/2010 by which the code has been further supplemented and amended;
(d) Unified Text incorporating Chamber Act 2426 and Chamber Act 2956 B of 28 June 2011 aimed at increasing the participation of women in the boards of publicly traded companies or those with a public participation.
6. The Committee notes with appreciation the State party’s adoption of the various plans of action and programmes with the aim of accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, including;
(a) The Plan of Action on Women, Peace and Security, adopted in December 2010;
(b) The national action plan to combat violence against women and stalking, adopted in October 2010.
7. The Committee commends the initiatives and commitment of the State party to make progress towards the empowerment of women and gender equality within the framework of the United Nations and other international organizations, specifically noting initiatives to work towards a global ban on female genital mutilation, and acknowledges the leadership that the Ministry of Equal Opportunities has taken globally on ending violence against women.
8. The Committee also commends the State party for integrating a gender dimension into its development cooperation programmes and undertaking activities on the empowerment of women and gender equality, including in fragile States and in conflict situations.
9. The Committee notes with satisfaction the ratification by the State party of:
(a) The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, in 2006;
(b) The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in 2009;
(c) The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, in 2010.
Principal areas of concern and recommendations
10. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the Convention and views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next periodic report. Consequently, the Committee urges the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report on actions taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. The Committee calls upon the State party to submit the present concluding observations to the relevant Government offices, to the Parliament and to the judiciary, so as to ensure their full implementation.
11. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of Government, and it invites the State party to encourage its Parliament, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations and the State party’s next reporting process under the Convention.
Previous concluding observations
12. The Committee regrets that many of the concerns it expressed and the recommendations it made after its consideration of the State party’s fourth and fifth periodic report (CEDAW/C/ITA/4-5) have been insufficiently addressed, for instance those regarding the situation of women in the labour market, the wage discrimination women face and the lack of a clear understanding of “temporary special measures”, as well as the wide dissemination of the concluding observations.
13. The Committee urges the State party to make every effort to address the previous recommendations that have not yet been implemented, as well as the concerns contained in the present concluding observations.
Visibility of the Convention and Optional Protocol
14. While noting that the State party made the Convention, its Optional Protocol and the previous concluding observations available at the website of the Department of Equal Opportunities, the Committee is concerned that the provisions in these two instruments, as well as the general recommendations of the Committee, are not translated into Italian and not sufficiently known across all branches of Government, in society at large and among women themselves. The Committee is further concerned that the Convention has not received the same degree of visibility and importance as regional legal instruments, particularly European Union directives, and is therefore not regularly used as the legal basis for measures, including legislation, aimed at the elimination of discrimination against women and the promotion of gender equality in the State party.
15. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Place greater emphasis, in its efforts to eliminate discrimination against women, on the Convention as a legally binding and directly applicable human rights instrument;
(b) Intensify its efforts to raise awareness among women of their rights under the Convention and the communication and inquiry procedures provided by its Optional Protocol;
(c) Take proactive measures to enhance awareness of the Convention and its Optional Protocol at all levels, national, regional, provincial and municipal, and in particular among the judiciary and the legal profession, political parties, Parliament and Government officials as well as the general public, in order to strengthen the use of the Convention in the development and implementation of all legislation, policies and programmes aimed at the practical realization of the principle of equality between women and men;
(d) Ensure that the Convention and its Optional Protocol, as well as the Committee’s general recommendations and the views adopted on individual communications and enquiries, are made an integral part of the educational curricula, including legal education and training of the judiciary, so as to establish firmly a legal culture of non-discrimination towards women and gender equality.
Responsibility and accountability of the national Government
16. The Committee reiterates its concern, expressed in the previous concluding observations, that the devolution and delegation of Government powers to regional and local governments may create difficulties in respect of the implementation of the Convention throughout the country.
17. The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party ensure, through the effective coordination and monitoring structures and mechanisms, effective and consistent application of the Convention by all regional and local authorities so that uniformity of results in the implementation of the Convention is achieved throughout the State party’s territory.
18. The Committee has noted the expansion of the mandate and functions by the State party of the Department for Equal Opportunities, the information on funds allocated to the Department of Equal Opportunities and the many mechanisms and networks within the Presidency and the Council of Ministries and the various Government departments established during the reporting period, vested with the task to eliminate discrimination against women. The Committee reiterates the important role of non-governmental organizations in the achievement of gender equality, which must be valued and encouraged by the State party.
19. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure that gender mainstreaming is consistently applied in the formulation and implementation of all laws, regulations and programmes in all ministries and decentralized Government structures;
(b) Ensure sufficient and sustainable resources from the State budget for the work of the Ministry for Equal Opportunities and the Department for Equal Opportunities, specifically aimed towards achieving gender equality;
(c) Establish transparent and regular consultations, both through formal and informal links with non-governmental organizations, in particular women’s associations and women’s human rights defenders, in order to promote a participatory and constructive dialogue with them in the pursuit of gender equality.
Temporary special measures
20. The Committee is concerned that the State party’s understanding of the concept of temporary special measures, as expressed in its report, is not in accordance with the Committee’s interpretation of these measures as set out in its general recommendation No. 25 (2004), and that such measures are not systematically applied as a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of de facto or substantive equality between women and men in all areas of the Convention.
21. The Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a) Familiarize all relevant officials with the concept of temporary special measures according to article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and as interpreted in the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25;
(b) Take into account the fact that long-term and definitive measures alone could be insufficient to comply with the State party’s general obligation to fulfil women’s right to non-discrimination and to the enjoyment of equality with men and that temporary special measures are “appropriate means” for achievement of gender equality, in particular in employment;
(c) Apply temporary special measures in various forms in areas where women are underrepresented, such as legislative, executive, administrative and political bodies, or disadvantaged, in particular with the aim to further improve the situation of rural, migrant, older, Roma and Sinti women, and women with disabilities, and allocate additional resources where needed to accelerate their advancement.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
22. While welcoming the efforts undertaken within the school system, such as the annual “week against violence” organized in schools across the country, the Committee regrets that the State party has not developed a comprehensive and coordinated programme to combat the widespread acceptance of stereotypical roles of men and women, as recommended in the Committee’s previous concluding observations. The Committee remains deeply concerned about the portrayal of women as sex objects and the stereotyped roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society. Such stereotyping, including in public statements made by politicians, undermines women’s social status, as reflected in women’s disadvantaged position in a number of areas, including in the labour market and in access to political life and decision-making positions, affects women’s choices in their studies and professions and generates unequal results and impacts of policies and strategies on women and men.
23. The Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a) Put in place a comprehensive, sustained and coordinated policy, targeted at men and women, and boys and girls, to overcome the portrayal of women as sexual objects and the stereotypes regarding their roles in society and in the family, in accordance with article 2 (f) of the Convention. Such a policy should include legal, administrative and awareness-raising measures, involve public officials and civil society and target the entire population;
(b) Mainstream gender equality and eliminate patriarchal stereotypes in the education system;
(c) Make gender equality issues and sensitivity training an integral, substantive and mandatory component of all teachers’ training, at all levels.
24. While the State party recently took measures to address stereotypical and sexist attitudes in the media and the advertising industry, where they are particularly prevalent and where women and men are often depicted in a stereotyped manner, the Committee is concerned about the lack of information on the impact of such measures.
25. The Committee recommends that the State party provide information on the existence of sexist stereotyping in the media and in advertisements, on self- regulatory measures such as codes of conduct and mechanisms established to monitor and receive complaints on sexist elements in the media, and on their outcomes, in its next periodic report.
Violence against women
26. The Committee welcomes the adoption of Act No. 11/2009, which introduced a crime of stalking and mandatory detention for perpetrators of acts of sexual violence, the national action plan to combat violence against women and stalking and the first comprehensive research on physical, sexual and psychological violence against women, developed by the National Statistics Institute. However, it remains concerned about the high prevalence of violence against women and girls and the persistence of sociocultural attitudes condoning domestic violence, as well as by the lack of data on violence against immigrant, Roma and Sinti women and girls. The Committee is further concerned about the high number of women murdered by their partner or ex-partner (femicide), which may indicate a failure of the State party’s authorities to adequately protect the women victims from their partners or ex-partners.
27. In accordance with its general recommendation No. 19 (1992) on violence against women and the views adopted by the Committee under the Optional Protocol procedures, the Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Put emphasis on comprehensive measures to address violence against women in the family and in society, including through addressing the specific needs of women made vulnerable by particular circumstances, such as Roma and Sinti, migrant and older women and women with disabilities;
(b) Ensure that female victims of violence have immediate protection, including expulsion of the perpetrator from the home, a guarantee that they can stay in secure and well-funded shelters, in all parts of the country, and that they have access to free legal aid, psychosocial counselling and adequate redress, including compensation;
(c) Ensure that public officials, especially law enforcement officials and professionals in the judiciary, health care, social work and education are systematically and fully sensitized to all forms of violence against women and girls;
(d) Enhance the system of appropriate data collection on all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence, protection measures, prosecutions and sentences imposed on perpetrators, and conduct appropriate surveys to assess the prevalence of violence experienced by women belonging to disadvantaged groups, such as Roma and Sinti, migrant and older women and women with disabilities;
(e) Further pursue, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders, including women’s and other civil society organizations, awareness-raising campaigns through the media and public education programmes to make violence against women socially unacceptable, and disseminate information on available measures to prevent acts of violence against women among the general public;
(f) Ratify the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, in a timely manner.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
28. The Committee commends the State party for the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, the ratification of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and for efforts undertaken to provide social assistance to identified victims of trafficking, and to prosecute trafficking offenders. However, the Committee is concerned that the application of article 18 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998, which provides for a special residence permit for victims of trafficking and exploitation for social protection purposes, may, if restrictively interpreted, deprive women, who were trafficked in another country and then led to Italy for the purpose of trafficking, of adequate protection. The Committee is further concerned that a “security package” adopted by the Government in 2010 has seriously prevented law enforcement authorities from adequately identifying potential victims of trafficking.
29. The Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a) Take into account the transnational dimension of the crime of human trafficking, as acknowledged in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and standardize identification and referral procedures for potential victims;
(b) Expedite the process of adopting the national action plan against trafficking;
(c) Ensure that interpretation of article 18 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998 does not deprive women who were trafficked in another country of adequate protection.
30. The Committee notes that several bills (including AS 1079 of 2008, criminalizing prostitution in public places), as part of a more general package of measures to eradicate prostitution and sexual exploitation, are under discussion in the State party. However, the Committee is concerned by the acknowledgment, by the State party, that one of the purposes of the proposal to criminalize prostitution in public spaces is to ensure public security and decorum in urban life and that, apparently, the rights of women involved in street prostitution, the vast majority of whom are immigrants, have not been considered in the formulation of such measures. The Committee also noted that the State party considers prostitution a hidden and unknown phenomenon that tends to be practiced in closed places. The Committee is concerned about the absence of assistance and support programmes for women wishing to leave prostitution and who were not victims of exploitation.
31. The State party is encouraged to:
(a) Undertake an impact assessment of the proposed measures criminalizing street prostitution with the aim of identifying potential risks for the exploitation of women who may move from outdoor prostitution circuits to indoor prostitution, where, as recognized by the State party, prostitution remains a hidden and unknown phenomenon;
(b) Continue formulating strategies and programmes to prevent women from entering prostitution and to establish programmes of support and rehabilitation for women who wish to leave prostitution, including by providing information on, and support in relation to, alternative livelihood options.
Participation in political and public life
32. The Committee notes a limited increase in the representation of women in the Senate and in the Chamber of Deputies, but it remains deeply concerned that Italian women are still underrepresented in the National Parliament, at regional levels, in the judiciary, in senior positions within the public administration and in the diplomatic service, as well as in decision-making roles in the private sector, thus limiting women’s participation in decision-making processes in all areas. The Committee also expresses concern about the lack of information on the presence of immigrant women in decision-making positions, in a country where immigrants account for a large percentage of the population.
33. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Intensify its efforts to strengthen women’s representation in leadership roles and in decision-making positions in political bodies, including Parliament and regional councils, in the public administration, including in the diplomatic service, and in the private sector, and to that end, take adequate temporary special measures;
(b) Take additional measures to accelerate the achievement of women’s full and equal participation in decision-making at all levels and in all areas;
(c) Consider taking additional legislative measures under article 51 of the Constitution to increase the number of women in political and public positions, including through the use of gender quotas, and to ensure adequate representation, in such positions, of Roma and migrant women, and women from the south of the country.
34. The Committee is concerned about the high dropout rates of Roma and Sinti girls and women from school and that they remain in a vulnerable and marginalized situation with regard to access to education.
35. The Committee calls on the State party to:
(a) Implement measures to decrease dropout rates among Roma and Sinti girls and to reintegrate them into the educational system;
(b) Provide information, in its next report, on concrete projects directed at the education of Roma girls and women, under the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015.
36. The Committee notes the adoption of various measures taken by the State party to support the participation of women in the labour market and facilitate the reconciliation of family and work life, such as the plan “Italy 2020” and the directive on measures to implement the principle of equality and equal opportunities between men and women in public administration. It continues to be concerned about the situation of women in the labour market, which is characterized, in spite of women’s high level of education, by a persistent high rate of female unemployment. The Committee wishes to draw the State party’s attention to the disadvantaged situation of women who interrupt their careers for family reasons and the related consequences for retirement and old-age pensions, the concentration of women in low-paid sectors of employment, the wage gap between women and men and the fact that a significant number of women leave the workforce after childbirth and that only 10 per cent of parental leave is taken by fathers. The Committee notes the intention of the State party to adopt a national reform plan that foresees, by 2020, a 12 per cent increase in women’s employment and introduces incentives for stable work. In this regard the Committee brings to the State party’s attention its obligation to ensure uniform results of such a reform throughout the country.
37. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Continue to take concrete measures to ensure de facto equal opportunities for women and men in the labour market, including through temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25;
(b) Take concrete and proactive measures to eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, including through education, training and retraining and effective law enforcement mechanisms;
(c) Develop and apply job evaluation systems based on gender-sensitive criteria and collect sex-disaggregated data regarding the type and extent of wage differentials, in order to eliminate the practice of women receiving unequal pay for work of equal value;
(d) Monitor the impact of the use of fixed-term and other flexible contracts and increase incentives for employers, when appropriate, to counteract possible adverse consequences of such contracts for women, especially in regard to their job security, salary levels and pension and retirement benefits;
(e) Enhance its efforts to ensure reconciliation of family, private and professional responsibilities and for the promotion of equal sharing of domestic and family tasks between women and men, including by increasing the incentives for men to use their right to parental leave and taking concerted efforts to provide for additional childcare facilities for children of different age groups, in particular in regions with few childcare facilities.
38. The Committee notes the steps taken by the State party’s Government to enhance labour inspections to control the misuse of the “resignation in blank” (undated letters of resignation), whereby pregnant female employees are forced out of employment. However, it regrets that Act 188/2007 was repealed.
39. The Committee urges the State party to take all appropriate steps to abolish the practice of so-called “resignation in blank”.
40. The Committee is also concerned about the difficulties experienced by immigrant women and women with disabilities regarding their integration and participation in the labour market.
41. The Committee calls upon the State party to mainstream the issues of immigrant women and women with disabilities, who may suffer multiple forms of discrimination, into its employment policies and programmes, and to intensify its efforts, including with the adoption of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25, aimed at achieving de facto equal opportunities for immigrant women and women with disabilities in the labour market.
42. The Committee welcomes the results achieved by the 2010-2012 national plan of prevention and organization of screening programmes to prevent breast cancer, but notes with concern that breast cancer is the most common cancer and cause of death among women in Italy. While the Committee recognizes the results achieved by the organization of screening programmes throughout the territory of the State party, the Committee remains concerned that over 60 per cent of women in southern Italy do not have access to mammograms, even within organized programmes.
43. The Committee urges the State party to take measures to ensure equal access to and availability of mammograms and screening services to women throughout its territory, including the regions in the south.
44. While noting that efforts have been made with the aim of registering new cases of HIV infections and drawing up guidelines for therapy and diagnosis within the territory of the State party, including for women, the Committee is concerned that no systematic and comparable data is available on HIV prevalence among women drug users in prisons. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that immigrant women are increasingly affected by HIV/AIDS.
45. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Include in its next periodic report information on measures taken to ensure the provision of gender-sensitive health services and preventive health care for women affected by HIV/AIDS in prisons;
(b) Take preventive measures and provide specialized health-care services and treatment to immigrant women infected with HIV/AIDS.
46. The Committee welcomes the extensive information provided by the State party on rural women. The Committee regrets, however, that rural women face specific impediments to full and equal enjoyment and exercise of their rights under the Convention. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of reliable data on the economic and social situation of rural women, in particular migrant rural women, their entrepreneurial involvement and the insufficient information available about the access to social and health services for rural women, free legal aid to women who are victims of discrimination and on whether special measures have been adopted to ensure that rural women participate in the development of policies that affect them.
47. The Committee recommends that the State party take targeted measures to ensure that women working in rural areas have real possibilities to benefit from economic empowerment and equal opportunities with men, including access to social and health services, to counselling and assistance in cases of violence and to ensure participation of rural women in the development of policies that affect them.
Family relations and economic consequences of divorce
48. The Committee welcomes the bill approved by Parliament, in June 2011, that recognizes that children born out of wedlock have equal rights to those born to married couples. The Committee notes that mandatory mediation in divorce proceedings does not apply in cases of intra-family violence but remains, however, concerned about the duration of the divorce proceedings, which may increase the risk of violence against women. The Committee also notes that inheritance and property rights are progressively extended to de facto unions (based on verdicts of the Supreme Court), which, in the past, were exclusively recognized for wives and husbands.
49. The Committee recommends the State party to:
(a) Reduce the length of divorce proceedings to one year, as currently under debate within the Chambers;
(b) Continue protecting and enhancing the rights, in particular economic rights, of women living in de facto unions.
50. The Committee noted that Act No. 54/2006 introduced shared (physical) custody of children as the preferred default in cases of separation or divorce. However, the Committee is concerned at the lack of studies of the effect of this legal change, especially in the light of comparative research that points to negative effects on children (especially small children) of forced shared custody. It is further concerned at reports of suspicion towards claims of child abuse in custody cases, based on the dubious theory of “parental alienation syndrome”.
51. The Committee calls upon the State party to evaluate the legal change in the area of child custody through scientific studies, in order to assess its long- term effects on women and children, bearing in mind the experience accumulated in other countries on this matter.
Disadvantaged groups of women
52. While noting measures taken with the aim of enhancing the integration of migrant, Roma and Sinti women into Italian society, the Committee is deeply concerned that they are subject to multiple forms of discrimination with respect to accessing education, health and employment. The Committee also remains concerned at the violence and discrimination on the grounds of sex that such women face in their own communities, such as early marriage. It also notes the prevalence of female genital mutilation among migrant women. The Committee is further concerned that the State party’s report contains insufficient information on measures taken to improve the situation of older women and that older women may be marginalized, in particular immigrant older women.
53. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Intensify its efforts to eliminate discrimination against Roma, Sinti, immigrant, refugee, asylum-seeking and older women, with respect to accessing education, health and employment;
(b) Collect statistics on early marriages among Roma and Sinti girls;
(c) Take measures to prevent discrimination against women belonging to disadvantaged groups, both within their communities and in society at large, to combat violence against them and to increase their awareness of the availability of social services and legal remedies, as well as familiarize them with their right to gender
equality and non-discrimination;
(d) Design awareness-raising programmes involving health service providers, community and religious leaders and women’s organizations, and launch specific culturally sensitive information campaigns to prevent discrimination against Roma, Sinti and migrant women;
(e) Ensure the full implementation of legislation prohibiting female genital mutilation, including the prosecution of perpetrators, with a view to eliminating this harmful practice;
(f) Conduct regular and comprehensive studies on discrimination against immigrant, refugee, asylum-seeking and older women, to collect statistics on their employment, education, health situation and on all forms of violence that they may experience, and to submit such information in its next periodic report.
Refugee and asylum-seeking women
54. The Committee remains concerned that a gender-sensitive approach has not been mainstreamed throughout the process of granting asylum and/or refugee status, and by the absence of laws and policies concerning women asylum-seekers and refugees, including the lack of recognition of gender-related forms of persecution in determining refugee status.
55. The Committee recommends that the State party fully integrate a gender-sensitive approach throughout the process of granting asylum/refugee status, including in the application stage, and recognize gender persecution as a ground for recognition of refugee status, according to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, adopted in 1951.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
56. The Committee urges the State party to utilize fully, in the implementation of its obligations under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which reinforces the provisions of the Convention, and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
Millennium Development Goals
57. The Committee emphasizes that full and effective implementation of the Convention is indispensable for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It calls for the integration of a gender perspective and an explicit reflection of the provisions of the Convention in all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
Ratification of other treaties
58. The Committee notes that States’ adherence to the nine major international human rights instruments1 enhances the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee encourages the Government of Italy to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
59. The Committee requests the translation into Italian and the wide dissemination in the State party of the present concluding observations, in order to make the people, including Government officials, politicians, parliamentarians and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women and men and the further steps that are required in that regard. The Committee requests the State party to strengthen the dissemination, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, of the Convention, its Optional Protocol, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
Follow-up to concluding observations
60. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 23 and 27 above.
Preparation of next report
61. The Committee requests the State party to ensure the wide participation of all ministries and public bodies in the preparation of its next report, and to consult a variety of women’s and human rights organizations during that phase.
62. The Committee requests the State party to respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding observations in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention. The Committee invites the State party to submit its seventh periodic report in July 2015.
63. The Committee invites the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents, approved at the fifth inter-committee meeting of the human rights treaty bodies, in June 2006 (HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1). The treaty-specific reporting guidelines adopted by the Committee at its fortieth session, in January 2008, must be applied in conjunction with the harmonized reporting guidelines on a common core document. Together, they constitute the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The treaty-specific document should be limited to 40 pages, while the updated common core document should not exceed 80 pages.
1 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.