BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW


 

David Weissbrodt and Marci Hoffman(1)

A. Compilations of Human Rights Instruments

1. United Nations (U.N.)

2. International Labour Organisation (ILO)

3. U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

4. U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

5. Council of Europe

6. Organization of African Unity (OAU)

7. Organization of American States (OAS)

8. Humanitarian Law

9. Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE)

10. United States

11. Other Collections

 

B. Status of Human Rights Instruments

1. Sources on the Status of U.N. Human Rights Instruments

2. Other Sources

 

C. Legislative History of Human Rights Instruments

 

D. Human Rights Case Law, Jurisprudence, Decisions, and Digests

1. U.N.

2. ILO

3. Council of Europe and European Union

4. OAS

5. Other

 

E. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

 

F. Research Guides on the Six Major Human Rights Instruments

1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Optional Protocols

2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

3. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

4. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

5. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

6. Convention on the Rights of the Child

 

G. Refugee Law

 

H. Selected Texts

 

I. Research Guides and Bibliographies

 

J. Periodicals

 

K. Book and Periodical Indices

 

L. Electronic Sources

1. Databases

2. Internet

3. Directories

 

M. Practice Guides

 

N. Congressional Material

 

O. Factfinding Methodology

 

P. Country Situations

1. Legal System Information Sources

2. Country Reports

3. Constitutions

4. Criminal Codes and Criminal Procedure Codes

5. Other Legislation

6. Directories

7. Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Reports

8. U.N. Documents

9. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

10. Media Services


Human Rights researchers are confronted with growing amounts of materials related to human rights. This bibliography attempts to organize the information and materials into categories in order to ease that burden. While no bibliography can be completely comprehensive, this work attempts to cover the major bodies and sources, including electronic sources such as the Internet.

When possible, this bibliography follows the citation forms suggested by The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Harvard Law Review et al. comps., 15th ed. 1991). The citation form for U.N. documents varies from The Bluebook in order to follow the symbol assigned by the U.N.

A. COMPILATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

 

1. United Nations (U.N.)

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/1/Rev.5, U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.1 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 950 pp., 2 vols. Includes texts of 95 human rights instruments principally adopted by the U.N., the ILO, and UNESCO; dates of their entry into force; and a list of instruments in chronological order of adoption. Volume I, in two parts, addresses universal instruments. Although Volume I mentions a Volume II on regional instruments, Volume II does not exist yet in published form.]

Note: Several compilations of U.N. and other human rights instruments are now located in electronic collections, for example, through the World Wide Web. Please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.

 

2. International Labour Organisation (ILO)

 

International Labour Office, International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, 1919-1991 (1992).

[Geneva: International Labour Office, 1481 pp., 2 vols.]

 

International Labour Office, Summaries of International Labour Standards (1988).

[Washington, D.C.: International Labour Office, 126 pp.]

 

International Labour Organisation, Constitution of the International Labour Organisation and Standing Orders of the International Labour Conference (1989).

[Geneva: International Labour Office, 87 pp. ILO constitution, rules, and information on practice/procedure. Updated periodically.]

International Labour Organisation, LABORLEX-ILOLEX.

[Varying starting dates. Available on CD-ROM, distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers. This trilingual database (English, French, and Spanish) includes ILO conventions, ILO recommendations, the Annual Report of the Conference Committee on the Application of Standards (1987-present), Comments of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (1987-present), the Triennial Report of the Committee on Freedom of Association (1985-present), ratification lists by convention and by country, the ILO Constitution, and the reports of committees and commissions established under Constitution Articles 24 and 26 to investigate complaints and representations.]

3. U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO, Executive Board, Decisions Adopted By the Executive Board at Its 104th Session, 104 EX/Decision 3.3 (1978).

[Paris: UNESCO, 6 pp. Sets forth UNESCO procedures in human rights cases.]

UNESCO, UNESCO'S Standard-Setting Instruments (1981- ).

[Paris: UNESCO, looseleaf. Includes the full text of the standard setting instruments.]

4. U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

Basic Documents on International Migration Law (Richard Plender ed., 1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 411 pp. Provides full texts or excerpts of 77 instruments concerning migration and a list of states parties to each instrument.]

Benjamin Mulamba Mbuyi, Refugees and international law (1993).

[Scarborough, Ontario: Carswell Thompson Canada Limited, 677 pp. Text in English and French. Contains texts of instruments concerning refugees, bibliographical references, and index.]

Office of the UNHCR, Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees, U.N. Doc. HCR/IP/1/Eng (7th ed. 1990).

[Geneva: UNHCR, 335 pp. Provides universal instruments (part one), regional instruments (part two), and dates of entry into force.]

Office of the UNHCR, Conclusions on the International Protection of Refugees Adopted by the Executive Committee of the UNHCR Programme, U.N. Doc. HCR/IP/2/Eng/REV.1991 (1991).

[Geneva: UNHCR, 103 pp. A copy of conclusions through 1994 in xerox form may be obtained from the Washington Liaison Office of the UNHCR.]

Office of the UNHCR, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (rev. ed. 1992).

[Geneva: UNHCR, 93 pp. Revision of the 1979 edition. Explains terms and procedures for determining refugee status. Annexes contain full texts or excerpts of international instruments related to refugees.]

Office of the UNHCR, United Nations Resolutions and Decisions Relating to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, U.N. Doc. HCR/INF.49 (1984- ).

[Geneva: UNHCR, looseleaf, 185 pp. Contains texts of resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council relating to the Office of the UNHCR. Updated periodically by addenda.]

UNHCR, REFWORLD.

[Contains information on refugees worldwide. Organizes information under five main menus: Publications,Law, Reference, UNHCR, and Country. Available on Internet:

http://www.unicc.org/unhcrcdr

The law section contains the text of the Refugee Convention and international caselaw. REFWORLD is updated daily. The REFWORLD CD-ROM contains more information and will be updated on a quarterly basis. See ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography for more information.]

5. Council of Europe

J.C. Alderson, Human Rights and the Police (1984).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Directorate of Human Rights, 207 pp. Contains Council of Europe guidelines for police.]

Ralph Beddard, Human Rights and Europe 241-70 (3d ed. 1993).

[Cambridge: Grotius Publications Ltd., 278 pp. Annex contains the texts of the European Convention on Human Rights and Protocols 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10.]

Council of Europe, Collection of Recommendations, Resolutions and Declarations of the Committee of Ministers Concerning Human Rights, 1949-87 (1989).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe; Croton, NY: Manhattan Pub. Co., distributor, 214 pp.]

Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights: Collected Texts=Convention européenne des droits de l'homme: recueil des textes (1987).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 236 pp. Contains texts of the European Convention on Human Rights and its Protocols; rules of procedure of the European Commission, the Court of Human Rights, and the Committee of Ministers; and various human rights instruments from other organs of the Council of Europe. Includes signatures, ratifications, declarations, and reservations concerning the European Convention and its Protocols.]

Council of Europe, Human Rights in International Law: Basic Texts (2d ed. 1992).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press, Directorate of Human Rights, 465 pp.]

Council of Europe, European Convention on Human Rights: Collected Texts, 33A Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights 274-283 (1994).

[The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 283 pp. Includes the text of Protocol No. 11 in English and French (in appendix one).]

European Convention on Human Rights: Texts and Documents (Herbert Miehsler & Herbert Petzold eds., 1982).

[Köln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2 vols., collection in the official languages. Volume one contains texts of European Convention on Human Rights and other European treaties, including U.N. documents. Volume two includes documents of the Council of Europe and the European Community.]

Protocol No. 11 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, restructuring the control machinery established thereby, 15 Hum. Rts. L.J. 86 (1994).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 29 July 1994. Article includes the text of Protocol No. 11, explanatory report, and speeches made for the signing ceremony.]

A.H. Robertson & J.G. Merrils, Human Rights in Europe: A Study of the European Convention on Human Rights, 386-413 (3d ed. 1993)

[Manchester: Manchester University Press, 422 pp. Annex provides the texts of the convention and its protocols. Also includes a table of ratifications and acceptances by member states (status as of 1 January 1992).]

Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights (1955/1957- ).

[The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., annual, v. 1- , volume one contains the text of the convention; later volumes contain the protocols as promulgated. Includes status, ratifications, signatures, and reservations information.]





6. Organization of African Unity (OAU)

The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3/Rev.5 (1981), reprinted in 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force Oct. 21, 1986.

Documents of the Organization of African Unity (Gino J. Naldi ed., 1992).

[London; New York: Mansell, 246 pp. Contains several important human rights documents including the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1982 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1988 Rules of Procedure of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, and 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.]

Munyonzwe Hamalengwa et al., The International Law of Human Rights in Africa: Basic Documents and Annotated Bibliography (1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 427 pp.]

Human Rights and Development in Africa 317-39 (Claude E. Welch, Jr. & Ronald I. Meltzer eds., 1984).

[Albany: State University of New York Press, 349 pp. Includes African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; concordance of basic human rights in the Banjul Charter and other major human rights treaties; and major African conferences on human rights, 1961-1981 (locations, dates, and sources).]

Rules of Procedure of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 9 Hum. Rts L.J. 326 (1988).

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/09/1 (1990).

[New York: U.N. Centre for Hum. Rts., 51 pp. Contains the Charter and Rules of Procedure of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights. An annex contains a list of countries that have signed, ratified, or acceded to the Charter.]

Note: Several compilations of African human rights instruments are now located in electronic collections, for example, through the World Wide Web. Please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.

7. Organization of American States (OAS)

OAS, Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System, updated to July 1992, OAS Doc. No. OEA/Ser.L./V/11.82, doc. 6 rev. 1 (1992).

[Washington, DC: General Secretariat, OAS, 181 pp. Provides texts of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; American Convention on Human Rights with information on its current status; Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty; Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture; the statute and regulations of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; the statute and rules of procedure of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights; list of publications of the Commission; and a model complaint.]

Human Rights: The Inter-American System (Thomas Buergenthal & Robert E. Norris eds., 1982- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf. Contains texts of basic documents: OAS Charter, American Convention on Human Rights and its legislative history, related Inter-American conventions, statutes, rules, decisions, advisory opinions and resolutions of the Inter-American Commission and Court of Human Rights, OAS General Assembly resolutions, selected findings of country reports, and annual reports. Includes status information for instruments, bibliographies, and indexes by case number, country, right, article of instrument, topic, and victim's name. Most recent update issued in November 1993.]

Thomas Buergenthal et al., Protecting Human Rights in the Americas: Selected Problems 323-86 (2d ed. 1986).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 389 pp. Provides texts of basic documents and a model complaint form. Third edition forthcoming.]

Daniel Zovatto, Los Derechos Humanos en el Sistema Interamericano: Recompilaciòn de Instrumentos Basicos (1987).

[San Jose, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, 357 pp. Spanish compilation of declarations, regulations, statutes, and treaties of Inter-American bodies. Includes a list of OAS resolutions concerning human rights and chronological index.]

Note: Several compilations of Inter-American human rights instruments are now located in electronic collections, for example, through the World Wide Web. Please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography. In particular, see the OAS web site at http://www.oas.org and the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library at http://www.umn.edu/humanrts.

8. Humanitarian Law

Documents on the Laws of War (Adam Roberts & Richard Guelff eds., 2d ed. 1989).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 509 pp. Comprehensive and annotated.]

Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts: Manual (The Federal Ministry of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany ed., 1992).

[Bonn: German Ministry of Defense, 154 pp. English version of the German tri-service manual (issued August 1992), ZDv 15/2 Humanitaeres Voelkerrecht in bewaffneten Konflikten: Handbuch.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, International Law Concerning the Conduct of Hostilities: Collection of Hague Conventions and Some Other Treaties (1989).

[Geneva: ICRC, 195 pp.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, International Red Cross Handbook (13th ed. 1994).

[Geneva: ICRC, 961 pp. Paperback.]

 

International Committee of the Red Cross, Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (1977).

[Geneva: ICRC, 134 pp. Includes texts of Protocols, resolutions of the Diplomatic Conference, and extracts from the Final Act of the Diplomatic Conference.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Summary of the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 and Their Additional Protocols (1983).

[Geneva: ICRC, 22 pp. In small booklet form.]

The Laws of Armed Conflicts: A Collection of Conventions, Resolutions and Other Documents (Dietrich Schindler & Jiri Toman 3d rev. ed. 1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 1033 pp. Scientific Collection of the Henry Dunant Institute.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments 685-943, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/1/Rev.5, U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.1 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 950 pp., 2 vols. Volume I, Part 2 contains texts of instruments pertaining to humanitarian law.]

Note: Several compilations of humanitarian law instruments are now located in electronic collections, for example, through the World Wide Web. Please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography. In particular, see the International Committee of the Red Cross web site at http://www.icrc.ch and the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies web site at http://www.ifrc.org.

9. Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (Previously known as the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe, change effective January 1995.)

Giovanni Barberini, Codice della Conferenza sulla Sicurezza e la Cooperazione in Europa/C.S.C.E. Documents (1990).

[Napoli: Edizion Scientifiche Italiane, 853 pp. Bilingual in Italian and English. Contains the texts of basic documents: Final Act, concluding documents of the Belgrade, Madrid, and Vienna conferences, rules of procedure of the CSCE, various meeting reports, and major U.N. human rights instruments (appendix).]

The Challenges of Change: The Helsinki Summit of the CSCE and its Aftermath, 385-446 (Arie Bloed ed., 1994).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 463 pp. Annex contains the text of CSCE Helsinki Document 1992: The Challenges of Change (Helsinki Declaration) and Helsinki Decisions.]

The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe: Analysis and Basic Documents, 1972-1993 (Arie Bloed ed., 2d ed. 1993).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 1337 pp. Revised edition of From Helsinki to Vienna (1990).]

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: Final Act, 73 Dep't St. Bull. 323-50; 14 I.L.M. 1292-1325 (1975).

Alexis Heraclides, Helsinki-II and its Aftermath: The Making of the CSCE into an International Organization 209-64 (1993).

[London; New York: Pinter Publishers; distributed in the U.S. by St. Martin's Press, 274 pp.]

Human Rights, European Politics, and the Helsinki Accord: The Documentary Evolution of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1973-75 (Igor I. Kavass et al. eds., 1981).

[Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, 6 vols.]

Human Rights, the Helsinki Accords, and the United States: Selected Executive and Congressional Documents (Igor I. Kavass & Jacqueline P. Granier eds., reprint ed., 1982).

[Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, 9 vols.]

Amnesty International, Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE): The Road to Helsinki II (AI Index: IOR 52/01/92) (1992).

[London: AI, 25 pp. Appendix 2 contains: Extracts From The Document of the Moscow Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE adopted October 3, 1991.]

U.S. Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE (1990).

[Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 24 pp.]

Collection of Human Rights Documents of the European Community and its Member States (1992).

[Netherlands: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 193 pp.]

Note: Several compilations of OSCE instruments are now located in electronic collections, for example, through the World Wide Web. Please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography. In particular, see the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library at http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/ which contains several OSCE full text instruments.

10. United States

Note: For texts of many recently ratified treaties, see also International Legal Materials (I.L.M.), listed in the HUMAN RIGHTS CASE LAW/OTHER section of this bibliography. If the text of a treaty cannot be found in the following sources, contact the Assistant Legal Adviser for Treaty Affairs, U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street N.W., Washington, DC 20520.

Human Rights Documents: Compilation of Documents Pertaining to Human Rights (1983).

[Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 774 pp. (98th Cong., 1st Sess., Committee Print) Includes U.S. laws containing human rights provisions. For an update of this compilation, see U.S. Legislation Relating Human Rights to U.S. Foreign Policy, listed below.]

International Human Rights Instruments: A Compilation of Treaties, Agreements and Declarations of Especial Interest to the United States (Richard B. Lillich ed., 2d ed. 1990- ).

[Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, looseleaf. Texts of over 40 key human rights treaties and agreements concluded through the U.N., OAS, ILO, and other international bodies. Includes related reservations, declarations, U.S. action, bibliographies, and citations to U.S. cases in which the instruments have been invoked.]

International Human Rights Law Group, U.S. Legislation Relating Human Rights to U.S. Foreign Policy (4th ed. 1991).

[Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, 186 pp.]

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy: Report and Recommendations: 1988 Project 58-60 (1988).

[New York: Lawyers Committee, 68 pp. Contains citations to primary statutes and programs.]

U.S. Dept. Of State, Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on January 1, [date] (1929- ).

[Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. This official annual publication addresses bilateral agreements (Part I) and multilateral treaties (Part II). Part I arranges bilateral agreements by country and subject, while Part II arranges multilateral treaties by subject and includes lists of States parties.]

11. Other Collections

Amnesty International, Ethical Codes and Declarations Relevant to the Health Professions (3d rev. ed. 1994)(AI Index: ACT 75/01/94).

[London: AI, 124 pp.]

APCDOC: Documents from the World Conference on Human Rights (WCHR) (1993).

[Hannover, Germany: APC/Comlink. Set of computer diskettes containing documents from the Second World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna (1993), including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other major documents from the conference.]

Basic Documents on Human Rights (Ian Brownlie ed., 3d ed. 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 631 pp.]

Center for the Study of Human Rights, Twenty-Five Human Rights Documents (1995).

[New York: Columbia University. Replaces Twenty-Four Human Rights Documents (1992).]

Munyonzwe Hamalengwa et al., The International Law of Human Rights in Africa: Basic Documents and Annotated Bibliography (1988).

[Dordrecht: Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 427 pp.]

Human Rights Sourcebook (Albert P. Blaustein et al. eds., 1987).

[New York: Paragon House Publishers, "A Washington Institute Book," 970 pp. Contains texts of major human rights instruments and related documents such as procedural rules for enforcement, national constitutional provisions, statutes, and cases.]

International Human Rights: Documents and Introductory Notes (Felix Ermacora et al. eds., 1993).

[London: Sweet & Maxwell, published by Manz for Law Books in Europe, Vienna, Austria, 343 pp.]

International Human Rights: Documentary Supplement (Richard B. Lillich & Hurst Hannum eds., 1995).

[Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 238 pp. Documentary supplement to the 1995 (3d ed.) of International Human Rights, Problems of Law, Policy, and Practice. Includes major U.N. human rights treaties, the three regional human rights treaties, several other international human rights instruments, two U.S. statutes concerning foreign assistance and human rights, and a model communication.]

Daniel O'Donnell, Proteccion Internacional De Los Derechos Humanos (2d ed. 1989).

[Lima, Peru: Comision Andina De Juristas, 752 pp. Compilation of instruments in Spanish.]

Maxime E. Tardu, Human Rights: The International Petition System (1979- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf, 3 vols. Last update issued August 1985.]

United Nations, Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, U.N. Doc. ST/CSDHA/16 (1992).

[New York: U.N., 278 pp.]

B. STATUS OF HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

The principal compilations of human rights instruments listed above often include the ratification status of the instruments. Listed below are the two major sources on the status of U.N. human rights instruments only. The other sources provide information on the status of several international human rights conventions and instruments.

1. Sources on the Status of U.N. Human Rights Instruments

U.N., Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: Status as at 31 December 1995, U.N. Doc. ST/LEG/Ser.E/14, U.N. Sales No. F.95.V.5.

[New York: U.N., 1024 pp. (1982- ) Published annually. Includes the texts of declarations and reservations made by States parties. Addresses U.N. and League of Nations treaties. This publication is also available on the World Wide Web, please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.]

U.N., Human Rights. International Instruments. Chart of Ratifications as at 30 June 1995, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/4/Rev.12 (1995).

[New York: U.N., 11 pp. This chart lists 25 major U.N. human rights instruments horizontally, at the top, and countries in alphabetical order along the vertical margins. Various symbols indicate the status of the instruments for each state. For each instrument the total number of States parties and the number of signatures not followed by ratification are listed. This source updates the chart of ratifications included with Human Rights: Status of International Instruments (1987), listed below, and does not contain texts of declarations and reservations.]

2. Other Sources

Commission on Human Rights, Fiftieth Session, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1995/79 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 16 pp.]

Committee Against Torture, Status of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and Reservations, Declarations and Objections Under the Convention, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/2/Rev.3 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 37 pp.]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Status of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Reservations, Withdrawals, Declarations and Objections Under the Covenant, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1993/3 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 26 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Other Matters. Declarations, Reservations, Objections and Notifications of Withdrawal of Reservations Relating to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/SP/1994/2 (1993).

[Geneva: U.N., 54 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Declarations, Reservations, Withdrawals of Reservations and Objections to Reservations and Declarations Relating to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/60/Rev.2 (1993).

[Geneva: U.N., 47 pp.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Reservations, Declarations and Objections Relating to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/2/Rev.3 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 40 pp.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Status of the Submission of Reports Under Article 44 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/36 (1994).

[Geneva, U.N., 8 pp.]

Human Rights Committee, Reservations, Declarations, Notifications and Objections Relating to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Optional Protocols Thereto, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/2/Rev.4 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 139 pp.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977: Ratifications, Accessions and Successions as at 31 December 1994, Doc. No. DDM/JUR 95/3032 - CPS 14 (1995).

[Geneva: ICRC, 8 pp.]

International Labour Office, Lists of Ratifications by Convention and by country (as at 31 December 1994) (1995).

[Geneva: International Labour Office, Report III (Part 5) of the 82nd Session of the International Labour Conference; Third Item on the Agenda; Information and Reports on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, 283 pp. Part one contains a list of ratifications by convention with dates of entry into force, names of States parties, and dates of registration of ratification (with notes on conditional ratification or denunciation of conventions). Part two lists ratified conventions and conventions in force by country, noting each country's date of ILO membership. Also lists, by session, conventions adopted and the total number of ratifications to date.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights: Status of International Instruments, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/5, U.N. Sales No. E.87.XIV.2 (1987).

[New York: U.N., 336 pp. Lists 22 major U.N. human rights instruments and includes the ratification status, declarations, reservations, objections by States parties, and notes for each instrument. It is updated by Human Rights. International Instruments. Chart of Ratifications as at 30 June 1995, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/4/Rev.12, (New York: U.N., 11 pp.). This periodic update includes 25 major U.N. human rights instruments and indicates the status of the instruments for each state. Neither publication includes the full text of the treaties.]

UNESCO, The Division of Human Rights and Peace, Human Rights: Major International Instruments, Status as of March 31, 1993 (1993).

[New York: UNESCO, 31 pp.]

UNHCR, International Instruments: Status of Ratifications of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol, 13 Refugee Survey Quarterly 89-94 (Spring 1994).

[Geneva: UNHCR, status as of March 20, 1994.]

World Conference on Human Rights, Status of International Human Rights Instruments as of May 30, 1993 (1993).

[Vienna: U.N., 9 pp.]

C. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

Marc J. Bossuyt, Guide to the "Travaux Préparatoires" of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1987).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 851 pp.]

Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (Bruno Simma ed., 1994).

[Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1258 pp. English translation revises and updates the original German edition, Charta der Vereinten Nationen: Kommentar (1991), with most of the articles updated to November 1993.]

Collected Edition of the "Travaux Préparatoires" of the European Convention on Human Rights=Recueil des travaux préparatoires de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme (1975-1985).

[The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 8 vols.]

The Collected Travaux Préparatoires of the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Alex Takkenberg & Christopher C. Tahbaz eds., 1990).

[Amsterdam: Dutch Refugee Council, 3 vols.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August, 1949 Series (Jean S. Pictet ed.,

1952-).

[Geneva: ICRC, 4 vols. Titles include:

I Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (1952);

II Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea (1960); III Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (1960); and IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civillian Persons in Time of War (1958).]

Lars A. Rehof, Guide to the Travaux Préparatoires of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1993).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 385 pp.]

Nehemiah Robinson, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Its History, Contents and Interpretation (1953).

[New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 238 pp.]

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Guide to the Travaux Préparatoires (Sharon Detrick comp. & ed., 1992).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 712 pp.]

Albert Verdoodt, Naissance et Signification de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de L'Homme (1964).

[Louvain-Paris: Editions Nauwelaerts, 356 pp.]

Paul Weis, The Refugees Convention, 1951: The Travaux Préparatoires Analysed (1995).

[Cambridge, England; New York: Grotius Publications, 383 pp. Volume seven of the Cambridge International Document Series. Published under the auspices of the Refugee Studies Programme, University of Oxford.]

D. HUMAN RIGHTS CASE LAW, JURISPRUDENCE, DECISIONS, AND DIGESTS

1. U.N.

Commission on Human Rights, Report on the . . . Session, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/[year of the session]/[#].

[New York: U.N. Covers the Commission's resolutions and decisions (e.g., Commission on Human Rights, Report on the Fifty-First Session, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1995/176 (1995)). Another significant document is the Annotated Agenda, issued several weeks before each session listing issues and documents to be considered; ordinarily identified by the symbol: U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/[year of the session]/1/Add.1.]

Committee Against Torture, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Mauritius: U.N. Doc. CAT/C/24/Add.3 (1995)).]

Committee Against Torture, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of communication] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 22/1995, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14/D/22/1995 (1995)).]

Committee Against Torture, Report of the Committee Against Torture, U.N. Doc. [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 44), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/44 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. (Note: the supplement number for the forty-third, forty-fourth, and forty-sixth sessions is not 44, but 46.) Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports by States parties, parties ratified, an overview of activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of States and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee Against Torture, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 44), U.N. Doc. A/49/44 (1994)).]

Committee Against Torture, Views, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of communication] ([year]).

[Views are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 6/1990, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14/D/6/1990 (1995)).]

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/18 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains consideration of reports, decisions, opinions, status information, and summary of the activities of the Committee (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18), U.N. Doc. A/49/18 (1995)).]

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Sri Lanka: U.N. Doc. CERD/C/234/Add.1 (1994)).]

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of initial submission] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 5/1994, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/46/D/5/1994 (1995)).]

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Opinions, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Opinions are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 3/1991, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/44/D/3/1991 (1994)).]

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: Official Records: Decisions, U.N. Doc. CERD/SP/40.

[New York: U.N. Contains Committee decisions.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, U.N. Doc. [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 38), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/38 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports of States parties, parties ratified, overview of the activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of ratifications and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 50 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 38), U.N. Doc. A/50/38 (1995)).]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, The Work of CEDAW: Reports of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Vol. 1, 1982-1985, Vol. 2, 1986-1987, U.N. Doc. ST/CSDHA/5 (1989), U.N. Sales No. E.89.IV.4.

[New York: U.N., 752 pp. Contains reports of the Committee and the summary records.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/[country abbrev.]/SP.1 ([year]).

[Concluding observation of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Croatia: U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1 (1994)).]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties Under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/[year]/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Uruguay: U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1994/3 (1994)).]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/[year]/[#] and E/C.12/[year]/[#] ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Contains draft decisions recommended for adoption, submission and consideration of reports by States parties, and several annexes (e.g., Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/1994/23 and E/C.12/1993/19 (1994)).]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Compilation of the Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/19/Rev.2 (1994).

[Provides the text of the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee. Includes information about activities and relations with other U.N. organs and human rights treaty bodies.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Colombia: CRC/C/15/Add.30 (1995).]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 41), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/41 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports by States parties, ratifications, an overview of the activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of States parties and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 41), U.N. Doc. A/49/41 (1994)).]

General Assembly, Resolutions and Decisions Adopted by the General Assembly During the First Part of its . . . Session. [New York: U.N. A massive press release of each mid-January containing resolutions and decisions of the General Assembly for the session just concluded in December. The press release is not an official U.N. record, but it is the most comprehensive account of the General Assembly's actions until the official records are issued many months later. One volume of the official records contains the resolutions and decisions. That volume ordinarily has the same title as indicated above with the following document symbol: A/[session no.]/[supplement no.]. (e.g., General Assembly, Resolutions and Decisions Adopted by the General Assembly During the First Part of its Forty-Eighth Session, Volume I: 21 September - 23 December 1993, 48 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49), U.N. Doc. A/48/49 (1994)).]

Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/Add.[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for the United States: U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.50 (1995)).]

Human Rights Committee, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 525/1993, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/53/D/525/1993 (1995)).]

Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 24 on Issues Relating to Reservations Made Upon Ratification or Accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the Optional Protocols thereto, or in Relation to Declarations Under Article 41 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.6 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 8 pp.]

Human Rights Committee, General Comment on Article 18 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/48/CRP.2/Rev.1 (1993).

[New York: U.N., 5 pp.]

Human Rights Committee, General Comments Adopted by the Human Rights Committee Under Article 40, Paragraph 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (up to April 1989), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1 (1989) and CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.1,2, and 3.

[New York: U.N., 25 pp. Compilation of comments by the Human Rights Committee to assist States parties in fulfilling their reporting obligations pursuant to the articles of the Covenant.]

Human Rights Committee, Report of the Human Rights Committee, U.N. Doc. [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 40), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/40 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Decisions of the Human Rights Committee on cases submitted under the Optional Protocol to the Civil and Political Covenant. Also includes the general comments of the Committee on the meaning of various Covenant provisions, communications, decisions, and views (e.g., Report of the Human Rights Committee, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 40), U.N. Doc. A/49/40 (1994)).]

Human Rights Committee, Selected Decisions Under the Optional Protocol (Second to Sixteenth Sessions), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/1 (1985).

[New York: U.N., 1985, 167 pp. Reprint of selected decisions and views. Includes an index by article of the Covenant and the Optional Protocol.]

Human Rights Committee, Selected Decisions Under the Optional Protocol (Seventeenth to Thirty-Second Sessions), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/2 (1990).

[New York: U.N., 1990, 246 pp., second compilation. Reprint of selected decisions and views. Includes an index by articles of the Covenant and Optional Protocol, author, and victim.]

Human Rights Committee, Views, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Views are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 514/1992, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/53/D/514/1992 (1995)).]

Human Rights Committee, Yearbook of the Human Rights Committee 1987, U.N. Doc. CCPR/6.

[New York: U.N., 1977- . Published in two volumes with about a seven-year time lag. Volume I contains summary records and volume II contains States' periodic reports and the annual report of the Committee.]

International Human Rights Instruments, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994).

[107 pp., July 29, 1995. Compilation of the general comments of adopted by the Human Rights Committee, the general comments adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the general recommendations adopted by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and the general recommendations adopted by the Committee on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.]

Anjali V. Patil, The U.N. Veto in World Affairs, 1946-1990: Complete Record & Case Histories/Veto in Security Council (1992).

[Sarasota, FL: UNIFO Publishers, 559 pp. Included resolutions and decisions adopted by the Security Council (1946-1990). Fiche inserted in pocket.]

Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Report of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities on its . . . Session (1946- ).

[Geneva: U.N. E/CN.4/[year]/[#] and E/CN.4/Sub.2/[year]/[#]. Reports of the Sub-Commission's resolutions and decisions (e.g., Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Report of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities on its Forty-Sixth Session, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1995/2, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/56 (1995)). Another significant document is the Annotated Agenda, issued several weeks before each session listing issues and documents to be considered; ordinarily identified by the symbol: E/CN.4/Sub.2/[year of the session]/1/Add.1.]

U.N., Yearbook on Human Rights (1946- ).

[New York: U.N. (annual 1946-72, biennial 1973- ). Extracts of selected reports on national human rights developments, texts of relevant decisions, and descriptions of human rights activities including the specialized agencies of the U.N.: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), ILO, UNESCO, and World Health Organization (WHO). The most recent Yearbook, published in 1989, covers 1984.]


2. ILO

International Labour Office, Freedom of Association: A Workers' Education Manual (2d rev. ed. 1987).

[Geneva: International Labour Office, 149 pp. Revises Freedom of Association: Digest of Decisions and Principles of the Freedom of Association Committee of the Governing Body of the ILO (1985).]

International Labour Office, Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (1994).

[Geneva: International Labour Office, 558 pp. (1936- ). Published annually as Report III (Part 4A) Third item on the agenda: Information and reports on the application of Conventions and Recommendations. Provides observations on reports submitted by governments indicating their compliance with ILO conventions and recommendations. The Committee of Experts, established each year by the International Labour Conference, held its 82nd session in 1995.]

ILO, Official Bulletin (1919- ).

[Geneva: International Labour Office. Published three times a year. Contains Committee on Freedom of Association Reports (cases and recommendations).]

ILO, Labour Law Documents (1990-1996).

[Geneva: International Labour Office. Published three times a year. Arranges materials under "international" and "national" sections. Includes texts of ILO conventions and recommendations, indices of cases handled by ILO supervisory bodies, and lists of current legislation obtained from the LABORLEX database, see supra cite in COMPILATIONS/ILO, or refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section below. Also provides principal national laws and regulations concerning labor and social security. This set was formerly called Legislative Series. In 1996 the print version will no longer be published. The LABORLEX database (ILOLEX and NATLEX) will provide this information.]

3. Council of Europe and European Union

1 Vincent Berger, The Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights: 1960-1987 (1989).

[Sarasota, FL: UNIFO Publishers, 478 pp. Summarizes cases and includes brief bibliographies and notes on domestic changes influenced by the cases. Appendices include a bibliography, text of the European Convention on Human Rights, and ratification information.]

2 Vincent Berger, The Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights: 1988-1990 (1992).

[Sarasota, FL: UNIFO Pub., 310 pp.]

British Institute of Human Rights, Human Rights Case Digest (1990- ).

[London: Sweet & Maxwell.]

Chart Showing Signatures and Ratifications of Council of Europe Conventions and Agreements (1960- ).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press. Published in English and French.]

Collection of Recommendations, Resolutions and Declarations of the Committee of Ministers Concerning Human Rights, 1949-87 (1989).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe; Croton, NY: Manhattan Pub. Co., distributor, 214 pp.]

Collection of Resolutions Adopted by the Committee of Ministers in Application of Articles 32 and 54 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1959-1983 (1984).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe; Croton, NY: Manhattan Pub. Co., distributor, 149 pp. Provides a list of resolutions under Article 32 (on pages 7-9) and a list of decisions under Article 54 (on page 10). Updated by supplements.]

Council of Europe, Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights (1955/57- ).

[The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub. (vol. 1- ). Part One provides texts of Protocols to the European Convention, instruments, ratifications, reservations, procedures of the Commission and Court of Human Rights, and descriptions of related activities of the Council of Europe. Part Two contains texts of European Commission decisions, statistical charts, summaries of judgments of the Court, and related resolutions of the Committee of Ministers. Part Three covers measures implementing the Convention by governments, the Council of Europe, and the European Communities.]

Digest of Strasbourg Case-Law Relating to the European Convention on Human Rights (1984-1985).

[Köln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 6 vols. Updated by volumes containing looseleaf supplements.]

Christiane Duparc, The European Community and Human rights (1993).

[Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 61 pp. Provides a brief introduction to the European Community's efforts to protect human rights and discusses human rights provisions in the treaties establishing the European Communities, and human rights in the Community's external policy. An annex includes texts containing commitments made by the Community, and its Member States.]

European Commission of Human Rights, Decisions and Reports=Décisions et rapports (1975- ).

[Strasbourg: European Commission of Human Rights. Continues Collection of Decisions with indices, but lags several years behind; 1994 volume covers 1989.]

European Commission of Human Rights, Stock-Taking on the European Convention on Human Rights: A Periodic Note on the Concrete Results Achieved Under the Convention: The First Thirty Years: 1954 Until 1984 (1984).

[Strasbourg: European Commission of Human Rights, 333 pp. Updated by yearly supplements through 1988. Briefly presents information on the procedures of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights and the Committee of Ministers, a summary of decisions of those bodies between 1954 and 1984 relating to construction of the European Human Rights Convention, statistics on the disposition of cases, and an index by principal Convention article with a listing of cases.]

European Court of Human Rights, Publications of the European Court of Human Rights=Publications de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme.

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Series A (1974- ) contains the official texts of judgments and decisions of the European Court of Human Rights; each decision is numbered and separately published, but with no index. Series B (1965- ) contains oral arguments, pleadings, and documents. The Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights, listed below, often includes summaries of decisions of the Court of Human Rights. A bi-monthly unofficial periodical, European Law Review, also contains summaries of European Court of Human Rights decisions.]

European Law Center, European Human Rights Reports [EHRR]

(1979-)(unofficial).

[London: Sweet & Maxwell. Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (1960- ), selected decisions of the Commission of Human Rights, and resolutions of the Committee of Ministers. As of volume five, part 18, provides summaries and extracts of resolutions of the Committee of Ministers and decisions of the Commission with headnotes and cross-references to European Commission cases. Also includes decisions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (OAS). The Reports are available on LEXIS under EURCOM/CASES or INTLAW/ECCASE (library/file).]

Reports of Cases Before the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance (1990- ).

[Luxembourg: Court of Justice of the European Communities. From 1959-1989, published as Reports of Cases Before the Court. Available on LEXIS under EURCOM/CASES or INTLAW/ECCASE (library/file).]

4. OAS

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (1975- ).

[Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat, OAS. Covers activities of the Commission, resolutions on the cases decided by the Commission during the year, updates on human rights situations in several countries, and new instruments in the Inter-American human rights system. (e.g., OAS Doc. No. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.88 Doc. 9 rev. (1995), 344 pp.)]

Human Rights: The Inter-American System (Thomas Buergenthal & Robert Norris eds., 1984- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf.]

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Ten Years of Activities, 1971-1981 (1982).

[Washington, D.C.: OAS, 403 pp. Collection of decisions and activities of the Inter-American Commission providing easy access to the jurisprudence of the Commission.]

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Annual Report of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1979- ).

[Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Court of Human Rights. (e.g., OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/III.31 Doc. 9 (1994).)]

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Series A: Judgments and Opinions (1982- ); Series B: Pleadings, Oral Arguments and Documents

(1983- ); and Series C: Decisions and Judgments (1987- ).

[San Jose, Costa Rica: Court Secretariat. Separate paperback pamphlets in English and Spanish.]

Inter-American Yearbook on Human Rights=Anuario Inter-Americano de Derechos Humanos (1968- ).

[Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat, OAS (1968-84); Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub. (1985- ). Provides background information on the Inter-American system for the protection of human rights, bodies involved, and key instruments. Includes texts of instruments, status information, statutes, procedural rules, relevant resolutions, and discussion of human rights practices in selected OAS countries.]

International Human Rights Reports [IHRR] (1994- ).

[Nottingham, U.K.: University of Nottingham (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1994- ), published three times a year. Covers judgments and opinions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.]

Richard J. Wilson, Researching the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: A Litigator's Perspective; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: Individual Case Resolutions, 10 Am. U. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 1-331 (1994).

[An introduction and comprehensive index to case reports of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.]

5. Other

Human Rights & Peace Law Docket (5th ed. 1995).

[Berkeley, CA: Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institute [MCLI]. Includes civil, criminal, immigration, and administrative cases, reported and unreported. Updated biennially.]

International Law Reports (1919/22- ).

[London: Butterworth & Co. Vols. 1-16 published under the title Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases. Contains decisions of international law tribunals and municipal courts.]

International Legal Materials [ILM] (1962- ).

[Washington, D.C.: American Society of International Law (vol.1- ). Reports significant decisions and instruments on many issues, including human rights, with annual indices; indexed by LEGALTRAC; and also available on LEXIS (INTLAW/ILM) (1975- )and WESTLAW (ILM database)(1980- ).]

International Court of Justice, Recueil de Arrêts, Avis Consultatifs et Ordonnances = Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders (1947-).

[The Hague: International Court of Justice. Published in both French and English. Judgments are available on WESTLAW (INT-ICJ database).]

International Court of Justice, Yearbook (1947- ).

[The Hague: International Court of Justice. Contains summaries of judgments, advisory opinions and orders of the court as well as summaries of the court's work and biographies of the judges.]

Note: Researchers should also consult references in chapters 11 and 12 of this book for U.S. cases relating to international human rights.


E. RULES OF PROCEDURE AND GUIDELINES

Committee Against Torture, General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Periodic Reports to be Submitted by States parties Under Article 19, Paragraph 1, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14 (1991).

[Geneva: U.N., 2 pp.]

Committee Against Torture, Rules of Procedure, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/3/Rev.1 (1989).

[Geneva: U.N., 38 pp.]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Revised General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Reports to be Submitted by States Parties Under Article 16 and 17 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1991/1 (1991).

[Geneva: U.N., 22 pp.]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Rules of Procedure of the Committee, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1990/4/Rev.1 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 16 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Draft Rules of Procedure of the Meeting of the States Parties to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/SP/2/Rev.1 (1982).

[Geneva: U.N., 4 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Guidelines Regarding the Form and Content of Initial Reports of States Parties, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/7/Rev.1 (1995).

[Geneva: U.N., 3 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Revised General Guidelines Concerning the Form and Contents of Reports by States Parties Under Article 9, Paragraph 1 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/70/Rev.1 (1983).

[Geneva: U.N., 8 pp.]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Rules of Procedure of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/35/Rev.3 (1986).

[New York: U.N., 33 pp.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Provisional Rules of Procedure, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/4 (1991).

[Geneva: U.N., 18 pp.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Content of Initial Reports to be Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/5 (1991).

[Geneva: U.N., 7 pp.]

Economic and Social Council, Rules of Procedure of the Functional Commissions of the Economic and Social Council, U.N. Doc. E/5975/Rev.1 (1983).

[New York: U.N., 19 pp.]

Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, Rules of Procedure, Thirty-seventh session, U.N. Doc. A/AC.96/187/Rev.3 (1986).

[Geneva: U.N., 24 pp.]

General Assembly, Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly, U.N. Doc. A/520/Rev.13 (1979).

[New York: U.N. 84 pp. Embodies amendments and additions adopted by the General Assembly up to 31 December 1978.]

Human Rights Committee, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Periodic Reports from States Parties, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/20/Rev.2 (1995).

[Geneva: U.N., 3 pp.]

Human Rights Committee, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Rules of Procedure of the Human Rights Committee, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/3/Rev.3 (1994).

[Geneva: U.N., 23 pp.]

International Labour Office, Manual on Procedures Relating to International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, Doc. No. D.31.1965 (Rev.1984) (1984).

[Geneva: ILO, 34 pp.]

Rules of Procedure of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 9 Hum. Rts L.J. 326 (1988).

F. RESEARCH GUIDES ON THE SIX MAJOR HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

The research guides in this section represent the six most important human rights instruments and provide an outline to the documentation for the researcher.

1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), December 16, 1966, 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976.

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), December 16, 1966, 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 59, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 302, entered into force March 23, 1976.

Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, G.A. res. 44/128, Annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 207, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force July 11, 1991.

A. Status

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights: Status of International Instruments, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/5, U.N. Sales No. E.87.XIV.2 (1987).

[New York: U.N., 336 pp. Lists 22 major U.N. human rights instruments and includes the ratification status, declarations, reservations, objections by States parties, and notes for each instrument. It is updated by Human Rights. International Instruments. Chart of Ratifications as at 30 June 1995, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/4/Rev.12, New York: U.N., 11 pp.). This periodic update includes 25 major U.N. human rights instruments and indicates the status of the instruments for each state. Neither publication includes the full text of the treaties.]

 

U.N., Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: Status as at 31 December 1994, U.N. Doc. ST/LEG/Ser.E/13, U.N. Sales No. E.95.V.5 (1995).

[New York: U.N., 1024 pp. (1982-). Published annually. Provides the status of each treaty mentioned and includes the text of declarations and reservations made by States parties. Does not include the full text of the treaties. This publication is also available on the World Wide Web, please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.]

 

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Human Rights Committee, Reservations, Declarations, Notifications and Objections Relating to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Optional Protocol Thereto, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/2/Rev.4 (1994).

[139 pp., August 24, 1994. Lists the States that have signed, ratified, or acceded to the convention; provides the full text of the declarations, reservations, and objections; and provides notification of withdrawals of reservations, and objections to reservations and declarations.]

C. Status of Reports

International Human Rights Instruments, Status of the International Human Rights Instruments and the General Situation of Overdue Reports, U.N. Doc. HRI/MC/1994/3 (1994).

[10 pp., August 15, 1994. Updated information on the status of seven instruments including, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment; and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Also includes the general situation of overdue reports.]

 

D. Decisions, Jurisprudence, and Reports

1. Comments

Human Rights Committee, General Comments Adopted by the Human Rights Committee Under Article 40, Paragraph 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (up to April 1989), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1 (1989) and CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.1, 2, and 3.

[25 pp., May 19, 1989 (plus addenda). Compilation of comments by the Human Rights Committee to assist States parties in fulfilling their reporting obligations pursuant to the articles of the Covenant.]

International Human Rights Instruments, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994).

[107 pp., July 29, 1995. Compilation of the general comments adopted by the Human Rights Committee.]

Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted By States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/Add.[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for the United States: U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.50 (1995)).]

2. Decisions under First Optional Protocol

Human Rights Committee, Selected Decisions Under the Optional Protocol (Second to Sixteenth Sessions), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/1 (1985).

[New York: U.N., 1985, 167 pp. Reprint of selected decisions and views. Includes an index by article of the Covenant and the Optional Protocol.]

Human Rights Committee, Selected Decisions Under the Optional Protocol (Seventeenth to Thirty-Second Sessions), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/2 (1990).

[New York: U.N., 1990, 246 pp., second volume. Reprint of selected decisions and views. Includes an index by article of the Covenant, the Optional Protocol, author, and victim.]

Human Rights Committee, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 525/1993, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/53/D/525/1993)(1995)).]

Human Rights Committee, Views, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Views are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 514/1992, U.N. Doc., CCPR/C/53/D/514/1992 (1995)).]

Human Rights Committee, Report of the Human Rights Committee, [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 40), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/40 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Decisions of the Human Rights Committee on cases submitted under the Optional Protocol to the Civil and Political Covenant. Also includes the general comments of the Committee on the meaning of various Covenant provisions, communications, decisions, and views (e.g., Report of the Human Rights Committee, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 40), U.N. Doc. A/49/40 (1994)).]

Human Rights Committee, Yearbook of the Human Rights Committee 1987, U.N. Doc. CCPR/6.

[New York: U.N., 1977-. Published in two volumes with about a seven-year time lag. Volume 1 contains summary records and volume II contains States' periodic reports and the annual report of the Committee.]

 

E. Legislative History ("Travaux Préparatoires")

Marc J. Bossuyt, Guide to the "Travaux Préparatoires" of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1987).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 851 pp.].

F. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

Human Rights Committee, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Rules of Procedure of the Human Rights Committee, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/3/Rev.3 (1994).

[23 pp., May 24, 1994. Contains information on the Committee sessions; distribution of reports, and other official documents; the conduct of business; and functions of the Committee.]

Human Rights Committee, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Periodic Reports from States Parties, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/20/Rev.2 (1995).

[3 pp., April 28, 1995. Guidelines to be followed by States parties in preparation of the initial reports.]

G. Commentaries

1. Books

The International Bill of Rights: The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Louis Henkin ed., 1981).

[New York: Columbia University Press, 523 pp.]

Dominic McGoldrick, The Human Rights Committee (1991).

[Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 576 pp.].

 

Manfred Nowak, U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary (1993).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 947 pp.]

The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Torkel Opsahl, "The Human Rights Committee," chapter 10) (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp.]

2. Articles

Hilary Charlesworth, The Human Rights Committee: Its Role in the Development of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 13 Austl. Y.B. Int'l. L. 177 (1993).

 

Hilary Charlesworth, The First Optional Protocol (to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 65 Law Inst. J. 1018 (1991).

Dana D, Fischer, Reporting Under the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: The First Five Years of the Human Rights Committee, 76 Am. J. Int'l. L. 142 (1982).

Rosalyn Higgins, Admissibility Under the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1991 Can. Hum. Rts. Y.B. 57 (1991).

Ved P. Nanda, The United States Reservation to the Ban on the Death Penalty for Juvenile Offenders: An Appraisal Under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1311 (1993).

Aryeh Neier, Political Consequences of the United States Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1209 (1993).

Frank C. Newman, United Nations Human Rights Covenants and the United States Government: Diluted Promises, Foreseeable Futures (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1241 (1993).

Michael O'Flaherty, The Reporting Obligations Under Article 40 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Lessons to be Learned from Consideration by the Human Rights Committee of Ireland's First Report, 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 515 (1994).

Torkel Opsahl, The Coexistence Between Geneva and Strasbourg Inter-Relationship of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights and Their Respective Organs of Implementation, 1991 Can. Hum. Rts. Y.B. 151 (1991).

Michael H. Posner & Peter J. Spiro, Adding Teeth to United States Ratification of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: The International human Rights Conformity Act of 1993 (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1209 (1993).

John Quigley, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Supremacy Clause (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1287 (1993).

John Quigley, Criminal Law and Human Rights: Implications of the United States Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 6 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 59 (1993).

Markus G. Schmidt, The U.N. Human Rights Committee: Process and Progress, 5 Hum. Rts. F. 31 (1995).

David P. Stewart, United States Ratification of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: The Significance of the Reservations, Understandings, and Declarations (Symposium: The Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), 42 DePaul L. Rev. 1183 (1993).

Nadine Strossen, United States Ratification of the International Bill of Rights: A Fitting Celebration of the Bicentennial of the U.S. Bill of Rights, 24 U. Tol. L. Rev. 203 (1992).

Walter S. Tarnolpolsky, The Canadian Experience with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Seen from the Perspective of a Former Member of the Human Rights Committee, 20 Akron L. Rev. 611 (1987).

Alfred M. de Zayas, The Follow-Up Procedure of the UN Human Rights Committee, 1991 Int'l. Commission Jurists Rev. 28 (1991).

David Weissbrodt, United States Ratification of the Human Rights Covenants, 63 Minn. L. Rev. 35 (1978).

H. Practice Guides

 

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 25, 45, 69, and 314; U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 417 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights: the Human Rights Committee (1991).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 36 pp ., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 15.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1 at 79, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: U.N., 203 pp.]

Leo Zwaak., International Human Rights Procedures: Petitioning the ECHR, CCPR and CERD (1991).

[Nijmegan; Netherlands: Ars Aequi Libri, 168 pp.]

 

I. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

 

1. Specific Gopher and Web Sites

 

United Nations Gopher, Press Releases, SG Statements and Messages -- Human Rights Committee

gopher://gopher.undp.org:70+/11/uncurr/press_releases/

HR

Provides background releases from the Committee (HR/CT/ documents).

 

2. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as well as other international instruments, links to related Internet sites, general comments of the Human Rights Committee, views and decisions of the Committee, and other human rights information.

Summary of United Nations Agreements on Human Rights

http://www.traveller.com/~hrweb/legal/undocs.html

 

REFWORLD (UNHCR)

http://www.unicc.org/unhcrcdr

gopher://unicc.org:70/11/unhcrcdr

Contains information on refugees worldwide.

Organizes information under five main menus: Bibliographic, Country, High Commissioner's Speeches, Legal, and UNHCR. REFINT (International Instruments) under the Legal menu contains texts of multilateral treaties and conventions concerning refugees, asylum, stateless persons and human rights; reservations and declarations; and States parties. REFWORLD is updated daily.

RELIEFWEB (United Nations Dept. of Humanitarian Affairs)

http://gatekeeper.unicc.org/~relief/

ReliefWeb is a prototype resource managed by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs designed to augment humanitarian crisis early warning, contingency planning, response, and recovery by enhancing information sharing within the larger humanitarian community. The current purview includes Angola, Malawi and Sudan. Also provides links to other humanitarian web sites and a map-making center (currently only Angola, Malawi, and Sudan available).

United Nations Gopher

gopher://nywork1.undp.org:70/

Official gopher of the United Nations. Provides access to the full-text of U.N. documents, U.N. press releases from various organs, United Nations Development Programme documents, U.N. telephone directories, U.N. Conference on Environment & Development reports, U.N. resolutions, conference documents and much more.

UN Treaty Data Base

http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty

The UN Treaty Data Base will eventually consist of two major documents. The Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General which contains the detailed status of over 470 multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary General, and the U.N. Treaty Series which consists of over 40,000 treaties registered with the Secretariat. At present, only the Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General (as of December 31, 1995) is available.



3. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

 

HUMANRIGHTS-L@lawlib.wuacc.edu (International Human Rights Law List)

Send the following message to listserv@lawlib.wuacc.edu:

Subscribe humanrights-L <your name>.



2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976.

A. Status

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section A.

 

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Status of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Reservations, Withdrawals, Declarations and Objections Under the Covenant, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1993/3 (1994).

[26 pp., April 14, 1993. Lists the states that have signed, ratified, or acceded to the convention; provides the full text of the declarations, reservations, and objections; and provides notification of withdrawals of reservations, and objections to reservations and declarations.]

 

C. Status of Reports

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section C.

 

D. Decisions, Jurisprudence, and Reports

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/[year]/[#] and E/C.12/[year]/[#] ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Contains draft decisions recommended for adoption, submission and consideration of reports by States parties, and several annexes (e.g., Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/1994/23 and E/C.12/1993/19 (1994)).]

International Human Rights Instruments, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994).

[107 pp., July 29, 1995. Compilation of the general comments adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties Under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/[year]/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Uruguay: U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1994/3 (1994)).]

E. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Rules of Procedure of the Committee, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1990/4/Rev.1 (1994).

[16 pp., September 1, 1993, Contains information on the Committee sessions, distribution of reports and other official documents, the conduct of business, and functions of the Committee.]

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Revised General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Reports to be Submitted by States Parties Under Article 16 and 17 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/1991/1 (1991).

[22 pp., June 17, 1991. Guidelines to be followed by States parties in preparation of the initial reports.]

F. Commentaries

 

1. Books

 

Philip Alston, Making and Breaking Human Rights: the UN's Specialized Agencies and Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1979).

[London: Anti-Slavery Society; La Crosse, Wis: National Association of Interdisciplinary Ethnic Studies, 44 pp.]

Matthew C.R. Craven, The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (1995).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press; NY: Oxford University Press, 413 pp.]

Economic and Social Rights and the Rights to Health: an Interdisciplinary discussion held at harvard law school in September, 1993 (1995).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School Human Rights Program, 56 pp.]

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: A Textbook (Asbjorn Eide et al., 1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 506 pp.]

Guide to Interpretation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Louis B. Sohn ed., 1994).

[Irvington, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2 vols.]

Scott Leckie, Towards an International Convention on Housing Rights: Options at Habitat II (1994).

[Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 112 pp.]

Scott Leckie, When Push Comes to Shove: Forced Evictions and Human Rights (1995).

[Mexico; Utrecht, Netherlands: Habitat International Coalition, 139 pp.]

Ian Martin, The New World Order: Opportunity or Threat for Human Rights (1993).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School Human Rights Program, 24 pp.]

Glenn A. Mower, International Cooperation for Social Justice: Global and Regional Protection of Economic/Social Rights (1985).

[Westport, Conn: Greenwood Pr., 271 pp.]

The Right to Food (Philip Alston et al. eds., 1984).

[Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub.; SIM Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, 228 pp.]

Louis B. Sohn, The Human Rights Movement: From Roosevelt's Four Freedoms to the interdependence of Peace, Development and Human Rights (1995).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School Human Rights Program, 31 pp.]

The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Philip Alston, "Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights," chapter 12) (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Right to Adequate food as a Human Right (1989).

[New York: United Nations, 73 pp., Human Rights Study Series No. 1, U.N. Sales No. E.89.XIV.2.]

2. Articles

Philip Alston and Gerard Quinn, The Nature and Scope of States Parties' Obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 9 Hum. Rts. Q. 156 (1987).

Philip Alston, The United Nations' Specialized Agencies and Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 18 Col. J. Trans. L. 79 (1979).

Philip Alston, U.S. Ratification of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Need for an Entirely New Strategy, 84 Am. J. Int'l. L. 365 (1990).

Robert L. Bard, The Right to Food (Symposium: International Law and World Hunger), 70 Iowa L. Rev. 1279 (1985).

Sherri Burr, Health, Human Rights and International Law, 82 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 122 (1988).

Audrey R. Chapman, Monitoring Women's Right to Health Under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 44 Am. L. Rev. 1157 (1995).

Asbjorn Eide, Realization of Social and Economic Rights and the Minimum Threshold Approach, 10 Hum. Rts. L.J. 35 (1989).

Manouchehr Ganji, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Problems, Policies, Progress, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1131/Rev.1 (1975).

 

Scott Leckie, An Overview and Appraisal of the Fifth Session of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13 Hum. Rts. Q. 545 (1991).

Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Symposium: The Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 9 Hum. Rts. Q. 122 (1987).

Dennis McElwee, Human Rights and Access to Health Care: Comparison of Domestic and International Law and Systems Implications for New Medical Technologies in Time of Crisis, 20 Dev. J. Int'l. L. & Pol'y 167 (1991).

Winston P. Nagan, The Politics of Ratification: The Potential for United States Adoption and Enforcement of the Convention Against Torture, the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 20 Ga. J. Int'l. & Comp. L. 311 (1990).

Joseph Oloka-Onyango, Beyond the Rhetoric: Reinventing the Struggle for Economic and Social Rights in Africa, 27 Cal. W. Int'l. L.J. 1 1995).

Penny Overby, The Right to Food (Issues in International Human Rights), 54 Sask. L. Rev. 19 (1990).

James C.N. Paul, The Relationship of Political Human Rights to the Hunger Problem (World Food Day and Law Conference: "The Legal Faces of the Hunger Problem"), 30 How. L.J. 413 (1987).

Robert E. Robinson, Measuring State Compliance with the Obligation to Devote the 'Maximum Available Resources' to Realizing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 693 (1994).

Rajindar Sachar, Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Adequate Housing, The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: The Right to Housing, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/12 (1995).

Barbara Starke, Urban Despair and Nietzsche's 'Eternal Return:' From the Municipal Rhetoric of Economic Justice to the International Law of Economic Rights, 28 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 185 (1995).

Katarina Tomaevski, Human Rights: The Right to Food (Symposium: International Law and World Hunger) 70 Iowa L. Rev. 1321 (1985).

Danilo Türk, Special Rapporteur of the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Final Report, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1992/16 (1992).

Alfred P. Can Huyck, Shelter in Developing Countries (Confronting the Challenge of Realizing Human Rights Now), 34 How. L.J. 65 (1991).

Connie de la Vega, Protecting Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 15 Whittier L. Rev. 471 (1994).

David Weissbrodt, United States Ratification of the Human Rights Covenants, 63 Minn. L. Rev. 35 (1978).

Willard Wirtz, Human Rights and Responsibilities at the Workplace, 28 San Diego L. Rev. 159 (1991).

 

G. Practice Guides

Forced Evictions & Human Rights: A Manual for Action (1993).

[Utrecht, The Netherlands: Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, 58 pp.]

 

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1991).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 21 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 16.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The Human Right to Adequate Housing (1993)

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 51 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 21.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 25, 44, and 131; U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 417 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1 at 39, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: U.N., 203 pp.]

H. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

1. Related Materials through Web Sites

ILO-CIS Home Page

http://turva.me.tut.fi/cis/home.html

Contains mostly items related to occupational safety and health. Includes ILO conventions and recommendation regarding occupational safety and health as well as ILO publications.

ILO Experimental Home Page

http://turva.me.tut.fi/cis/homenew2.html

Contains links to ILO publications, the international training centre, and LABORDOC -- ILO's Library Database. At this time the training centre and LABORDOC are not available.

World Bank Home Page

http://www.worldbank.org

Contains press releases, current events, bank news, country/project information, publications, research studies, and more.

2. Related CD-ROM Products

LABORLEX-ILOLEX (ILO).

Trilingual database (English, French, and Spanish) includes ILO conventions, ILO recommendations, the Annual Report of the Conference Committee on the Application of Standards (1987-present), Comments of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (1987-present), the Triennial Report of the Committee on Freedom of Association (1985-present), ratification lists by convention and by country, the ILO Constitution, and the reports of committees and commissions established under Constitution Articles 24 and 26 to investigate complaints and representations. Available soon through the Internet. See ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.

LABORLEX-NATLEX (ILO).

Full-text of labor and social security legislation and related human rights information. Available on CD-ROM and soon through the Internet. NATLEX will assume the functions that were previously carried out by the Legislative Series and Labour Law Documents. See ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.

3. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as well as other international instruments, links to related Internet sites, general comments by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and other human rights information.

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.2.

4. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.3.

 

 

3. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G.A. res. 2106 (XX), Annex, 20 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.14) at 47, U.N. Doc. A/6014 (1966), 660 U.N.T.S. 195, entered into force Jan.4, 1969.

A. Status

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section A.

U.N., Elimination of Racism and Racial Discrimination. Status of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. A/49/403 (1994).

[10 pp., September 20, 1994. Contains list of States parties, entry into force dates, and states that have made declarations under Art. 14, paragraph 1.]

 

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Declarations, Reservations, Withdrawals of Reservations and Objections to Reservations and Declarations Relating to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/60/Rev.2 (1993).

[47 pp., June 25, 1993. Lists the states that have signed, ratified, or acceded to the convention; provides the full text of the declarations, reservations, and objections; and provides notification of withdrawals of reservations, and objections to reservations and declarations.]

C. Status of Reports

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section C.

D. Decisions, Jurisprudence, and Reports

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Report of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/18 ([year)).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains consideration of reports, decisions, opinions, status information, and summary of activities of the Committee (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18), U.N. Doc. A/49/18 (1995).]

International Human Rights Instruments, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994).[107 pp., July 29, 1995. Compilation of the general recommendations adopted by the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#] ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Sri Lanka: U.N. Doc. CERD/C/234/Add.1 (1994), 13 pp., September 13, 1994).]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of initial submission] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 5/1994, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/46/D/5/1994 (1995)).]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Opinions, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of submission] ([year]).

[Opinions are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 3/1991, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/44/D/3/1991 (1994)).]

 

E. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Rules of Procedure of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/35/Rev.3 (1986).

[New York: U.N., 1986, 219 pp. Contains information on the Committee sessions, distribution of reports and other official documents, the conduct of business, and functions of the Committee.]

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Revised General Guidelines Concerning the Form and Contents of Reports by States Parties Under Article 9, Paragraph 1 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CERD/C/70/Rev.1 (1983).

[8 pp., December 6, 1983. Guidelines to be followed by States parties in preparation of the initial reports.]

F. Commentaries

1. Books

Natan Lerner, The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Racial Discrimination. A Commentary (2nd ed. 1980).

[Leiden, Sijthoff, 259 pp.]

The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Karl Joseph Partsch, "The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination," chapter 9) (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp.]

2. Articles

Thomas Buergenthal, Implementing the UN Racial Convention, 12 Tex. Int'l. L. J. 187 (1977).

Michael A.G. Korengold, Lessons Confronting Racist Speech: Good Intentions, Bad Results, and Article 4(a) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 77 Minn. L. Rev. 719 (1993).

Drew Mahalic & Joan Gambee Mahalic, The Limitation Provisions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 9 Hum. Rts. Q. 74 (1987).

Theodor Meron, The Meaning and Reach of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 79 Am. J. Int'l. L. 283 (1985).

G. Practice Guides

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (1991).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 31 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 12.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 24, 47, 152, and 317; U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 417 pp.,]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1 at 127, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: U.N., 203 pp.]

Leo Zwaak, International Human Rights Procedures: Petitioning the ECHR, CCPR and CERD (1991).

[Nijmagan, Netherlands: Ars Aequi Libri, 168 pp.].

H. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

1. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination as well as other international instruments, general recommendations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, links to related Internet sites, and other human rights information.

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.2.

2. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.3.



4. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, G.A. res. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46 (1979), 1249 U.N.T.S. 13, entered into force Sept. 3, 1981.

A. Status

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section A.

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Other Matters. Declarations, Reservations, Objections and Notifications of Withdrawal of Reservations Relating to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/SP/1994/2 (1993).

[54 pp., October 25, 1993. Contains list of states which have signed, ratified, or acceded to the convention, full text of declarations and reservations, withdrawal of reservations, and objections to reservations and declarations.]

C. Status of Reports

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section C.

D. Decisions, Jurisprudence, and Reports

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, [session no.] GAOR Supp. (No. 38), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/38 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports by States parties, parties ratified, overview of the activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of ratifications and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 50 GAOR Supp. (No.38), U.N. Doc. A/50/38 (1995)).]

 

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. The Work of CEDAW: Reports of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Vol. 1, 1982-1985, Vol.2 1986-1987, U.N. Doc. ST/CSDHA/5 (1989), U.N. Sales No. E.89.IV.4.

[New York: U.N., 752 pp. Contains reports of the Committee and the summary records.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/[country abbrev.]/SP.1 ([year]).

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Croatia: U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/CRO/SP.1 (1994)).]

International Human Rights Instruments, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (1994).

[107 pp., July 29, 1995. Compilation of the general recommendations adopted by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.]

E. Legislative History ("Travaux Préparatoires")

Lars Adam Rehof, Guide to the "Travaux Préparatoires" of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1993).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 385 pp.]

F. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Draft Rules of Procedure of the Meeting of the States Parties to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/SP/2/Rev.1 (1982).

[4 pp., April 13, 1982. Contains information on the Committee sessions, distribution of reports and other official documents, the conduct of business, and functions of the Committee.]

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Guidelines Regarding the Form and Contents of Initial Reports of States Parties, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/7/Rev.1 (1995).

[3 pp., February 3, 1995. Guidelines to be followed in preparation of the initial reports of States parties.]

G. Commentaries

1. Books and Serials

Cedaw Reports ( 1987- ).

[Minneapolis, MN: International Women's Rights Action Watch, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.]

Rebecca J. Cook, Women's Health and Human Rights: The Promotion and Protection of Women's health through International Human Rights Law (1994).

[Geneva: World Health Organization, 62 pp.]

Marsha A. Freeman, Human Rights in the Family: Issues and Recommendation for Implementation; Articles 9, 15 and 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination Against Women (1993)

[Minneapolis, MN: International Women's Rights Action Watch, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, 25 pp.]

Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives (Rebecca J. Cook, ed., 1994).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 634 pp.]

Human Rights Watch Women's Rights Project, The Human Rights Watch Global Report on Women's Human Rights (1995).

[New York: Human Rights Watch, 458 pp.]

Eschel M. Rhoodie, Discrimination Against Women: A Global Survey of the Economic, Educational, Social and Political Status of Women (1989).

[Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 618 pp.]

A Thematic Guide to Documents on the Human Rights of Women (Gudmundur Alfredsson & Katarina Tomaevski eds., 1995).

[The Hague; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 434 pp. The Raoul Wallenberg Institute Human Rights Guides, vol. 1.]

The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Roberta Jackson, "The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women," chapter 11) (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp.]

The Women's Watch (1987- ).

[Minneapolis, MN: International Women's Rights Action Watch, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.]

2. Articles

 

Andrew C. Byrnes, The 'Other' Human Rights Treaty Body: The Work of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 14 Yale J. Int'l. L. 1 (1989).

Michael J. Cobera, The Women's Convention and the Equal Protection Clause, 26 St. Mary's L.J. 755 (1995).

Rebecca J. Cook, International Protection of Women's Reproductive Rights, 24 N.Y.U. J. Int'l. L. & Pol. 645 (1992).

 

Rebecca J. Cook, Reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 30 Va. J. Int'l. L. 643 (1990).

Draft Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (Conference on the International Protection of Reproductive Rights), 44 Am. U. L. Rev. 1419 (1995).

Alan Goldfarb, A Kenyan Wife's Right to Bury her Husband: Applying the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 14 ILSA J. Int'l. L. 1 (1990).

Joseph Oloka-Onyango and Sylvia Tamale, The Personal is Political, or Why Women's Rights are Indeed Human Rights: An African Perspective on International Feminism, 17 Hum. Rts. Q. 691 (1995).

 

Lisa C. Stratton, The Right to Have Rights: Gender Discrimination in Nationality Laws, 77 Minn. L. Rev. 195 (1992).

Sarah C. Zearfoss, Note, The Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Against Women: Radical, Reasonable, or Reactionary?, 12 Mich. J. Int'l. L. 903 (1991).

H. Practice Guides

Stephen L. Isaacs, Assessing the Status of Women: A Guide to Reporting Using the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1988).

[New York: International Women's Rights Action Watch, 44 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Discrimination Against Women: The Convention and the Committee (1994).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 71 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 22.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 25, 52, 198; U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 417 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1 at 153; U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: United Nations, 203 pp.]

Women's Rights in the UN: A manual on how the UN human rights mechanisms can protect women's rights (1995).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights, 69 pp.]

I. Bibliographies and Research Guides

 

Rebecca J. Cook, Women's International Human Rights: A Bibliography, 24 N.Y.U. J. Int'l. L. & Pol. 857 (1992).

Rebecca J. Cook & Valarie L. Oosterveld, A Select Bibliography of Women's Rights, 44 Am. U. L. Rev. 1429 (1995).

Diana Vincent-Daviss, Human Rights Law: A Research Guide to the Literature, "Rights of Women," http://www.law.uc.edu/Diana/bib/Womensrights.html. At her death, Diana Vincent-Daviss had completed a large part of a first draft of an updated version of her human rights bibliography. This version will be updated and enhanced, with the assistance of the Project DIANA Advisory Board, and placed in the DIANA database on the Internet.

 

J. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

1. Specific Gopher and Web Sites

 

There are many sites about women on the Internet, most of the sites listed below will provide links to other useful resources on women's issues and feminism.

WomensNet - Women's Equality, Beijing

gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org/11/women

WomensNet provides networking and information resources to enhance women's involvement before, during and after the Fourth World Conference on Women. These resources include: over 5 electronic conferences related to the U.N. World Conference on Women (UNWCW) including the official U.N. documents in three languages, NGO information, and general planning around UNWCW. Also contains links to other sources of women's information on the Internet.

See other Institute for Global Communications (IGC) sites:

http://www.igc.apc.org/beijing/

Information specifically about the conference.

http://www.womensnet.apc.org/womensnet

Lots of information about the conference, other IGC resources, and links to other sites.

 

Women and the Law (under construction)

gopher://holmes.law.cwru.edu:70/11/women+law

Still under construction, but this site will contain legal documents, supporting documents, news, resources, and more.

GopherDonna (Italian site focuses on resources related to women)

gopher://risc.idg.fi.cnr.it/11/GopherDonna

Sources all in Italian.

Women's Studies and Resources

gopher://cwis.uci.edu:7000/11/gopher.welcome/peg/women

Links to many other resources on the Internet about women.

 

Women's Resources on the Net

http://www.best.com/~agoodloe/women.html

Contains information on mailing lists, resources, magazines, and other information.

Feminism and Women's Resources

http://www.ibd.nrc.ca/~mansfield/feminism.html

Links to many other sites on the Internet about women and lots of other resources and collections.

United Nations Gopher, Fourth World Conference on Women, 1995

gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/11/unconfs/women

Official documents, results of regional conferences, background materials, and links to other U.N. materials on women.

United Nations Gopher, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/11/ecosocdocs/cedaw

Contains official documents from the Committee, the convention, information on the membership of the Committee, ratification information, and a link to information on the Commission on the Status of Women.

 

2. Specific Discussion Lists

See http://www-unix.umbc.edu/~korenman/wmst/forums.html

for a list of gender-related electronic forums.

 

iwraw@hhh.umn.edu (International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) e-mail)

An e-mail address only for IWRAW.

 

FEMISA@csf.colorado.edu (Feminist Theory and Gender Studies Section of the International Studies Association Listserv)

Send the following message to LISTSERV@CSF.COLORADO.EDU.

Subscribe FEMISA <your name>.

FEMJUR@suvm.syr.edu (Discussions and Information about Feminist Legal Issues Listserv)

Send the following message to

LISTSERV@LISTSERV.SYR.EDU.

Subscribe FEMJUR <your name>.

BEIJING95-L is an unmoderated forum for discussion of the United Nations Conference on Women in September 1995 in Beijing, China. Both women and men may join. Possible discussion topics include pre-conference events, prior U.N. women's conferences, travel and tour arrangements, NGO information, caucuses, reports on status of women, etc. BEIJING-L is not officially sponsored by the U.N. nor any organization.

Send the following message to LISTSERV@NETCOM.COM.

SUBSCRIBE BADGING-L <your name, your email address>

For more information, contact the listowner, Jennifer Gagliardi, GAGLIAJN@NETCOM.COM.

BEIJING-WOMEN is a moderated, women-only list for discussing topics dealt with at the U.N. Conference in Beijing. Topics include but are not limited to: the status of women in various countries, women and work, women's health, prostitution, lesbian rights, racism, marriage practices, international feminist movements, domestic violence, etc.

Send the following message to LISTSERV@NETCOM.COM.

SUBSCRIBE BEIJING-WOMEN <your name your email address>.

BEIJING-CONF is a moderated list supported by the United Nations Development Programme. The list emphasizes discussion of the Beijing U.N. Women's Conference issues as they affect developing countries as well as industrialized ones. The list expects to continue beyond the Conference, focusing on implementation of the Women's Conference and the Social Summit agreements.

Send the following message to MAJORDOMO@CONFER.EDC.ORG.

SUBSCRIBE BEIJING-CONF <your name>.

 

3. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women as well as other international instruments, general recommendations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, and links to related Internet sites and other human rights information.

United Nations Development Programme WWW Server (UNDP)

http://www.undp.org

gopher://gopher.undp.org

Provides access to full-text of UNDP publications, U.N. press releases, U.N. resolutions, U.N. conference documents, current information, and much more. The UNDP databases include Sustainable Human Development; Public Information; Special Programmes; and Recruitment. Also provides links to other U.N. information servers.

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.2.

4. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.3.



5. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, Annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984), entered into force June 26, 1987.

A. Status

 

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section A.

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Committee Against Torture, Status of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Reservations, Declarations and Objections Under the Convention, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/2/Rev.3 (1994).

[37 pp., March 7, 1994. Contains list of states which have signed, ratified, or acceded; full text of declarations and reservations, withdrawal of reservations; and objections to reservations and declarations.]

 

C. Status of Reports

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section C.

D. Decisions, Jurisprudence, and Reports

Committee Against Torture, Report of the Committee Against Torture, [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.44), U.N. Doc. A/[session no.]/44 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports by States parties, parties ratified, overview of the activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of States and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee Against Torture, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.44), U.N. Doc. A/49/44 (1994)).]

Committee Against Torture, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#] ([year]).

[Contains concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Mauritius: U.N. Doc. CAT/C/24/Add.3 (1995)). ]

Committee Against Torture, Decisions, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of communication] ([year]).

[Decisions are admissibility determinations of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 22/1995, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14/D/22/1995 (1995))].

Committee Against Torture, Views, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/[#]/D/[#]/[year of communication] ([year]).

[Views are determinations by the Committee on the merits of individual complaints (e.g., Communication No. 6/1990, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14/D/6/1990 (1995))].

E. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

Committee Against Torture, Rules of Procedure, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/3/Rev.1 (1989).

[38 pp., August 29, 1989. Contains information on the Committee sessions, distribution of reports and other official documents, the conduct of business, and functions of the Committee.]

Committee Against Torture, General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Content of Periodic Reports to be Submitted by States Parties Under Article 19, Paragraph 1, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/14 (1991).

[2 pp., June 18, 1991. Guidelines to be followed by States parties in preparation of the initial reports.]

F. Legislative History ("Travaux Préparatoires")

Matthew Lippman, The Development and Drafting of the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 17 B.C. Int'l. & Comp. L. Rev. 275 (1994).

 

G. Commentaries

1. Books

J. Herman Burgers and Hans Danelius, The United Nations Convention Against Torture: A Handbook on the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 271 pp.]

Nigel S. Rodley, The Treatment of Prisoners Under International Law (1987).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press; Paris: UNESCO, 374 pp.]

The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal (Andrew Byrnes, "The Committee Against Torture," chapter 13) (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp.]

 

2. Articles

David P. Stewart, The Torture Convention and the Reception of International Criminal Law Within the United States (Symposium on International Criminal Law), 15 Nova L. Rev. 449 (1991).

Prospects for U.S. Ratification of the Convention Against Torture, 1989 Am. Soc. Int'l. L. Proc. 529 (1989).

H. Practice Guides

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, et al., Practical Guide to the International Procedures Relative to Complaint and Appeals Against Acts of Torture, Disappearances, and Other Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (1988).

[Geneva: World Organization Against Torture/S.O.S. Torture, 92 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The Committee on Torture (1992).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 38 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 17.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Methods of Combating Torture (1989).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 27 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 4.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 25, 53, and 317; U.N. Sales No. E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 417 pp.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1 at 177, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: U.N., 203 pp.]

I. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

1. Specific Gopher and Web Sites

 

Amnesty International Twelve-Point Program for the Prevention of Torture. Amnesty International has launched a 12-Point Program for the Prevention of Torture that includes measures that could be taken by all governments to halt the torture of prisoners.

http://www.best.com/~mlacabe/grp64.html (then click on torture) or ftp://ftp.io.org/pub/human-rights/

Amnesty/about2/torture

2. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the Convention Against Torture as well as other international instruments, links to related Internet sites, and other human rights information.

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.2.

3. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.3.



6. Convention on the Rights of the Child, G.A. res. 44/25, Annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force Sept. 2, 1990..

A. Status

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section A.

B. Reservations, Declarations, and Objections

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Reservations, Declarations and Objections Relating to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/2/Rev.3 (1994).

[40 pp., July 11, 1994. Lists the states that have signed, ratified, or acceded to the convention; provides full text of the declarations, reservations, and objections; and provides withdrawals of reservations and objections to reservations and declarations.]

C. Status of Reports

Committee on the Rights of the Child, States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Status of Submission of Reports Under Article 44 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/[#] [(year)].

[Lists States parties to the convention, the date of entry into force for each party, and the status of submission of reports (e.g., CRC/C/36 (1994), 40 pp., July 11, 1994).]

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section C.

D. Decisions and Jurisprudence

 

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by the States Parties, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/[#].

[Concluding observations of the Committee for each report submitted by the States parties. The U.N. symbol will vary depending on the country (e.g., for Colombia: U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.30 (1995)).]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, [session no.] U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 41), U.N. Doc. A/[session no]/41 ([year]).

[New York: U.N. Annual report of the Committee to the General Assembly. Contains conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee, reports by States parties, ratifications, overview of the activities of the Committee, as well as several annexes including a list of States parties and status of submission of reports (e.g., Report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, 49 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 41), U.N. Doc. A/49/41 (1994)).]

 

E. Conclusions and Recommendations of the Committee

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Compilation of the Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/19/Rev.2 (1994).

[27 pp., May 18, 1994. Provides the text of the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the Committee. Includes information about activities and relations with other U.N. organs and human rights treaty bodies.]

F. Legislative History ("Travaux Préparatoires")

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Guide to the "Travaux Préparatoires" (Sharon Detrick comp. & ed., 1992).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 712 pp.]

G. Rules of Procedure and Guidelines

 

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Provisional Rules of Procedure, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/4 (1991).

[18 pp., November 14, 1991. Contains information on the Committee sessions, distribution of reports and other official documents, the conduct of business, and functions of the Committee.]

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Guidelines Regarding the Form and Content of Initial Reports to be Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/5 (1991).

[7 pp., October 30, 1991. Guidelines to be followed by States parties in preparation of the initial reports.]

H. Commentaries

1. Books

Philip Alston, Children, Rights and the Law (1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 268 pp.]

The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights (Philip Alston ed., 1994).

[Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 297 pp.]

Kay Castelle, In the Child's Best interest: A primer on the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the child (3d ed. 1990).

[East Greenwich, RI: Foster Parents Plan International; New York, NY: Defense for Children International-USA, 46 pp.]

 

Children's Rights: Crisis and Challenge (Dennis Nurkse et al. eds., 1990).

[New York: Defense for Children International, 262 pp.]

 

Children's Rights in America: U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child Compared with United States Law (Cynthia Price Cohen et al. eds., 1990).

[Chicago: American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, 344 pp.]

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1994).

[New York: Amnesty International, 20 pp.]

 

The Ideologies of children's rights (Michael Freeman and Philip Veerman eds., 1992).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Marinus Nijhoff Pub., 369 pp.]

Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource Mobilization in Low-Income Countries (James R. Himes ed., 1995).

[The Hague; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 262 pp.]

Independent Commentary: United nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Cynthia Price Cohen ed., 1988).

[New York, NY: Defense for Children International-USA, 99 pp.]

International Child Labor Problems (1990).

[Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 26 pp.]

Lawrence J. Leblanc, Convention on the Rights of the Child: United Nations Lawmaking on Human Rights (1995).

[Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 337 pp.]

Geraldine Van Bueren, The International Law on the Rights of the Child (1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 435 pp.]

Eugeen Verhellen, Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background, Motivation, Strategies, Main Themes (1994).

[Leuven, Belgium: Garant, 162 pp. Also available in Dutch.]

2. Articles

 

Philip Alston, The Best Interests Principle: Towards a Reconciliation of Culture and Human Rights, 8 Int'l. J. L. & Fam. 1 (1994).

 

Philip Alston, The Unborn Child and Abortion Under the Draft Convention on the Rights of the Child (Symposium: U.N. Convention on Children's Rights), 12 Hum.. Rts. Q. 156 (1990).

Abdullahi An-Na'Im, Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child, 8 Int'l. J. L. & Fam. 62 (1994).

David A. Balton, The Convention on the Rights of the Child: Prospects for International Enforcement (Symposium: U.N. Convention on Children's Rights), 12 Hum. Rts. Q. 120 (1990).

 

Elizabeth M. Calciano, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Will it Help Children in the United States?, 15 Hastings Int'l. & Comp. L. Rev. 515 (1992).

Cynthia Price Cohen, The Role of the Nongovernmental Organizations in the Drafting of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Symposium: U.N. Convention on Children's Rights), 12 Hum. Rts. Q. 137 (1990).

Michael Jupp, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: An Opportunity for Advocates (Confronting the Challenge of Realizing Human Rights Now), 34 How. L. J. 15 (1991).

Per Miljeteig-Olssen, Advocacy of Children's Rights - The Convention as More than a Legal Document (Symposium: U.N. Convention on Children's Rights), 12 Hum. Rts. Q. 148 (1990).

Daniel O'Donnell, Resettlement or Repatriation: Screened-Out Vietnamese Child Asylum Seekers and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1994 Int'l. Commission Jurists Rev. 16 (1994).

Margaret Otlawski & Martin B, Tsamenyi, Parental Authority and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Are the Fears Justified?, 6 Aust. J. Fam. L. 137 (1992).

Marta Santos Pais, The Committee on the Rights of the Child, 1991 Int'l. Commission Jurists Rev. 36 (1991).

George Stewart, Interpreting the Child's Right to Identity in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, 26 Fam. L. Q. 221 (1992).

 

Geraldine Van Bueren, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Necessity of Incorporation into United Kingdom Law, 22 Fam. L. 373 (1992).

 

I. Practice Guides

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, The Rights of the Child (1990).

[Geneva; New York: Centre for Human Rights, 32 pp., Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 10.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4 at 26, 54, and 232; U.N. Sales Number E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York; U.N., 417 pp.]

J. Materials Available Through Electronic Formats

1. Specific Gopher and Web Sites

UNICEF Gopher

gopher://hqfaus01.unicef.org/

UNICEF is the United Nations organization devoted to the well-being of the world's children. This Gopher service offers information on the work of UNICEF, including its major programmes in child survival and development, its advocacy of the rights of the child, and its long-term human development efforts as well as its emergency humanitarian role. The Gopher provides access to full-text UNICEF publications such as the State of the World's Children report and the Progress of Nations, plus the UNICEF Annual Report, UNICEF Features, the First Call for Children newsletter, press releases, information notes, and other advocacy and information booklets, brochures, and pamphlets. The Gopher also contains the full text of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the Declaration and Plan of Action of the 1990 World Summit for Children.

Global ChildNet: A Global Electronic Information and Communications Network

http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/gcnet/index.html

Contains information about the health and well-being of children around the world. The newspaper Global Child Health News and Review and information about "Childhealth 2000" conference are available.

Links to other Internet Resources on Children (part of Children Now Web site)

http://www.dnai.com/~children/links.html

Provides links to many Internet sites with resources on children including health issues, poverty, statistics, education, and children around the world.

2. Specific Discussion Lists

CHILDRI-@hearn.bitnet (Discussion on U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child)

Send the following message to listserv@hearn.bitnet

Subscribe childri- <your name>.

Y-Rights: Human Rights for the Young (Discussion on the rights of children)

Send the following message to LISTSERV@SJUVM.Bitnet

SUB Y-Rights <your name>.

 

3. General Human Rights Gopher and Web Sites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

Provides the full text of the Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as other international instruments, the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, links to related Internet sites, and other human rights information.

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.2.

4. General Human Rights Discussion Lists

See the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, section I.3.



G. REFUGEE LAW

Guy Goodwin-Gill, The Refugee in International Law (2d ed. 1995).

[Oxford: Clarendon, 260 pp.]

Atle Grahl-Madsen, The Status of Refugees in International Law (1966, 1972).

[Leiden, The Netherlands: A.W. Sijthoff, 981 pp., 2 vols.]

James C. Hathaway, The Law of Refugee Status (1991).

[Toronto: Butterworths, 252 pp.]

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, The UNHCR at 40: Refugee Protection at the Crossroads (1991).

[New York: Lawyers Committee, 156 pp. A report of the LCHR.]

Refugees -- The Trauma of Exile: The Humanitarian Role of Red Cross and Red Crescent (Diana Miserez ed., 1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 340 pp.]

Symposium on Refugee Law: Issues and Developments, 28 Willamette L. Rev. 719 (1992).

Office of the UNHCR, Handbook for Emergencies: Field Operations (1982).

[Geneva: U.N., 194 pp.]

Office of the UNHCR, Note on International Protection, U.N. Doc. A/AC.96/[#] (1959- ).

[New York: U.N., annual summaries of the major challenges facing the UNHCR, as well as recommendations to improve refugee protection.]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, The State of the World's Refugees 1995 (1995).

[New York: Oxford University Press, 264 pp.]

Note: Please refer to the sections COMPILATIONS/UNHCR, SELECTED TEXTS, and ELECTRONIC SOURCES for additional materials concerning refugees.



H. SELECTED TEXTS

Africa, Human Rights, and the Global System (Eileen McCarthy-Arnolds et al. eds., 1994).

[Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 272 pp. Discusses briefly human rights philosophy, introduces historical background concerning the evolution of human rights in pre-colonial and colonial Africa, and covers extensively national and international efforts to address human rights issues in Africa.]

T. Akinola Aguda, Human Rights and the Right to Development in Africa (1989).

[Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 34 pp.]

American Law Institute, Restatement of the Law, Third, The Foreign Relations Law of the United States (1987 & Supp. 1988).

[St. Paul, MN: American Law Institute Publishers, 2 vols. Supplemented annually. Rules that restate generally accepted principles of law, including international human rights law. See 2 Restatement §§ 701-03, 711-13; see also id. at 144-51. Rules are followed by comments, notes, and references.]

Amnesty International USA, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948-1988: Human Rights, The United Nations, and Amnesty International (1988).

[New York: Amnesty International USA, 180 pp.]

Article 19, Press Law and Practice (Sandra Coliver ed., 1993).

[London: Article 19 International Centre Against Censorship, 307 pp.]

Ralph Beddard, Human Rights and Europe (3d ed. 1993).

[Cambridge: Grotius Publications Ltd., 278 pp.]

The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights (Philip Alston ed., 1994).

[Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 297 pp.]

Broadening the Frontiers of Human Rights: Essays in Honour of Asbjorn Eide (Donna Gomien ed., 1993).

[New York: Oxford University Press, 312 pp.]

Thomas Buergenthal, International Human Rights in a Nutshell (2d ed. 1995).

[St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 358 pp. An overview of the doctrinal and institutional framework of international human rights.]

Thomas Buergenthal & Harold G. Maier, Public International Law in a Nutshell (2d ed. 1990).

[St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 275 pp. An introduction to the basic principles of public international law including human rights. Research guide at 243-57 includes the key sources of and about public international law.]

Thomas Buergenthal et al., Protecting Human Rights in the Americas (2d ed. 1986)(3d ed. forthcoming).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 389 pp.]

Richard Carver & Paul Hunt, National Human Rights Institutions in Africa, Occasional Paper No. 1 (1991).

[The Gambia: Afr. Centre for Democracy & Hum. Rts. Stud., 45 pp. Discussion of national human rights organizations in the Gambia, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zaire, and analysis of emerging efforts to address human rights issues in Africa. Appendix contains a directory of African national human rights institutions.]

Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights Study Series (1989- ).

[Geneva: U.N.. The series reproduces studies and reports prepared by special rapporteurs on topical issues of human rights. Includes:

No. 1, Right to Adequate Food as a Human Right, U.N. Sales No. E.89.XIV.2;

No. 2, Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, U.N. Sales No. E.89.XIV.3;

No. 3, Freedom of the Individual Under Law: An Analysis of Article 29 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, U.N. Sales No. E.89.XIV.5;

No. 4, Promotion, Protection and Restoration of Human Rights at National, Regional and International Levels--Status of the Individual and Contemporary Law, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.3;

No. 5, Study on the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.2;

No 6, Human Rights and Disabled Persons, U.N. Sales No. E.92.XIV.4.]

The Challenges of Change: The Helskinki Summit of the CSCE and its Aftermath (Arie Bloed ed., 1994).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 463 pp.]

Ann Marie Clark, Strong Principles, Strengthening Practices: Amnesty International and Three Cases of Change in International Human Rights Standards (1995)(unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota).

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: An Overview of the CSCE Process, Recent Meetings and Institutional Development (1992).

[Washington, D.C.: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 47 pp.]

The CSCE and the Turbulent New Europe (Louis B Sohn ed., 1993).

[San Jose, Costa Rica: Varitec; Washington, D.C.: Friedrich Naumann Stiftung, 280 pp. Record of a Conference organized by the International Rule of Law Institute of the George Washington University in cooperation with the Friedrich Naumann Foundation and the Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights. Conference held May 3-5, 1993, in Washington, D.C.]

Scott Davidson, The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1992).

[Aldershot, England; Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth Pub. Co. Ltd., 217 pp.]

Robert F. Drinan, Cry of the Oppressed: The History and Hope of the Human Rights Revolution (1987).

[San Francisco: Harper & Row, 210 pp.]

Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Textbook (Asbjorn Eide et al. eds., 1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 506 pp. Contains bibliography, table of treaties, and subject index.]

Asbjorn Eide, Pocket Guide to the Development of Human Rights Institutions and Mechanisms (1989).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 31 pp.]

Emerging Human Rights: The African Political Economy Context, Studies in Human Rights, Number 8 (George W. Shepherd, Jr. & Mark O.C. Anikpo eds., 1990).

[New York: Greenwood Press, 244 pp. Published under the auspices of the Consortium on Human Rights Development. Scholarly articles in part one discuss theories of human rights in the African context, dealing with such issues as the universality of human rights, underdevelopment, and theological perspectives on African human rights. Articles in part two discuss the link between human rights violations and several issues including development, equality, and justice, militarization, refugees, feminism, and self-reliance.]

8 Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Rudolf Bernhardt ed., 1985).

[Amsterdam: North-Holland, 551 pp. Covers human rights, the individual in international law, and international economic relations. Separately-authored articles include titles, such as: African Charter on Human and People's Rights, Indigenous Populations, International Commission of Jurists, and Protection.]

The European Convention on Human Rights: Cases and Materials (Herbert Petzold, 5th ed. 1984).

[Köln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 529 pp.]

The European System for the Protection of Human Rights (R.St.J. Macdonald et al. eds., 1993).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 940 pp.]

The European Union and Human Rights (Nanette A. Neuwahl & Allan Rosas eds., 1995).

[The Hague; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 354 pp.]

Osita C. Eze, Human Rights in Africa: Some Selected Problems (1984).

[Lagos: Published by the Nigerian Inst. of Int'l Affairs in cooperation with Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 314 pp. Treats human rights theory and examines human rights situations in pre-colonial and colonial Africa, and in independent African States. Discusses self-determination, racial discrimination and apartheid, women's rights, refugee issues, and regional promotion and protection of human rights. Appendices include OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, Monrovia Proposal for the Setting Up of an African Commission on Human Rights, and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.]

David P. Forsythe, Human Rights and World Politics (2d rev. ed. 1989).

[Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 316 pp.]

The Future of Human Rights Protection in a Changing World: Fifty Years Since the Four Freedoms Address (Asbjorn Eide & Jan Helgesen eds., 1991).

[Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 239 pp.]

Alexis Heraclides, Helsinki - II and Its Aftermath: The Making of the CSCE into and International Organization (1993).

[London: Pinter Pub.; New York: St. Martin's Press, distributor, 274 pp.]

Hurst Hannum, Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights (1990).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 503 pp.]

Shareen Hertel, Promises to Keep: Securing Human Rights in a Changing World (1994).

[New York: U.N. Assoc. of the USA (UNA-USA), 50 pp. Briefing book of the UNA-USA Global Policy Project.]

Hilde Hey, Gross Human Rights Violations: A Search for Causes -- A Study of Guatemala and Costa Rica (1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff, 264 pp.]

Rhoda E. Howard, Human Rights in Commonwealth Africa (1986).

[Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 250 pp. Discusses various aspects of African human rights, including economic, communal, political, civil, and women's rights.]

Human Rights: An Agenda for the Next Century (Louis Henkin & John L. Hargrove eds., 1994).

[Washington, DC: The American Society of International Law (ASIL), 524 pp. Volume number 26 of Studies in Transnational Legal Policy Series.]

Human Rights and Development in Africa (Claude E. Welch, Jr. & Ronald I. Meltzer eds., 1984).

[Albany, N.Y.: State University of N.Y. Press, 349 pp. Discusses general human rights issues in contemporary Africa, regional responses including the work of NGOs and the Banjul Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, and presents several views on the "right to development" and self-determination. Appendices contain the Banjul Charter, a summary of basic human rights guaranteed in the Charter and other major human rights treaties, and a list of major African human rights conferences held between 1961-81. Bibliography also included.]

Human Rights and Disabled Persons: Essays and Relevant Human Rights Instruments (Theresia Degener & Yolan Koster-Dreese eds., 1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff, 757 pp. Contains essays, instruments, and tables reflecting the status of implementation by country and by instrument.]

Human Rights and Governance in Africa (Ronald Cohen et al. eds., 1993).

[Gainesville, Fla.: University Press of Fla., 285 pp. Part I contains scholarly articles that present several theoretical approaches to human rights in Africa, and Part II contains scholarly articles that discuss substantive human rights issues including women's rights, refugees, minority rights, education, and academic freedom.]

Human Rights and Judicial Review: A Comparative Perspective (David M. Beatty ed., 1994).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 361 pp. Volume 34 in the International Studies in Human Rights series.]

Human Rights and Labour Law: Essays for Paul O'Higgins (K.D. Ewing et al. eds., 1994).

[London: Mansell Publishing Ltd., 367 pp.]

Human Rights in Africa: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im & Francis M. Deng eds., 1990).

[Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 399 pp. Discusses African human rights in the context of various conceptions of international human rights, including traditional "western" perspectives, Christian and Muslim perspectives, several African cultural perspectives, and cross-cultural perspectives.]

Human Rights in International Law: Legal and Policy Issues (Theodor Meron ed., 1984).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 566 pp., 2 vols.]

Human Rights in the World Community: Issues and Action (Richard P. Claude & Burns H. Weston eds., 2d ed. 1992).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 463 pp.]

Human Rights Perspectives & Challenges: In 1990 and Beyond (K.P. Saksena ed., 1994).

[New Delhi: Lancers Books, 608 pp. Published under the auspices of the Institute for World Congress on Human Rights (IWCHR), New Delhi. Contains thirty-seven articles that were initially prepared as working papers for the 1990 World Congress on Human Rights in New Delhi. Appendices include several addresses from the Congress and the Congress' Final Act, which provides an overall assessment of the human rights situation and a set of recommendations for its improvement.]

Human Rights Reference Handbook (Theo R.G. van Banning ed., 1992).

[Netherlands: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 181 pp. Sets out European Political Co-operation (EPC) positions on human rights issues.]

Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives (Rebecca J. Cook ed., 1994).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 634 pp. Part of the Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights series.]

Human Rights Watch, Academic Freedom and Human Rights Abuses in Africa, An Africa Watch Report (1991).

[New York: Human Rights Watch, 153 pp. Details human rights abuses committed against members of academic communities in Cameroon, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, and Zimbabwe. Also presents recommendations for African governments, academics, organizations of academics, NGOs, donor governments, and UNESCO to take action that will "encourage the independence and autonomy of academic institutions and academic pursuits." An appendix lists detained African academics.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Report on the Protection of War Victims (1993).

[Geneva: ICRC, 51 pp.]

The International Dimensions of Human Rights (Karel Vasak & Philip Alston eds., 1982).

[Westport, CT: Greenwood Press; Paris: UNESCO, 755 pp., 2 vols. Volume I on Principles and Norms of Human Rights includes chapters concerning self-determination and non-discrimination; sources of human rights law; economic, social, and cultural rights; civil and political rights; and human rights in armed conflict. Volume II on International Institutions contains chapters on the U.N., ILO, UNESCO, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Council of Europe, the Organization of African Unity, and possibilities for cooperation among Asian states.]

International Human Rights: Problems of Law, Policy, and Practice (Richard B. Lillich & Hurst Hannum eds., 3d ed. 1995).

[Boston: Little, Brown, 1100 pp.]

International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict (Milton J. Esman & Shibley Telhami eds., 1995).

[Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 343 pp.]

International Protection of Human Rights (Louis B. Sohn & Thomas Buergenthal eds., 1973).

[Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1402 pp.]

Mark Janis, Richard Kay & Anthony Bradley, European Human Rights Law: Text and Materials (1996).

[New York: Oxford University Press, 516 pp. Part I describes and analyzes the structure and process of European Human Rights Law by focusing on the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Commission of Human Rights, and the European Court of Human Rights. Part II examines substantive international human rights adjudication and discusses cases on issues such as Torture, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Freedom of Expression, Respect for Private and Family Life, the Right to Liberty and Security of Person, and the Right to a Fair and Public Hearing in the Determination of Civil Rights and Criminal Charges. Appendices include the 1950 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, several Protocols to the Convention, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first edition was published in 1990 by the University of Connecticut Law School Foundation Press.]

William Korey, The Promises We Keep: Human Rights, the Helsinki Process, and American Foreign Policy (1993).

[New York: St. Martin's Press, 529 pp.]

Lawrence J. LeBlanc, The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1995).

[Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 337 pp. Volume three of the Human Rights in International Perspective Series.]

Scott Leckie, When Push Comes to Shove: Forced Evictions and Human Rights (1995).

[Mexico: Habitat International Coalition (HIC), 139 pp.]

Loupes G. Loucaides, Essays on the Developing Law of Human Rights (1995).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 236 pp. Volume 39 in the International Studies in Human Rights Series.]

Ian Martin, The New World Order: Opportunity or Threat for Human Rights? (1993).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard College, 24 pp. Published lecture of Apr. 14, 1993, by the Edward A. Smith Visiting Fellow presented by the Harvard Law School Human Rights Program.]

Vojtech Mastny, The Helsinki Process and the Reintegration of Europe, 1986-1991: Analysis and Documentation (1992).

[New York: New York University Press, 343 pp.]

Dominic McGoldrick, The Human Rights Committee: Its Role in the Development of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1991).

[Oxford: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University Press, 576 pp. Excellent description of the committee's work.]

 

7A Modern Legal Systems Cyclopedia (Kenneth R. Redden ed., 1984- ).

[Buffalo, NY: William S. Hein & Co., looseleaf. Articles on the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights; humanitarian law (including the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross); and the Western/U.S. and Socialist approaches to human rights. Texts of several human rights instruments and status information are also included.]

Monitoring Human Rights in Europe: Comparing International Procedures and Mechanisms (Arie Bloed et al. eds., 1993).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 338 pp.]

Manfred Nowak, U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary (1993).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 947 pp. Analyzes the organizational, procedural, and substantive provisions of the Covenant and the two optional protocols; addresses Human Rights Committee practice and case law.]

Sara Guillet, Nous, Peuples des Nations Unies: L'action des ONG au sein du système de protection international des droits de l'homme (1995).

[Paris: Editions Montchrestien, E.J.A., 179 pp.]

On Human Rights (Stephen Shute and Susan Hurley eds., 1993).

[New York: Basic Books, 262 pp. The Oxford Amnesty Lectures Series.]

The Organization of African Unity, 1963-1988: a Role Analysis and Performance Review (R.A. Akindele ed., 1988).

[Ibadan, Nigeria: Vantage Pub., 358 pp.]

The Organization of African Unity after Thirty Years (Yassin El-Ayouty ed., 1994).

[Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, 216 pp. Assesses OAU efforts in such areas as peacekeeping and conflict resolution, regional promotion of human rights, refugees, and environmental issues. Also discusses OAU relations with other organizations, and assesses the OAU's future.]

Edmund J. Osmanczyk, The Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements (2d ed. 1990).

[Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis, Inc., 1220 pp. Provides basic information on international law, including human rights instruments, organizations, and conferences.]

Fatsah Ouguergouz, La Charte africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples: Une approche juridique des droits de l'homme entre tradition et modernité (1993).

[Geneva: Publications de l'institut universitaire de hautes études internationales, 479 pp. French language text. Part one examines historical human rights problems in Africa and the processes out of which the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights was created. Part two discusses the Charter's material content, examining provisions for individual and peoples' rights, and individual duties, as well as the juridical implications of the absence of a derogation clause. Part three examines the Charter's institutional provisions, dealing with the organization, functions, and procedures of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, and the related roles of the OAU. Annexes contain the Charter, interior and procedural rules of the Commission, participation of African states in principal international human rights instruments, and a model communication to the Commission.]

Chris Maina Peter, Human Rights in Africa: A Comparative Study of the African Human and Peoples' Rights Charter and the New Tanzanian Bill of Rights (1990).

[Westport, Conn.; New York: Greenwood Press. Published under the auspices of the Consortium on Human Rights Development, 145 pp. Provides a brief historical background and an extensive comparison of the Tanzanian Bill of Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. Bases for comparison include rights and freedoms, individual obligations, and enforcement mechanisms provided in the two instruments. Appendices contain the New Tanzanian Bill of Rights; the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights; composition of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; a summary of rights, freedoms, duties, and obligations under the Tanzanian Bill of Rights, the African Charter, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights; and a table of relevant cases and statutes.]

S.E.M. Pheko, South Africa: Betrayal of a Colonised People, Issues of International Human Rights Law (1990).

[London: ISAL Publications, 161 pp. Provides historical background concerning British colonialism in South Africa, challenges the notion of international law as the "law of civilized nations," and examines both recognition of international law in relation to South Africa and violations of international law in South Africa.]

The Philosophy of Human Rights (Morton Winston ed., 1989).

[Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 293 pp.]

Claude Pilloud et al., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (1987).

[New York: ICRC, 1625 pp.]

Kenneth Randall, Federal Courts and the International Human Rights Paradigm (1990).

[Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 295 pp.]

B. G. Ramcharan, The Concept and Present Status of International Protection of Human Rights: Forty Years After the Universal Declaration (1988).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 611 pp.]

Nasila S. Rembe, The System of Protection of Human Rights Under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: Problems and Prospects (1991).

[Lesotho: Inst. of S. Afr. Stud., Nat'l University of Lesotho, 53 pp.]

A. H. Robertson & J. G. Merrills, Human Rights in the World: An Introduction to the Study of the International Protection of Human Rights (3d ed. 1989).

[New York: St. Martin's Press, 314 pp.]

A.H. Robertson & J.G. Merrils, Human Rights in Europe: A Study of the European Convention on Human Rights (3d ed. 1993).

[Manchester: Manchester University Press, 422 pp.]

Albie Sachs, Protecting Human Rights in a New South Africa (1990).

[Cape Town; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 208 pp.]

Oscar Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice (1991).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 431 pp.]

Horst Seibt, Compendium of Case Studies of International Humanitarian Law (1994).

[New York: ICRC; Dobbs Ferry, NY: Glanville Publishers, 145 pp. A collection of some 60 cases in which international humanitarian law applies.]

Issa G. Shivji, The Concept of Human Rights in Africa (1989)

[London: Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa (CODRESIA Book Series), 126 pp. Discusses several human rights approaches, including universalization, theorization, prioritization, promotion, prevention, and exposition; also critiques "dominant" human rights ideologies such as philosophical idealism and political nihilism, and proposes a "revolutionary" human rights framework based on the right to self-determination and to organize.]

Paul Sieghart, The International Law of Human Rights (1983).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 569 pp.]

South Africa: Human Rights and the Rule of Law (Geoffrey Bindman ed., 1988).

[London; New York: Pinter Publishers, 159 pp. Discusses the status -- under Apartheid -- of human rights, including freedom of movement, speech, association, and assembly, as well as education and access to the professions. Also examines human rights in relation to national institutions such as trade unions, the judicial system, the security system, and the political structure.]

Henry J. Steiner & Philip Alston, International Human Rights in context: Law, Politics, Morals; Text and Materials (1996).

[Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press.]

Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet (Chistophe Swinarski ed., 1984).

[Geneva: ICRC; The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 1143 pp.]

Lorenzo S. Togni, The Struggle for Human Rights: An International and South African Perspective (1994).

[Kenya: Juta & Co., 295 pp.]

Katarina Tomaevski, Development Aid and Human Rights Revisited (1993).

[London; New York: Pinter Publishers; distributed in the U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press, 223 pp.]

Katarina Tomaevski, Women and Human Rights (1993).

[London; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books Ltd., 162 pp. Prepared on behalf of the UN-NGO Group on Women and Development.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/2/Rev.4, U.N. Sales No E.94.XIV.11 (1994).

[New York: U.N., 359 pp. Provides a detailed description of U.N. actions for the promotion and protection of human rights. While it does not include results of the June 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, an annex contains the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.]

U.N. Dept. Of Public Information, The United Nations and the Situation in . . . (Reference Paper/Series) (1995- ).

[New York: U.N. DPI. The series focuses on situations in various countries, including: Haiti, Takjikistan, and Rwanda.]

U.N. Dept. of Public Information, The United Nations Blue Book Series (1994- ).

[New York: U.N. DPI. The series focuses on the U.N.'s role in resolving conflicts, responding to emergencies and promoting human rights. Each volume includes an introduction by Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, a detailed chronology of events, and texts of relevant U.N. documents. Titles include:

Vol. I, The United Nations and Apartheid, 1948-1994, U.N. Doc. No. DPI/1568, U.N. Sales No. E.95.I.7

Vol. II, The United Nations and Cambodia, 1991-1995, U.N. Doc. No. DPI/1450, U.N. Sales No. E.95.I.9

Vol. III, The United Nations and Nuclear Non-Proliferation, U.N. Sales No. E.95I.17

Vol. IV, The United Nations and El Salvador, 1990-1995, U.N. Doc. No. DPI/1475, U.N. Sales No. E.95.I.12

Vol. V, The United Nations and Mozambique, 1992-1995, U.N. Sales No. E.95.I.20

Vol. IX, The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict, 1990-1996, U.N. Sales No. E.96.I.3.

Forthcoming titles include:

The United Nations and Human Rights, 1948-1995

The United Nations and Rwanda

The United Nations and Angola

The United Nations and Somalia

The United Nations and the Status of Women

The United Nations and the War Crimes Tribunal.]

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Basic Documents 1995 (1995).

[The Hague: International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 512 pp. Contains the Statute of the Tribunal, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, and other basic texts including Security Council resolutions 808 and 827, Headquarters Agreement, Rules of Detention, and several others.]

The United Nations and Human Rights, A Critical Appraisal (Philip Alston ed., 1992).

[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 765 pp. Collected essays review the functions, procedures, and performance of the major U.N. organs dealing with human rights.]

United Nations University, The Impact of Technology on Human Rights: Global Case-studies, U.N. Doc. HRSTD-2/UNUP-821, U.N. Sales No. E92.III.A.7 (1993).

[Tokyo, U.N. University Press, 322 pp. Studies on the affirmative use of science and technology for the furtherance of human rights, commissioned as a special project by the United Nations University, following a reference to the University by the United Nations Human Rights Commission. C.G. Weeramantry ed.]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Commentary (Asbjorn Eide et al. eds., 1992).

[Oslo: University Press, 474 pp.]

Universal Minority Rights (Alan Phillips & Allan Rosas eds., 1995).

[Turku/Åbo, Finland: Abo Akademi University Institute for Human Rights; London; Minority Rights Group, 385 pp.]

Geraldine Van Bueren, The International Law on the Rights of the Child (1994).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 435 pp. Volume 35 of the International Studies in Human Rights Series.]

Claude E. Welch, Jr., Protecting Human Rights in Africa: Strategies and Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations (1995).

[Philadelphia, Penn.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 356 pp. Part I provides a backdrop for the entire work by describing human rights situations in Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, and Senegal, and discussing strategies with which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) promote and protect human rights in Africa. Part II presents examples of successful employment of the strategies discussed in Part I, including efforts of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, the Oromo Liberation Front, the Mouvement Démocratique des Forces Casamançais, and the Legal Assistance Center. Part III assesses the future of African Human Rights NGOs and proposes that NGOs expand their impact to areas such as development and documentation of human rights problems.]

World Justice?: U.S. Courts and International Human Rights (Mark Gibney ed., 1991).

[Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 178 pp.]

Tom Zwart, The Admissibility of Human Rights Petitions: The Case Law of the European Commission of Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee (1994).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 272 pp. Volume 36 of the International Studies in Human Rights Series.]



I. RESEARCH GUIDES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

U.N. Dept. of Public Information, A Guide to Information at the United Nations, U.N. Sales No. E.95.I.4 (1995).

[New York: U.N. Dept. of Public Information, 121 pp. Provides brief descriptions of the work and structure of U.N. agencies, departments, and programmes, including a listing of their major publications.]

Amnesty International, Bibliography of Publications on Health and Human Rights Themes (1993).

[London: AI, 53 pp. AI Index ACT 75/03/93.]

Amnesty International, Human Rights Education Bibliography (1992).

[London: AI, 63 pp. AI Index POL 32/01/92. Annotated.]

Amnesty International USA Legal Support Network, Guide to Documentation Resources for Asylum Applications (1991).

[London: AI, 37 pp. Prepared by Daniel Honsey, Sonia Rosen, and David Weissbrodt for AI-USA Legal Support Network.]

John A. Andrews and W.D. Hines, Keyguide to Information Sources on the International Protection of Human Rights (1987).

[New York: Facts on File Publications, 169 pp. Contains background information on human rights and literature (Part I), an annotated list of sources (Part II), and addresses of selected intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations (Part III).]

Bibliography of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts (2d ed. rev. & updated 1987).

[Geneva: ICRC & Henry Dunant Institute, 605 pp.]

Briefing Book on International Organizations in Geneva 1994-95 (1994).

[Geneva: United States Mission Geneva, Public Affairs Office, 167 pp. Provides a capsule description of various agencies (U.N. and non-U.N.) headquartered in Geneva, and the arms control and disarmament talks that regularly take place in Geneva. Includes organizations specializing in economics and trade, science and communications, law, the environment and wildlife preservation, humanitarian concerns, and other areas.]

Thomas Buergenthal et al., Protecting Human Rights in the Americas: Selected Problems 315-22 (2d ed. 1986).

[Kehl; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel, 389 pp. Third edition forthcoming.]

Centre for Human Rights, United Nations Reference Guide in the Field of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. ST/HR/6, U.N. Sales No. E.93.XIV.4 (1993).

[New York: U.N., 124 pp. Lists human rights materials published by the U.N. by title/subject, document number, and author when appropriate. The guide is divided into several chapters with subheadings. Includes subject index.]

Morris L. Cohen et al., How to Find the Law 450-513 (9th ed. 1989).

[St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 716 pp. Includes sources for texts of treaties, U.N. resolutions, other documents, and decisions of international tribunals.]

Rebecca Cook, Women's International Human Rights: A Bibliography, 24 N.Y.U. Int'l L. & Pol. 857 (1992).

Council of Europe, Documentation Sources on Human Rights (1978).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 16 pp.]

Dissertation Abstracts Online (listing by subject, title, and author of U.S. dissertations since 1861; available in File 35 of the DIALOG database and in WESTLAW (DAO database)).

Documentation Sources in Human Rights (1990).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 52 pp. Four-part annotated guide to obtaining human rights information.]

Gunnar Fermann, Bibliography on International Peacekeeping (1992). [Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 291 pp. Covers academic literature from books, journals, and reports. Includes author/subject index.]

Julian R. Friedman & Marc I. Sherman, Human Rights: An International and Comparative Law Bibliography (1985).

[Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 868 pp. Bibliographies and Indexes in Law and Political Science; no. 4. Unannotated listing of sources by type of human right, instrument, court, organization, and subject.]

Linda Fritz, Native Law Bibliography (2d ed. 1990).

[Saskatoon, Canada: University of Saskatschewan Native Law Centre, 167 pp.]

Claire Germain, Germain's Transnational Law Research: A Guide for attorneys (1991-).

[Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Juris Publications, Inc., looseleaf. One chapter is devoted to human rights.]

Richard Greenfield, The Human Rights Literature of Eastern Europe, 3 Hum. Rts. Q. 136-48 (1981).

Richard Greenfield, The Human Rights Literature of Latin America, 4 Hum. Rts. Q. 275-98, 508-21 (1982).

Richard Greenfield, The Human Rights Literature of South Asia, 3 Hum. Rts. Q. 129-39 (1981).

Richard Greenfield, The Human Rights Literature of the Soviet Union, 4 Hum. Rts. Q. 124-36 (1982).

Guide to International Legal Research (2d. ed. 1993).

[Salem, N.H.: Butterworth Legal Pub., 536 pp. Comprehensive research guide to foreign and international legal materials, arranged by type of source.]

Munyonzwe Hamalengwa et al., The International Law of Human Rights in Africa: Basic Documents and Annotated Bibliography (1988).

[Dordrecht: Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 427 pp.]

Human Rights: A Directory of Resources (Thomas P. Fenton & Mary J. Heffron comps. & eds., 1989).

[Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 156 pp. Mostly-annotated lists of organizations, books, directories, guides, periodicals, pamphlets, articles, and audiovisual materials related to Third World issues. Contains an "information sources" section for finding additional materials.]

Human Rights Bibliography: United Nations Documents and Publications 1980-1990 (1993).

[Geneva: U.N., 2086 pp., 5 vols. Also in U.N., Human Rights on CD-ROM, see infra in this section.]

Human Rights Education: Conceptual and Practical Challenges (George Andreopoulos & Richard P. Claude eds., forthcoming 1996).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.]

International Bibliography of Refugee Literature (1985).

[Geneva: International Refugee Integration Resource Center (IRIRC), 151 pp.]

Lyonette Louis-Jacques & David Weissbrodt, Bibliography for Research on International Human Rights Law, 13 Hamline L. Rev. 673-717 (1990).

Jean M. Jablonski & Debra A. Kellman, Overview of United Nations Materials Available at Brooklyn Law School Library, 21 Brook. J. Int'l L. 537-597 (1995).

Donatella Luca, A Selected Bibliography, in The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 633-63 (1991).

[Oxford: Oxford University Press.]

Stephen C. Neff, Human Rights Bibliography (Interights, forthcoming).

Steven Perkins, Latin American Human Rights Research 1980-1989: A Guide to Sources and a Bibliography, 19 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 163- 267 (1990).

Refugee Studies Programme, Directory of Research on Refugees and Other Forced Migrants (1993).

[Oxford: Refugee Studies Programme (1987- ).]

Refugee Women: Selected and Annotated Bibliography (1989).

[Geneva: Centre for Documentation on Refugees, 123 pp. Revised edition of A Selected and Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Women (1985).]

Shabti Rosenne, Practice and Methods of International Law (1984).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., 169 pp. Reference guide to international legal materials. ]

Janusz Symoides & V. Volodin, Access to Human Rights Documentation: Documentation, Bibliographies and Data-Bases on Human Rights (2d. rev. ed. 1994).

[Paris: UNESCO, 200 pp.]

Charles Szladits, Bibliography on Foreign and Comparative Law: Books and Articles in English (1955- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc. (vol. 1- , 1790-Apr. 1, 1953- ). Irregular. Parker School Studies in Foreign and Comparative Law. Lists books and articles by subject, country, and author, on a variety of topics including human rights.]

`

Jack Tobin and Jennifer Green, Guide to Human Rights Research (1994).

[Cambridge, MA: Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, 228 pp. Excellent guide and bibliography.]

Diana Vincent-Daviss, Bibliographic Essay, in Guide to International Human Rights Practice 249-66 (Hurst Hannum ed., 2d ed. 1992).

[Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Contains sources for texts of international instruments, bibliographies and research aids, serial publications, practice guides, teaching resources, U.N. documents, regional documents, and works on nongovernmental organization activities.]

Diana Vincent-Daviss, Human Rights Law: A Research Guide to the Literature--Part I: International Law and the United Nations, 14 N.Y.U.J. Int'l L. & Pol. 209-319 (1981).

Diana Vincent-Daviss, Human Rights Law: A Research Guide to the Literature--Part II: International Protection of Refugees and Humanitarian Law, 14 N.Y.U.J. Int'l L. & Pol. 487-573 (1982).

Diana Vincent-Daviss, Human Rights Law: A Research Guide to the Literature--Part III: The International Labor Organization and Human Rights, 15 N.Y.U.J. Int'l L. & Pol. 211-87 (1982).

Diana Vincent-Daviss, The Occupied Territories and International Law: A Research Guide (Symposium on Human Rights and Israeli Rule in the Territories), 21 N.Y.U.J. Int'l L. & Pol. 575-665 (1989).

Gregory J. Walters, Human Rights in Theory and Practice: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography (1995).

[Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 459 pp. Magill Bibliographies. Includes a broad range of human rights sources dating from 1982-1994 with detailed annotations.]

World Bibliography of International Documentation (Theodore Dimitriv comp. & ed., 1981).

[Sarasota, FL: UNIFO Publishers, 846 pp., 2 vols. Volume one covers international organizations' activities, structure, and policies. Volume two addresses politics, world affairs, periodicals, and conferences.]

Thomas D. Young, International Human Rights: A Selected Bibliography (1978).

[Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Armament & Disarmament, California State University Los Angeles, 58 pp. Political Issues Series; vol. 5, no. 4.]

U.N., Human Rights on CD-ROM: Bibliographical Database for United Nations Documents and Publications (1980- ).

[Geneva, U.N. Publications. CD-ROM version of Human Rights Bibliography 1980-1990 (updated through Oct. 15, 1993). Eleven major subject categories are divided into sub-categories for searching in English, French, or Spanish, using the Trilingual Subject Thesaurus. "Wordlist" feature provides frequently-used selection terms.]



J. PERIODICALS

When available, references to LEXIS (library/file) and WESTLAW (database identifier) are included below.

Aboriginal Law Bulletin (1981- ).

[Sydney, New South Wales: Aboriginal Law Centre, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1981- ), six issues yearly.]

ACLU International Civil Liberties Report (1992- ).

[Los Angeles: ACLU International Human Rights Task Force (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1992- ).]

African Human Rights Newsletter (1990- ).

[K.S.M.D., The Gambia: Afr. Centre for Democracy and Hum. Rts. Stud. (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1990- ). Each issue contains both English and French language text. French language version presented under separate title: Bulletin africain des droits de l'homme.]

American Journal of International Law (1907- ).

[Washington, D.C.: American Society of International Law (vol. 1- , 1907- ), quarterly. The leading scholarly journal on contemporary issues in public international law. Available on LEXIS (INTLAW/AJIL) from 1/80 and on WESTLAW (AMJIL) from 1982.]

American Society of International Law, International Legal Materials [ILM] (1962- ).

[Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, published six times a year. Available on LEXIS (INTLAW, ITRADE, and LAWREV libraries/ ILM) from 1975 and on WESTLAW (ILM) from 1980. An important resource that includes texts of treaties, international tribunal decisions, and declarations and resolutions of international bodies concerning human rights.]

Amnesty International Newsletter (1971- ).

[London: Amnesty International (vol. 1- , 1971- ), monthly. Contains brief articles relating to AI's current human rights concerns.]

Amnesty International USA Legal Support Network Newsletter (1984- ).

[New York: Amnesty International USA (vol. 1- , 1984- ), published about 2-3 times a year. Covers human rights activities at the U.N.; includes notes on current litigation and material of interest to lawyers.]

Australian Indigenous Law Reporter (1996- ).

[Sydney, New South Wales: Prospect Pub. (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1996- ).]

Bill of Rights Bulletin (1991- ).

[Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1991- ), published about 3-4 times a year. Edited by Andrew Byrnes and Johannes M.M. Chan.]

Bulletin of Human Rights (1978- ).

[Geneva: U.N. Centre for Human Rights (no. 19-, 1978- ), quarterly. Continues Human Rights Watch Bulletin (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1969- ).]

Columbia Human Rights Law Review (1972- ).

[New York: Columbia Law School (vol. 4, 1972- ), biannual. Continues Columbia Survey of Human Rights Law (vol. 1- , 1970- ). Available on WESTLAW (CLMHRLR) from 1984.]

Conscience and Liberty: International Journal of Religious Freedom (1989- ).

[St. Albans, England: International Association for the Defence of Religious Liberty (1st Year- , no. 1(1)- , 1989- ). French language version presented under separate title: Conscience et Liberté.]

CSCE Bulletin (1993-1994).

[Warsaw: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (vol.

1- , no. 1- , 1993- ).] Continued by OSCE Review (1995- ).

[Helsinki: Finnish Committee for European Security (vol. 3- , no. 1- , 1995- ).]

Department of State Dispatch (1990- ).

[Washington, D.C.: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs, monthly. Formerly known as Department of State Bulletin (vol. 1- , 1939- ), monthly. Official monthly record of U.S. foreign policy. Contains articles on activities of the President and Secretary of State, treaty information, excerpts of speeches, and an annual index. Available on LEXIS (INTLAW/DSTATE) from 7/84 and WESTLAW (USDPTSTDIS) from 1989.]

Dissemination (1985- ).

[Geneva: ICRC (no. 1- , 1985- ), published three times a year. Provides information on ratification of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols.]

East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights (1993- ).

[Kampala, Uganda: Makerere University, Hum. Rts. and Peace Centre (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1993- ), semiannual.]

Harvard Human Rights Journal [Harv. Hum. Rts. J.] (1990- ).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School (vol. 3, 1990- ). Continues Harvard Human Rights Yearbook (vol. 1/1988-vol. 2/1989). Available on LEXIS (LAWREV/HRVHRJ) from 1993 and WESTLAW (HVHRJ) from 1990.]

HCHR News (1995- ).

[Geneva: Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights (HCHR); (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1995- ), monthly.]

Health and Human Rights (1994- ).

[Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1994- ), quarterly.]

Helsinki Monitor (1990- ).

[Utrecht, The Netherlands: Netherlands Helsinki Committee (NHC) (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1990- ). Quarterly on Security and Cooperation in Europe.]

HR Documentation DH (1989- ).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights. Contains information on U.N. human rights activities; includes documents and compilations of voting results from U.N. human rights bodies.]

Human Rights (1970- ).

[Chicago: American Bar Association (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1970- ). Periodical issued by the Individual Rights and Responsibilities Section; available on WESTLAW (HUMRT)from 1987).]

Human Rights Case Digest (1990- ).

[London: Sweet & Maxwell in association with the British Institute of Human Rights (vol. 1- , pt. 1- , 1990- ), bimonthly. Provides summaries of European Court and Commission of Human Rights decisions and judgments and the Committee of Ministers Article 32 and 54 decisions.]

Human Rights Education: The Fourth R (1994- ).

[Minneapolis, MN: AI-USA, biannual.]

Human Rights Internet Reporter (1976- ).

[Ottawa: Human Rights Internet (vol. 1- , 1976- ), quarterly. Contains an annotated bibliography of new literature; articles on human rights; calendar of upcoming conferences and seminars; international and national human rights developments; and IGO decisions and actions.]

 

Human Rights Law Journal [hrlj] (1980- ).

[Kehl am Rhein; Arlington, VA: N.P. Engel (vol. 1- , 1980- ), quarterly. Continues Human Rights Review. Provides articles, decisions, reports, and documentation including texts of resolutions, declarations, and case reports. Issued in association with the International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France.]

Human Rights Monitor (1988- ).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights. Reports on human rights developments at the U.N., specialized agencies, and in NGO's.]

Human Rights Newsletter (1988- ).

[Geneva: U.N. Centre for Human Rights (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1988- ). Covers current information about the activities of the Centre.]

Human Rights Quarterly [Hum. Rts. Q.] (1981- ).

[Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press (vol. 3- , 1981- ), quarterly. Formerly Universal Human Rights (vol. 1/1979-vol. 2/1980). Interdisciplinary articles and book reviews addressing all aspects of human rights.]

Human Rights Tribune=Tribune des Droits Humains (1992- ).

[Ottawa: Human Rights Internet (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1992- ), quarterly. Reports news of the human rights movement, including NGO and U.N. events.]

Human Rights Watch Quarterly Newsletter (1991- ).

[New York: Human Rights Watch (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1991- ).]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Bulletin (1976- ).

[Geneva: ICRC (no. 1- , 1976- ). Highlights current ICRC activities.]

International Human Rights Reports [IHRR] (1994- ).

[Nottingham, U.K.: University of Nottingham (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1994- ), published three times a year. Covers decisions and opinions of U.N. treaty bodies on human rights with respect to individual and State complaints procedures, judgments and opinions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and Commission on Human Rights, and texts of newly adopted human rights treaties.]

International Journal of Refugee Law (1989- ).

[Oxford: Oxford University Press (vol. 1- , 1989- ).]

International Journal on Group Rights [IJGR] (1994- ).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub. (vol. 1- , no.1- , 1993- ). Addresses legal, political, and social problems experienced by groups which are defined by factors, such as culture, language, race, or religion.]

International Journal of Children's Rights (1994- ).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub. (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1994- ). Contains scholarly articles, a section on practice and implementation, and book reviews on children's issues.]

International Labour Office, Official Bulletin (1928- ).

[Geneva: ILO (vol. 1- , 1928- ). Provides information about the activities of the ILO, including inquiries into work conditions in various countries, and decisions of the Committee on Freedom of Association.]

International Review of the Red Cross (1961- ).

[Geneva: ICRC (no. 1- , 1961- ). Published every two months.]

Israel Yearbook on Human Rights (1971- ).

[Tel Aviv: Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University (vol. 1- , 1971- ). Publishes studies on human rights with particular emphasis on problems relevant to the Jewish people and the State of Israel. Includes summaries of judicial decisions, compilations of legislative enactments, and military proclamations relating to Israel and the Administered Areas.]

Latin America Resource Review (1994- ).

[Minneapolis, MN: Resource Center of the Americas, Penny Lernoux Memorial Library on Latin America (vol. 1- , no.

1- , 1994), quarterly. Highlights publications concerning Latin America.]

Minority Rights Group International Report (1970- ).

[London: Minority Rights Group (no. 1- , 1970- ). Series addresses problems facing minorities world-wide. Each issue has a distinctive title. Formerly referred to as Minority Rights Group Report.]

Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights [NHQR] (1989- ).

[The Hague; London; Boston: Kluwer Law International; a co-publication with Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM) (vol. 7- , no. 1- , 1989- ). Formerly (SIM) Newsletter (1983-1987).]

New York Law School Journal of Human Rights [N.Y.L. Sch. J. Hum. Rts.] (1987- ).

[New York: New York Law School (vol. 5, pt. 1- , 1987- ). Formerly New York Law School Human Rights Annual (vol. 1/1983-vol.4/1987). Contains book reviews and articles on current issues. Available on WESTLAW (NYLSJHR) from 1990.]

Nordic Journal on Human Rights=Mennesker og Rettigheter (1983- ).

[Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Human Rights (vol. 1- , no. 1-, 1983- ), quarterly.]

The Review (1969- ).

[Geneva: International Commission of Jurists (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1969- ). Typically contains a "Human Rights in the World" section with a brief report on human rights developments in selected countries, articles, commentaries, and texts of major documents.]

Revue Trimestrielle des Droits de L'Homme (1990- ).

[Brussells: Bruylant (no. 1- , 1990- ). In French.]

South African Human Rights and Labour Law Yearbook (1990-1991).

[Cape Town: Oxford University Press (vol. 1- , 1990- vol. 2- , 1991), two volumes yearly.]

South African Journal on Human Rights (1985- ).

[Braamfontein, South Africa: Ravan Press (vol. 1- , pt. 1- , 1985- ), three issues yearly.]

UNHCR, Refugees (1984- ).

[Geneva: UNHCR (no. 1- , Jan. 1984- ), monthly.]

The Women's Watch (1987- ).

[Minneapolis, MN: International Women's Rights Action Watch, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, quarterly. Provides information on developments in law and policy with regard to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.]



K. BOOK AND PERIODICAL INDICES

Library catalogs and periodical indices contain listings under the Library of Congress Subject Headings: "HUMAN RIGHTS," "CIVIL RIGHTS (INTERNATIONAL LAW)," and "CIVIL RIGHTS." Online library catalogs and periodical indices usually provide keyword searching in the bibliographic record of a book or in the title and abstract fields of an article. See also the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography for electronic catalogs indices.

Current Bibliographical Information=Information bibliographique courante (1971- ).

[New York: U.N., Dag Hammarskjöld Library (vol. 1- , Jan. 1971- )(ST/LIB/Ser.K), monthly. Lists authors and subjects of books published by the U.N., specialized agencies, and non-U.N. organizations. Also covers related articles from over 700 periodicals. (UNDOC: A Current Index, principally a list of new acquisitions of the Dag Hammarskjöld Library, covers strictly U.N. materials.) Human Rights materials are listed under item 141.]

Current Law Index (1980-).

[Los Altos, CA: Information Access Corp. (vol. 1-, 1980-), monthly with annual cumulation. See also LEGALTRAC below.]

Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals: A Subject Index to Selected International and Comparative Law Periodicals and Collections of Essays (1960- ).

[Chicago: American Association of Law Libraries (vol. 1- , no. 1- , 1960- ), updated quarterly. Covers selected legal periodicals on public and private international, comparative, and domestic law of countries other than the U.S., the British Isles, and the British Commonwealth. "Human Rights (International Law)" is the search term for articles on human rights. Also available on CD-ROM from SilverPlatter Information, Inc.]

Index to Legal Periodicals (1929- ).

[New York: H.W. Wilson, Co. Available on CD-ROM from H.W. Wilson Co. and SilverPlatter Information, Inc. Also available on LEXIS (LAWREV/ILP) and WESTLAW (ILP) (this file is only available to law school subscribers if they also subscribe to the CD-ROM version of the index.)]

 

Public International Law: A Current Bibliography of Articles (1975- ).

[Berlin: Springer-Verlag (vol. 1- , 1975- ), updated twice a year. List of articles in some 1,000 journals and collected works, prepared by the Max Planck Institute; human rights articles are listed under the classification number "12."]

UNDOC: Current Index (1979- ).

[New York: U.N., Dag Hammarskjöld Library (vol. 1- , no. 1- , Jan./Feb. 1979- )(ST/LIB/Ser.M), quarterly as of 1984. Titles and document series of U.N. documents and publications by subject, organization, and title. Includes a list of mimeographed documents published in the official records of the main U.N. organs. A helpful "User's Guide" appears in each issue.]



L. ELECTRONIC SOURCES

1. Databases

Congressional Masterfile (1 and 2).

[Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service, Inc.]

CD-ROM access to Congressional Information Service indices for all congressional publications issued since the first Congress in 1789, by subject, witness, committee, date, bill number, etc. Includes full bibliographic information and abstracts for information since 1970. See CIS, infra. (CIS in paper format does not provide the same retrospective coverage).

Council of Europe.

The Human Rights Information Centre operates a database which provides access to European Court of Human Rights and European Commission of Human Rights materials. Unfortunately these databases are not currently available to the public. There are plans to offer access to academic institutions in the future. For more information, contact Human Rights Information Centre, Council of Europe, B.P. 431R6, 67006 Strasbourg CEDE, France.

European Community/Union.

The European Union offers several databases. CELEX, which provides access to the Official Journal of the European Community (L and C series), European Court Reports, COM final documents, etc., is available through LEXIS and WESTLAW (see below). The Official Journal is also available on CD-ROM through various producers. SCAD is a bibliographic database offering access to abstracts of instruments and preparatory documents, official publications and documents, periodical articles, and opinions and statements. Internet access is available once you subscribe to the database. ECHO is the European Commission Host Organization and offers access to more than 20 multilingual European databases. See http://www.echo.lu/en/menuecho.html for more information about the database and subscriptions. For more information about EU databases, see Introducing Eurobases: Online Databases and Services (3rd ed. 1992) or Directory of Public Databases (produced by the institutions of the European Communities, January 1993, 4th ed.).

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS).

[New Canaan, CT: NewsBank/Readex.]

Contains current news and information on eight countries/regions of the world: China, Eastern Europe, Central Eurasia, East Asia, Near East & South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Western Europe. The information is derived from U.S. government monitoring of thousands of foreign media sources. The FBIS Daily Reports are in English and are available in microfiche and hard copy. The index is available on CD-ROM and paper format; updated monthly. The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) of the Dept. of Commerce now offers World News Connection (WNC) through the Internet. WNC contains the FBI Daily Reports and other sources of news and information. For subscription information see the homepage at http://wnc.fedworld.gov/.

Human Rights on CD-ROM: Bibliographical Database for United Nations Documents and Publications.

[New York: U.N., 1994.]

CD-ROM version of Human Rights Bibliography 1980-1990 (updated through Oct. 15, 1993). Eleven major subject categories are divided into sub-categories for searching in English, French, or Spanish, using the Trilingual Subject Thesaurus. "Wordlist" feature provides frequently-used selection terms. See RESEARCH GUIDE section of this bibliography.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, International Humanitarian Law "IHL" CD-ROM.

[Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross.]

Contains 87 treaties and other texts (Law of the Hague, Law of Geneva and other IHL treaties) from 1856 to present; commentaries on the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their 1977 Additional Protocols; and an up-to-date list of signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions, relating to the IHL treaties, as well as the full-text of reservations, declarations and objections.

International Digest of Health Legislation.

[Stamford, CT: Vista InterMedia Corporation, available on CD-ROM.]

Data provided by the World Health Organization. Contains full-text of the digest, including policies, legislation, regulations, etc on all aspects on health care, safety, and environment issues. Can be searched by word, topic, or country.

International Labour Organisation, LABORLEX-ILOLEX.

[Varying starting dates. Available on CD-ROM, distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers.]

Trilingual database (English, French, and Spanish) includes ILO conventions, ILO recommendations, the Annual Report of the Conference Committee on the Application of Standards (1987-present), Comments of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (1987-present), the Triennial Report of the Committee on Freedom of Association (1985-present), ratification lists by convention and by country, the ILO Constitution, and the reports of committees and commissions established under Constitution Articles 24 and 26 to investigate complaints and representations. Available soon through the Internet.

International Labour Organisation, LABORLEX-NATLEX.

[1984- .]

Full-text of labor and social security legislation and related human rights information. Available on CD-ROM and soon through the Internet. NATLEX will assume the functions that were previously carried out by the Legislative Series and Labour Law Documents.

LegalTrac on InfoTrac.

[Foster City, CA: Information Access Co. (IAC).]

The CD-ROM version of Current Law Index plus other sources. Provides extensive coverage of international law journals published in English; indexes over 900 legal and general periodicals. Updated monthly.

LEXIS-NEXIS.

LAWREV library contains the full-text of many U.S. law reviews and periodicals as well as the Legal Resource Index by IAC in the LGLIND file. LEXIS also provides access to foreign law (Commonwealth countries, France, Mexico, and selected other countries). CELEX, the database for the European Union, is also available in the INTLAW library in the ECLAW file. NEWS, the non-legal counterpart of LEXIS-NEXIS, contains full-text of information sources from U.S. and overseas wire services, newspapers, journals, newsletters, and magazines. Some sources may be available in abstract only. Sample sources include Current Digest of the Soviet Press, Reuters Library Report and Agence France Presse Service. The WORLD library also contains news and information from around the world.

Nuremberg War Crimes Trials: The International Military Tribunal On-Line.

[Aberdeen, WA: Aristarchus Knowlwdge Industies.]

CD-ROM includes all text, testimony, photographs, and documents from the Tribunal. It includes the three central sets of documents from the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials.

PAIS International.

 

Online version of paper indices, PAIS Bulletin and PAIS Foreign Language Index, available in DIALOG File 49; 1976- Bulletin, 1972- Foreign Language; covers legal periodicals in various languages. Available on WESTLAW in the PAIS database and on CD-ROM from SilverPlatter and PAIS. (This index is also available in paper format.)

Peacenet.

[San Francisco: Institute for Global Communications.]

Computer communications system with hundreds of conferences: events calendars, newsletters, legislative alerts, press releases, action updates, breaking stories, calls for support, and ongoing discussions on issues; coverage includes Amnesty International news releases, Amnesty International Urgent Actions, human rights education, information about human rights in Central America, human rights in Africa, human rights in the Americas, human rights in Asia and the Pacific, information on the right to development, human rights in Europe and the Middle East, information on indigenous peoples, information on refugees, quantitative studies of human rights, human rights of children, information on Tibet, information about the United Nations, etc.

REFWORLD (UNHCR).

[Geneva: UNHCR/CDR, 1995- .]

CD-ROM information on refugees worldwide. Contains reliable, authoritative information on refugees including current, publicly available country information; legal documentation; and policy related documents in full-text. The CD-ROM version is more extensive than the version available through the Internet. The CD-ROM is available on an annual subscription with quarterly updates. E-mail CDR@UNHCR.CH for more information.

RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network).

A bibliographic database containing holdings of major academic research libraries nationwide such as the Library of Congress, Harvard Law School Library, Columbia University Law Library, and the Dag Hammarskjöld Library at the United Nations. It provides for searching by subject, author, title, and keyword. Searches can also be limited by date and by language. Also available on RLIN are CitaDel files. These files include Dissertation Abstracts, Index to Foreign Periodicals, and many others. Another database, OCLC, contains the holdings of smaller, largely public libraries and is useful for verification of a title or for determining if another library has a book or periodical.

SOCIAL SCISEARCH.

Multidisciplinary index corresponding to the print index, Social Sciences Citation Index, available in DIALOG File 7 (1972- ). Indexes many foreign and international law journals in the major European languages. Available on WESTLAW in the SOCSCISRCH database. (This index is also available in paper format.)

UNBIS PLUS on CD-ROM.

[Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck-Healey Inc., 1983- .]

 

Contains bibliographic, factual, and full-text files covering U.N. documents and non-U.N. materials acquired by the U.N. Library. Updated quarterly.

U.N. Index on CD-ROM.

[New Canaan, CT: NewsBank/Readex.]

CD-ROM index to U.N. documents and publications (1976- ); updated monthly. Provides for searching the index to U.N. documents by body, subject, title, document symbol, and other fields (recommend using Level II search). Includes full- text of resolutions from the 36th session of the General Assembly (1981-date), Security Council (1984-date), and Economic and Social Council (1981-1993).

U.S. Treaties.

There are several databases containing the full-text of U.S. treaties: LEXIS (INTLAW/USTRTY); WESTLAW (USTREATIES); TIARA CD-ROM from Oceana Publications; the Internet (see below); and Hein's United States Treaty Index on CD-ROM.

 

WESTLAW.

Provides full-text of selected articles from hundreds of law reviews including many international law journals in the TP-ALL database and the reports of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (1992- ). INT-TP contains international law journals, Legal Resource Index is found under the LRI database, HUMRT contains ABA Human Rights periodical, and the INT-IC database contains judgments of the International Court of Justice (1947- ). The CELEX database of the European Union is also available as well as selected foreign law materials. WESTLAW provides access to many DIALOG files and other sources of foreign news and information. Sample sources include Agence France Presse, Moscow News Weekly, and Russian Press Digest.

2. Internet

This list provides selected sites available through the Internet. Keep in mind that the Internet is a fluid medium and sites are constantly being added and changed.

AMERICAN UNIVERSITY WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF LAW WWW

http://sray.wcl.american.edu:80/htm/hmnrghts.htm

[Human Rights Page contains links to the Human Rights Brief as well as other human rights sites. To access other WCL Web services, see http://www.wcl.american.edu:80/pub/wcl.htm (includes international materials, U.S. documents, etc.).]

AMERICAN UNIVERSITY WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF LAW WWW, CENTER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMANITARIAN LAW

http://sray.wcl.american.edu:80/pub/journals/hmanrghts.htm

[Contains electronic version of Human Rights Brief.]

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ON-LINE (OFFICIAL INTERNET SITE)

http://www.io.org/amnesty/overview/html

[Official Internet site. Contains the most up-to-date information--new document summaries, publications from AI, and links to other sites.]

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TWELVE-POINT PROGRAM FOR THE PREVENTION OF TORTURE

http://www.best.com/~mlacabe/grp64.html (then click on torture)

ftp://ftp.io.org/pub/human-rights/Amnesty/about2/torture

COALITION FOR INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE

http://www.igc.apc.org/cij/

[The Coalition for International Justice is an international, non-profit organization working to support the Yugoslavia and Rwanda war crimes tribunals. This site provides access to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). This homepage contains relevant Security Council resolutions, the ICTY Statute, the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, case files, and many other documents. Other pages on the CIJ site are concerned with the investigation and prosecution of war crimes in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.]

COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN RIGHTS INITIATIVE (CHRI)

http://www.iup.edu/~man utter/chrihome.html

[The CHRI is a grassroots movement promoting equal protection of human rights for every individual member of the human species. Contains information about the initiative and the text of the initiative.]

CORNELL LAW SCHOOL

http://www.law.cornell.edu

gopher://gopher.law.cornell.edu

[Includes full-text foreign and international law documents, full-text U.S. law documents, government information, and links to other law-related Internet sites.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS NETWORK

http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/dosfan.html

[Contains country reports on human rights 1993-).]

DIANA (YALE LAW SCHOOL)

http://elsinore.cis.yale.edu/dianaweb/diana.htm

[The Schell Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School has joined a consortium of human rights advocates, scholars, and law librarians from around the world to create an electronic human rights library on the Internet. The library is named DIANA (Direct Information Access Network Association) in memory of the late Yale Law Librarian Diana Vincent-Daviss, a leading human rights librarian and the first Deputy Director of the Schell Center. This site contains human rights cases, access to human rights bibliographies, and human rights documents.]

DIANA (UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI LAW SCHOOL)

http://www.law.uc.edu/DIANA/

[DIANA is an on-line resource inspired by the life and work of Professor Diana Vincent-Daviss, the late Deputy Director of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights and librarian of Yale Law School. Professor Vincent-Daviss was a comprehensive bibliographer of literature on human rights. This service is named DIANA in her honor. The aim of DIANA is to create an electronic library of human rights materials, from treaties, secondary sources, court decisions, legal briefs, and current information from international nongovernmental human rights organizations. There are primary documents from the United Nations and the Organization of American States. Human Rights Law: A Research Guide to the Literature by Diana Vincent-Daviss and Researching Indigenous Peoples Rights Under International Law by Steven C. Perkins are also included.]

THE ELECTRONIC DEMOCRACY INFORMATION NETWORK GOPHER

gopher://garnet.berkeley.edu:1250/11

[Provides links to many Internet sources concerning human rights, democracy, education, gender, peace, and other progressive topics.]

EUROPEAN UNION AND INTERNET

http://www.helsinki.fi/~aunesluo/eueng.html

[Provides information about the European Union and links to the European Union FAQ by Roland Siebelink.]

FOURTH WORLD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT

http://www.halcyon.com/FWDP/fwdp.html

[Organized by the Center For World Indigenous Studies (CWIS) in 1992. Its mission is to document and make available to tribal governments, researchers, and organizations important documents relating to the social, political, strategic, economic, and human rights situations being faced by Fourth World nations and create an historical archive of the political struggles faced by Indigenous Peoples to assert their rights as sovereign nations. The documents include declarations, essays, organization information, position papers, resolutions, speeches, treaties, and U.N. documents.]

GLOBAL DEMOCRACY NETWORK

http://www.gdn.org:80

gopher://gopher.gdn.org:70/1

[Operated by the United States' Congressional Human Rights Foundation. Contains Parliamentary Human Rights Foundation documents, the CSCE site, Covac Bulletin, Human Rights Reports from HR Watch and AAAS, and many other documents and sites. The Web site links to the Parliaments of the World site (http://www.gdn.org/flags.html).]

HUMAN RIGHTS DECISIONS (CHICAGO-KENT)

http://www.kentlaw.edu

gopher://gopher.kentlaw.edu

[Provides access to Illinois Human Rights Commission decisions, Cook County Commission on Human Rights decisions, and rulings of the Chicago Commission on Human Relations. Chicago Kent also provides lawlinks and resource outlines to numerous law-related sites (see http://www.kentlaw.edu/lawnet/lawlinks.subject.html). Several sites of interest include:

human rights

(http://www.kentlaw.edu/lawlinks/human_rights.html);

foreign law and information

(http://www.kentlaw.edu/lawlinks/foreign.html);

international law

(http://www.kentlaw.edu/lawlinks/international.html);

and the U.N.

(http://www.kentlaw.edu/lawlinks/un.html).]

HUMAN RIGHTS GOPHER

gopher://gopher.humanrights.org:5000/1

[Contains information from various human rights organizations (AAAS, AI, HRW, PEN, etc.) And items such as action alerts, letters, executive summaries, newsletters, and press releases.}

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

http://www.traveller.com/~hrweb/hrw/hrw.html

[Information about Human Rights Watch and how to join.]

HUMAN RIGHTS WEB

http://www.traveller.com/~hrweb/hrweb.html

[Contains information on human rights emergencies; resources for activists; Human Rights Web Newswire; and information on events, meetings, and conferences. Includes home pages of human rights organizations, human rights pages by other organizations involved in human rights work, and Internet-based databases and libraries on human rights issues. Organized by Catherine Hampton.]

HUNGERWEB

http://www.hunger.brown.edu/hungerweb

[Project of the Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program of Brown University. Includes research data; advocacy and policy advocacy material; relief and development organizations; education and training syllabi; field work; remote sensing data; and links to other sites.]

IGC (INSTITUTE OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS)

http://www.igc.apc.org/igc/igc.html

gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org:70/1

[Institute for Global Communications Networks include: LaborNet, PeaceNet, and WomensNet.

LaborNet address: http://www.igc.apc.org/labornet/

PeaceNet address: http://www.peacenet.apc.org/

WomensNet address (see below): http://www.womensnet.apc.org/womensnet]

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS RESOURCES (IANWEB)

http://www.pit.edu/~ian/ianres.html

[Provides information about and links to international organizations (U.N., IAEA, WHO, etc.), supranational organizations (OSCE, WEU, NATO, etc.), and national government information servers.]

 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC).

http://www.icrc.org

[Contains information related to conflict and conflict victims, and the role, activities and concerns of the ICRC. Full-text of international humanitarian law, together with related issues. Links to other Red Cross/Red Crescent sites.]

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES

http://www.ifrc.org

[This site is the public information service of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The site contains the Code of Conduct, the World Disasters Report, weekly news, situation reports, and disaster information.]

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

http://www.cij.org/tribunal/

[See the above entry under Coalition for International Justice.]

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS FESTIVAL IN TRONDHEIM

http://www.idt.unit.no/~isfit/isfitHome.html

[Collection of speeches on refugee and human rights-related issues. Some of the speakers who attended ISFiT-94 include the Dalai Lama, Taslima Nasrin, and Nafis Sadiq. A list of links to human rights information and resources is available at http://www.idt.unit.no/~isfit/human.rights.html.]

JURWEB (EUROPEAN LAW STUDENTS ASSOCIATION)

http://www.uni-bayreuth.de/students/elsa/jura/juraweb-home-english.html

[Information on the European War Crimes Tribunal and Japan War Crimes Tribunal. Another useful site available through JURWEB is LEGAL INFORMATION IN THE INTERNET BY COUNTRY/CONTINENT (see http://www.uni-bayreuth.de/students/elsa/jura/geo/juraweb-geo-home.html). This site contains translations of various laws of several countries. Note: slow to access.]

LAWYER'S COMMITTEE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

http://www.traveller.com/~hrweb/groups/lchr.html

MULTILATERALS PROJECTS (FLETCHER SCHOOL OF LAW AND DIPLOMACY)

http://www.tufts.edu/departments/fletcher/multilaterals.html

[Includes treaties on the environment, human rights, commerce/trade, laws of war, and arms control.]

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES

http://www.oas.org

[This official site contains information about the OAS, the weekly activities, the 1995 General Assembly information, meeting and program information, documents (including resolutions, treaties, and conventions), and links to other gopher and Web sites of the Americas.]

PARLIAMENTARY HUMAN RIGHTS FOUNDATION

http://www.phrf.org/index.html

PEACENET'S HUMAN RIGHTS GOPHER

gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org/11/peace/hr

[Contains information about the Human Rights program of PeaceNet and the Association for Progressive Communications (APC), the international partnership to which PeaceNet belongs. Used to post urgent action alerts.]

REFUGEES STUDIES PROGRAMME

http://sable.ox.ac.uk/~rspnet

REFWORLD

http://www.unicc.org/unhcrcdr

[Contains information on refugees worldwide. Organizes information under five main menus: Publications, Law, Reference, UNHCR, and Country. REFWORLD is updated daily.]

STATE DEPT. HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS

http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/dosfan.html

gopher://dosfan.lib.uic.edu

UNICEF GOPHER

gopher://hqfaus01.unicef.org/

[Contains information on the work of UNICEF, including its advocacy of rights of the child, its major programmes in child survival and development, and its long-term human development efforts. Provides full-text of UNICEF publications, Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the Declaration and Plan of Action of the 1990 World Summit for Children.]

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS REPORTS

gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/11/undocs/eed/E/CN.4/1995

[This gopher site contains the full-text of some of the main thematic reports of the 1995 Commission (U.N. Document E/CN.4).]

UNITED NATIONS CRIME AND JUSTICE INFORMATION NETWORK (UNCJIN)

gopher://uacsc2.albany.edu/11newman

UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INFORMATION

http://www.un.org

[contains a tremendous amount of information. It provides an overview of the U.N. (history, list of member states, the U.N. Charter, the ICJ Statute, an online tour, and a calendar of conferences and observances). There is also a selection of official documents from the Secretary-General, the General Assembly, the Security Council, and the Economic and Social Council. This site also provides links to conferences, publications, information resources, and more.]

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)

http://www.undp.org

gopher://gopher.undp.org

UNITED NATIONS GOPHER

gopher://nywork1.undp.org:70

UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL COMPUTING CENTRE (UNICC)

http://www.unicc.org

gopher://gopher.unicc.org/1

[This home page, maintained by the International Computing Centre, lists the U.N. System Internet Servers.]

UNITED NATIONS JOURNAL

gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/11/uncurr/journal/

[Arranged by month and year, starting with April 1994.]

UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS

http://ralph.gm.edu/cpa/peace/tic.html

UNITED NATIONS SCHOLARS' WORKSTATION AT YALE UNIVERSITY

http://www.library.yale.edu/un/unhome.htm

[A collection of texts, finding aids, data sets, maps, and pointers to print and electronic information. Subject

coverage includes disarmament, economic and social development, environment, human rights, international relations, international trade, peacekeeping, and population and demography.]

UN TREATY DATA BASE

http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty

[The UN Treaty Data Base will eventually consist of two major documents. The Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General which contains the detailed status of over 470 multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary General, and the U.N. Treaty Series which consists of over 40,000 treaties registered with the Secretariat. At present, only the Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General is available.]

UNITED NATIONAL RESOURCES

http://www.usc.edu/dept/law-lib/legallst/un.html

UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES INTERNET LAW LIBRARY

http://www.pls.com:8001/

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA LAW SCHOOL, INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LIBRARY

http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/

[Contains human rights instruments, general comments and recommendations, jurisprudence, other human rights information, and links to related Internet sites.]

WIRETAP

gopher://wiretap.spies.com:70/11/Gov/UN

[Provides access to selected international law documents: Australian documents, constitutions, and selected U.N. resolutions and treaties.]

WOMENSNET - WOMEN'S EQUALITY, BEIJING

http://www.womensnet.apc.org/womensnet

gopher://gopher.igc.apc.org/11/women

[Provides networking and information resources to enhance women's involvement before, during, and after the Fourth World Conference on Women. Includes U.N. documents and over five electronic conferences concerning UNWCW, NGO information, and links to related Internet sites.]

(For information specifically about the conference see http://www.igc.apc.org/beijing/).]

WORLD BANK

http://www.worldbank.org/

[Provides information about the World Bank, press releases, country project information, publications, and other useful information.]

3. Directories

There are many directories available for locating other sources of electronic information. Below is a small sampling of the available directories.

Directory of Law-Related Cd-Roms (Arlene L. Aris ed., 1993- ).

[Teaneck, NJ: Infosources Publishing, annual.]

Directory of United Nations Information Sources (Compiled by Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), 5th ed. 1994.)

[New York: United Nations. Guide to 872 computerized databases and information systems and services within the U.N. system.]

Fulltext Sources Online (1989- ).

[Needham, MA: Bibliodata, semiannual.]

Gale Directory of Databases (1993- ).

[Detroit: Gale Research, semiannual. Contains information about databases, both for legal and non-legal information, from around the world.]

The Internet: An Introductory Guide for United Nations Organizations (1994).

[Geneva: Advisory Committee for the Co-Ordination of Information Systems (ACCIS), 140 pp. Includes information about using and navigating the Internet and what kind of online information is available. Does not include information about the World Wide Web.]


M. PRACTICE GUIDES

Amnesty International, A Guide to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1991).

[London: AI, 68 pp. Explains one's rights under the African Charter, the African Commission's role in safeguarding such rights, and complaint procedures.]

Amnesty International, Summary of Selected International Procedures and Bodies Dealing with Human Rights Matters (1989).

[London: AI, 75 pp. Provides brief descriptions, addresses, references to books and articles, and other relevant material for using principal human rights procedures of IGOs and some NGOs.]

An Activist's Guide: Bringing International Human Rights Claims in the United States (1993).

[New York: Center for Constitutional Rights, 7 pp.]

Deborah E. Anker & Paul T. Lufkin, The Law of Asylum in the United States (3d ed. 1994).

[3 vols, Washington, D.C.: American Immigration Law Foundation.]

Assisting the Victims of Armed Conflict and other Disasters (Fritz Kalshoven ed., 1989).

[Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 258 pp.]

Asylum Law and Practice in Europe and North America: A Comparative Analysis (Jacqueline Bhabha & Geoffrey Coll eds., 1992).

[Washington, D.C.: Federal Publications Inc., 239 pp.]

Centre for Human Rights, Manual on Human Rights Reporting: Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments (1991).

[Geneva: U.N., 203 pp.]

Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, Manual on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-Legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions (1991).

[Vienna: U.N., 71 pp.]

Laurence B. de Chazournes et al., Practical Guide to the International Procedures Relative to Complaint and Appeals Against Acts of Torture, Disappearances, and Other Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (1988).

[Geneva: World Organization Against Torture/S.O.S. Torture, 92 pp. Explains how to use international bodies in denouncing acts of torture.]

Luke J. Clements, European Human Rights: Taking a Case Under the Convention (1994).

[London: Sweet & Maxwell, 338 pp.]

Sandra Coliver, The Article 19 Freedom of Expression Manual (1993).

[London: Article 19 International Centre Against Censorship, 284 pp.]

Forced Evictions & Human Rights: A Manual for Action (1993).

[Utrecht, The Netherlands: Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, 58 pp.]

Funding Human Rights: An International Directory of Funding Organizations & Human Rights Awards (1993).

[Ottawa, Canada: Human Rights Internet, 180 pp. Compiled and edited by Internet: International Human Rights Documentation Network; published in cooperation with The International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. A useful funding directory for any human rights organization.]

Donna Gomien, Short Guide to the European Convention on Human Rights (1991).

[Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 156 pp.]

Guide to International Human Rights Practice (Hurst Hannum ed., 2d ed. 1992).

[Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 308 pp].

Human Rights Internet (HRI), Guide to Establishing a Human Rights Documentation Centre, Report of a UNESCO-UNU International Training Seminar on the Handling of Documentation & Information on Human Rights (Laurie Wiseberg ed., 1990).

[Ottawa, Canada: HRI, 80 pp.]

Human Rights Institution-Building: A Handbook on Establishing and Sustaining Human Rights Organizations (1994).

[New York: The Fund for Peace (in association with The Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights), 73 pp.]

Indian Rights, Human Rights: Handbook for Indians on International Human Rights Complaint Procedures (2d ed. forthcoming).

[Washington, D.C.: Indian Law Resource Center.]

INFO-PACK, June 1995, Information on U.N. Human Rights Procedures: Beyond Vienna NGO Human Rights Congress (1995).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights, 55 pp. A reference tool for participants of training sessions on the use of U.N. human rights procedures. Updated for each training course.]

International Commission of Jurists, How to Address a Communication to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (1992).

[Geneva: International Commission of Jurists, 16 pp. Provides a simple introduction to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, and step-by-step instructions for communicating with the Commission. An annex contains lists of states that have ratified the African Charter and members of the Commission, outlines rights guaranteed in the Charter, and provides procedural information concerning communication with the Commission. Includes model communication form.]

International Human Rights Law in the Commonwealth Caribbean (Angela D. Byre & Beverley Y. Byfield eds., 1991).

[Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 398 pp. Based upon a workshop held in Jamaica in 1987, organized by Interights and the Organization of Commonwealth Bar Associations.]

International Labour Office, Manual on Procedures Relating to International Labour Conventions and Recommendations (1984).

[Geneva: ILO, 34 pp.]

International Women's Rights Action Watch, Assessing the Status of Women (1988).

[New York: Columbia University, 44 pp. A guide to preparing government reports under and using the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.]

Stephen L. Isaacs, Assessing the Status of Women: A Guide to Reporting Under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1988).

[New York: International Women's Rights Action Watch, 44 pp.]

Beth Stephens et al., Suing for Torture and Other Human Rights Abuses in Federal Court: A Litigation Manual (1993).

[New York: Center for Constitutional Rights.]

Symposium: International Human Rights, 20 Santa Clara L. Rev. 559-772 (1980).

[Contains introductory articles on the ECOSOC resolution 1503 procedure, procedures for the protection of detainees, the ILO, UNESCO, the European Convention, and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.]

Maxime E. Tardu, Human Rights: The International Petition System (1979- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf, 3 vols. Last update issued August 1985. Includes detailed discussion of procedures for individuals and NGOs in filing complaints of human rights violations before international bodies. Focuses mainly on the U.N. petition system, including the ILO and UNESCO, with an overview of the European and Inter-American petition systems.]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights, Human Rights Fact Sheets Series

(1987- ).

[Geneva, New York: Centre for Human Rights. Selected titles include:

No. 1, Human Rights Machinery;

No. 2, The International Bill of Human Rights;

No. 3, Advisory Services and Technical Assistance in the Field of Human Rights;

No. 4, Methods of Combating Torture;

No. 5, Programme of Action for the Second Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination;

No. 6, Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances;

No. 7, Communications Procedures;

No. 8, World Public Information Campaign for Human Rights;

No. 9, The Rights of Indigenous Peoples;

No. 10, The Rights of the Child;

No. 11, Summary or Arbitrary Executions;

No. 12, The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination;

No. 13, International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights;

No. 14, Contemporary Forms of Slavery;

No. 15, Civil and Political Rights: The Human Rights Committee;

No. 16, The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;

No. 17, The Committee Against Torture;

No. 18, Minority Rights;

No. 19, National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights;

No. 20, Human Rights and Refugees;

No. 21, The Human Right to Adequate Housing; and

No. 22, Discrimination Against Women: The Convention and the Committee.]

U.N. Dept. of Public Information, The Human Rights Professional Training Series (1994- ).

[New York: U.N. DPI. Titles include:

No. 1, Human Rights and Social Work: A Manual for Schools of Social Work and the Social Work Profession, U.N. Doc. HR/P/PT/1, U.N. Sales No. 94.XIV.4 (1994);

No. 2, Human Rights and Elections: A Handbook on the Legal, Technical and Human Rights Aspects of Elections, U.N. Doc. HR/P/PT/2, U.N. Sales No. 94.XIV.5 (1994);

No. 3, Human Rights and Pre-trial Detention: Handbook of International Standards Relating to Pre-Trial Detention, U.N. Doc. HR/P/PT/3, U.N. Sales No. 94.XIV.6 (1994); and

No. 4, National Human Rights Institutions: A Handbook on the Establishment and Strengthening of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, U.N. Doc. HR/P/PT/4, U.N. Sales No. E.95.XIV.2 (1995).]

U.N. Centre for Human Rights/UNITAR, Manual on Human Rights Reporting Under Six Major International Human Rights Instruments, U.N. Doc. HR/PUB/91/1, U.N. Sales No. E.91.XIV.1 (1991).

[New York: U.N., 203 pp. Provides guidance on the preparation and consideration of governmental reports under the major international human rights instruments.]

P. van Dijk & G.J.H. van Hoof, Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights (2d ed. 1990).

[Deventer, The Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Pub., 657 pp.]

David Weissbrodt & Penny Parker, The U.N. Commission on Human Rights, Its Sub-Commission, and Related Procedures: An Orientation Manual (1993).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights; Minneapolis: Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights (joint publication), 99 pp. An introductory guide to NGO work with international human rights bodies in Geneva. Provides advice on how to gather and report information; give speeches; and make contacts with the press, Commission members, and NGOs.]

Women's Rights in the UN: A manual on how the UN human rights mechanisms can protect women's rights (1995).

[Geneva: International Service for Human Rights, 69 pp.]

World Organisation Against Torture, Practical Guide to the International Procedures Relative to Complaints and Appeals Against Acts of Torture, Disappearances and Other Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (1988).

[Geneva: S.O.S. Torture, 92 pp.]

Note: For other related sources on international human rights practice, please refer to the FACTFINDING METHODOLOGY section below.



N. CONGRESSIONAL MATERIAL

The Subcommittee on International Organizations of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs began a series of hearings in 1973 on human rights matters. The hearings led to several statutes linking human rights to U.S. foreign policy and assistance. The Subcommittee was later renamed Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations and currently is called the Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights. The Subcommittee continues to hold hearings on human rights topics. Other subcommittees of the Committee on International Relations, formerly known as the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (e.g., the Africa Subcommittee), the full Committee, the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and its subcommittees have also held hearings and considered legislation related to human rights. For example, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee regularly holds hearings on the confirmation of ambassadors at which human rights questions may be asked and has occasionally considered the ratification of human rights treaties. The Judiciary Committees of both Senate and House have considered immigration legislation, the Torture Victim Protection Act, and other relevant statutes.

Hearings, reports, and prints of congressional committees may be located in CIS (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Information Service, 1970- )(predecessor indices start with the first Congress of 1789). They may be accessed by subject, witness, committee or subcommittee, etc. CIS Congressional Masterfile provides electronic access. Please refer to ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography.



O. FACTFINDING METHODOLOGY

Amnesty International, Political Killings and Disappearances: Medicolegal Aspects (1993).

[London: AI Index, 29 pp. ACT 33/36/93.]

Thomas Buergenthal, The United Nations Truth Commission for El Salvador, 27 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 497-544 (1994).

[Describes the process the Commission followed in investigating possible human rights violations that occurred in El Salvador between 1980 and 1991.]

Kathryn English & Adam Stapleton, The Human Rights Handbook: A Practical Guide to Monitoring Human Rights (1995.

[Colchester, UK: The Human Rights Centre, University of Essex.]

Thomas M. Franck & H. Scott Fairley, Procedural Due Process in Human Rights Fact-Finding by International Agencies, 74 Am. J. Int'l L. 308 (1980).

Guy S. Goodwin-Gil, Free and Fair Elections: International Law and Practice (1994).

[Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 123 pp.]

Richard Lillich, Fact-Finding Before International Tribunals (1992).

[New York: Transnational Publishers, 323 pp.]

Guidelines for International Election Observing (Larry Garber ed., 1984).

[Washington, D.C.: International Human Rights Law Group, 100 pp.]

Handbook on Fact-Finding and Documentation of Human Rights Violations (D.J. Ravindran et al. eds., 1994).

[Thailand, Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA), 140 pp. Based on a documentation/factfinding workshop held in Thailand on October 1-6, 1993. Provides practical suggestions for the systematic collection and documentation of information on human rights violations.]

International Law and Fact-Finding in the Field of Human Rights (B.G. Ramcharan ed., 1982).

[The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 259 pp. Volume one of the International Studies in Human Rights Series. Provides articles on substantive and procedural law applicable to factfinding by human rights bodies. Annexes include model procedural rules.]

Monitoring Human Rights: Manual for Assessing Country Performance (1993).

[Leiden, The Netherlands: PIOOM Foundation, 292 pp. Part I provides background and user instructions, Part II includes questionnaires for assessing country performance, Part III contains a glossary of human rights terminology, and Part IV contains annexes.]

Robert Norris, Observations In Loco: Practice and Procedure of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 1979-1983, 19 Tex. Int'l L.J. 285 (1984).

Diane Orentlicher, Bearing Witness: The Art and Science of Human Rights Fact-Finding, 3 Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 83 (1990).

Kathleen Pritchard, Human Rights Reporting in Two Nations: A Comparison of the United States and Norway, in Human Rights and Statistics: Getting the Record Straight 259 (Thomas Jabine & Richard Claude eds., 1992).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 485 pp.]

Alex P. Schmid, Research on Gross Human Rights Violations: A Programme (1989).

[Leiden, The Netherlands: C.O.M.T., 243 pp.]

Hans Thoolen & Berth Verstappen, Human Rights Missions: A Study of the Fact-Finding Practice of Non-Governmental Organizations (1986).

[Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Pub., 184 pp. Volume seven in the International Studies in Human Rights Series.]

Katarina Tomaevski, Sources of Information: Who Determines Which Facts are Relevant in the Field of Human Rights, SIM Newsletter No. 4, 25-33 (Oct. 1993).

David Weissbrodt, International Trial Observers, 18 Stanford J. Int'l L. 27-121 (1982).

David Weissbrodt & James McCarthy, Fact-Finding by International Human Rights Organizations, 22 Va. J. Int'l L. 1-89 (1981).



P. COUNTRY SITUATIONS

1. Legal System Information Sources

International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law.

[Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). Contains alphabetically-arranged "National Reports" updated by installments. A report for a country typically provides information on formation of the government, constitutional system (including legislative and judicial structure), sources of law (decrees, orders, court decisions, custom, etc.), and brief history of the development of law, private law (contracts, torts, etc.), commercial law, intellectual property law, civil procedure, and private international law. Each report concludes with a short bibliography of books, articles, and/or periodicals to consult for additional information. The entries are up to date through the early 1970's.]

Legal Traditions and Systems: An International Handbook (Alan N. Katz ed., 1986).

[Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 450 pp. A discussion of legal systems of several countries with notes and a selective bibliography.]

Modern Legal Systems Cyclopedia (Kenneth R. Redden ed., 1984- ).

[Buffalo, NY: William S. Hein & Co., looseleaf. Provides a description of the political organization, sources of law, legislature, judiciary, and administrative structure of each country.]

2. Country Reports

Amnesty International Report (1962- ).

[London: Amnesty International Publications, annual. Documents AI's work for the year prior to the date of issue (usually July). Contains substantial information on work in many countries, for the release of prisoners of conscience and against torture, the death penalty, extrajudicial executions, disappearances, and unfair trials for political prisoners.]

Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board, Quarterly Reports.

[Ottawa, Canada: Research Directorate, Documentation, Information and Research Branch, Immigration and Refugee Board, quarterly.]

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (1977- ).

[Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, annual. Covers human rights practices of nations that receive assistance from the U.S. or which are members of the U.N.. Other nations are also included. Provides relevant economic, political, and social information on a country and an evaluation of each country's respect for human rights (mainly civil and political, plus fair conditions of labor) based on its own constitution, legislative measures, and actions towards its citizens. Prepared by the U.S. Department of State for the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; issued as a congressional committee print. The Department of State Foreign Affairs Network provides country reports (1993- )(http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/dosfan.html).]

Critique: Review of the Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for... (1983- ).

[New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights & Human Rights Watch, annual. Also known as Critique of DOS Country Reports; beginning in 1990 the Critique became the project of the Lawyers Committee alone).]

Freedom in the World (1978- ).

[New York: Freedom House, annual. Freedom House Book.]

Human Rights in Developing Countries (1985- ).

[Oslo: Norwegian University Press, annual. Publications from the Danish Center for Human Rights. Covers the human rights situation in such countries as Bangladesh, Botswana, India, Kenya, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Reports are prepared in cooperation with several human rights centers in Europe and Canada.]

Human Rights Watch, World Report (1990- ).

[New York: Human Rights Watch, annual.]

International Committee of the Red Cross, Annual Report

(1952- ).

[Geneva: ICRC. Covers the work of the ICRC in each country where the ICRC has made representations or undertaken activities on behalf of prisoners of war, civilians in armed conflict, or detainees; has supplied medical and other material relief; or has performed other services. The annual reports are ordinarily issued late in the year following the date of the report.]

International Handbook of Human Rights (Jack Donnelly & Rhoda E. Howard eds., 1987).

[Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 495 pp. Alphabetically-arranged studies of human rights practices in 19 countries (Canada, Chile, China, Cuba, El Salvador, India, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Lebanon, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Poland, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Uganda, the USSR, and the U.S.). Each separately-authored study discusses the historical background of the country as well as civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. The introduction provides background information about human rights in general. The appendices contain the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a ratification chart for human rights instruments, basic economic and social indicators, a selected bibliography, and an index.]

Kathleen Pritchard, Human Rights Reporting in Two Nations: A Comparison of the United States and Norway, in Human Rights and Statistics: Getting the Record Straight 259 (Thomas Jabine & Richard Claude eds., 1992).

[Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 458 pp.]

Quarterly Distribution from the Information and Research Bureau of the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board (1988- ).

[Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board. Quarterly publication of papers on human rights situations in various countries; published in French and English.]

The Reagan/Bush Administration's Record on Human Rights in ... (1986-1992).

[New York: Human Rights Watch & Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. Beginning in 1990 the Bush Administration Record became the project of Human Rights Watch alone. Reviews implementation of human rights legislation; ratification of human rights treaties; voting record and human rights activities in the U.N.; refugee, asylum, and immigration policy; and policy toward over 20 countries where human rights issues have arisen.]

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report [year] (1990- ).

[New York: Oxford University Press. Includes both a Human Development Index (measures life expectancy, educational attainment, and purchasing power) and a Human Freedom Index (rates country performance on 40 aspects of freedom). The first part of the report discusses human development, political freedom, and strategies for the future. The second part contains statistical tables which compare countries over a broad spectrum of human welfare matters.]

UNICEF, The State of the World's Children (1980- ).

[Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press; annual. Covers the status of children in developing countries, focusing on health and hygiene.]

3. Constitutions

Constitutions of Dependencies & Special Sovereignties (Albert P. Blaustein & Eric B. Blaustein eds., 1975- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf.]

Constitutions of the Countries of the World (Albert P. Blaustein & Gisbert H. Flanz eds., 1971- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc., looseleaf.]

Robert L. Maddex, Constitutions of the World (1995).

[Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books, 338 pp.]

The Cornell Law School Web site provides links to many constitutions around the world (http://www.law.cornell.edu/source.html).

4. Criminal Codes and Criminal Procedure Codes

American Series of Foreign Penal Codes (1960- ).

[South Hackensack, NJ: Fred B. Rothman & Co. English-language translations of penal codes of Argentina, Austria, China, Colombia, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany (West), Greece, Greenland, Japan, Republic of Korea (South), Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Turkey; criminal procedure codes of France, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, and Turkey.]

5. Other Legislation

Charles Szladits, Bibliography on Foreign and Comparative Law: Books and Articles in English (1955- ).

[Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, Inc. (vol. 1- , 1790-Apr. 1, 1953- ). Irregular. Lists books and articles by country; codes and statues available in books and periodicals through 1983.]

Thomas H. Reynolds, Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World (1989- ).

[Littleton, Colo.: F.B. Rothman, looseleaf. Contains citations to sources of law for a variety of subjects as well as information on the sources of codes, legislation, and court reports. Arranged by jurisdiction.]

6. Directories

Africa: Human Rights Directory and Bibliography, 12 Hum. Rts. Internet Reporter 1-308 (1988/89)(special issue, no. 4).

[Describes organizations concerned with human rights in Africa and lists relevant articles, books, and periodicals.]

Encyclopedia of Associations: International Organizations (1989- ).

[Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., annual.]

Directory of Non-Governmental Organizations Associated with the Department of Public Information (1995).

[New York: U.N.]

Funding Human Rights: An International Directory of Funding Organizations & Human Rights Awards (1993).

[Ottawa, Canada: Human Rights Internet, 180 pp. Compiled and edited by Internet: International Human Rights Documentation Network; published in cooperation with The International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development.]

HRE Organizations and Projects, Human Rights Education: The Fourth R, Spring 1995, at 6-15.

[Minneapolis, MN: AI USA. A directory of human rights organizations, focusing mainly on human rights education.]

Human Rights Directory: Latin America, Africa, Asia (Laurie S. Wiseberg & Harry M. Scoble eds., 1981).

[Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Internet, 243 pp. Similar to the Africa directory described above.]

Human Rights Directory: Western Europe (Laurie S. Wiseberg & Hazel Sirett eds., 1982).

[Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Internet, 335 pp.]

Human Rights Internet Directory: Eastern Europe & the USSR (Laurie S. Wiseberg ed., 1987).

[Cambridge, MA: Human Rights Internet, Harvard Law School, 304 pp.]

International Human Rights Internship Program & Swedish NGO Foundation for Human Rights, The Status of Human Rights Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa (1994).

[Washington, D.C.: International Human Rights Internship Program-Institute of International Education, 230 pp. A survey of 26 countries in Africa; extensive inventory of human rights organizations in sub-Saharan Africa compiled between November 1993 and March 1994. French language version also available.]

Virginia Leary and Dominique Johnson, Internships in Geneva (1995).

[Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo, 36 pp.]

Master List of Human Rights Organizations (1994).

[Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Human Rights Internet. Supplements Human Rights Internet Reporter with lists of organizations named in the Reporter.]

North American Human Rights Directory (Laurie S. Wiseberg & Hazel Sirett eds., 3d ed. 1984).

[Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Internet, 264 pp.]

Yearbook of International Organizations (1967- ).

[Munich: K.G. Saur, annual.]

7. Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Reports

Several of the numerous NGOs working in the area of human rights produce excellent reports on a range of rights and regions. Some organizations include:

African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies, K.S.M.D., Kairaba Avenue, Banjul, THE GAMBIA

Al-Haq, P.O. Box 1413, Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine, via ISRAEL

Amnesty International, International Secretariat, 1 Easton Street, London WC1X 8DJ, UNITED KINGDOM

Anti-Slavery International, The Stableyard, Broomgrove Rd., London SW9 9TL, UNITED KINGDOM

Arab Institute for Human Rights, 10 rue Ibn Massoud, El Manzah, 1004 Tunis, TUNISIA

Article 19, International Centre on Censorship, Lancaster House, 33 Islington High St., London E1 1IL, UNITED KINGDOM

Carribean Human Rights Network, Third Ave., Belleville, St. Michael, Barbados

Civil Liberties Organisation, 24 Mbonu Ojike St., Off Alhaji Masha Rd., Surerlere, Lagos, NIGERIA

CODEHUCA, Apdo. Postal 189, 1002 Paseo de los Estudiantes, San Josè, COSTA RICA

The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights, 8/10 Mathaf El Manial, St. Manial El Roda, Cairo, EGYPT

Federación Latinoamerica de Asociaciones de Familiares de Detenidos-Desaparecidos (FEDEFAM), Apartado postal 2444, Carmelitas 1010-A, Caracas, VENEZUELA

Friends World Committee for Consultation (Quakers), Quaker House, 12 avenue du Mervelet, CH-1209 Geneva, SWITZERLAND

Human Rights Advocates, P.O. Box 5675, Berkeley, CA 94705

Human Rights Internet, P.O. Box 20147, 8 York Street, suite 202, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 556, CANADA

Human Rights Watch, 485 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10017-6104

INFORM, 5 Jayaratne Avenue, Off Thimbivigasyaya Rd, Colombo 5, SRI LANKA

Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, Apartado postal 10081, 1000 San Josè, COSTA RICA

International Alert, 1 Glyn Street, London SE11 5HT, UNITED KINGDOM

International Commission of Jurists, 26 chemin de Joinville, P.O. Box 160, CH-1216 Cointrin/Geneva, SWITZERLAND

International Committee of the Red Cross, Information Department, 19 avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, SWITZERLAND

International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), 14 passage Dubail, F-75010 Paris, FRANCE

International Human Rights Law Group, 1601 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20009

International League for Human Rights, 432 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 100016

International Service for Human Rights, 1 rue de Varembè, P.O. Box 16, CH-1211 Geneva 20, SWITZERLAND

Inter-Parliamentary Union, Place du Petit-Saconnex, C.P. 438, CH-1211 Geneva 19, SWITZERLAND

Interights, 33 Islington High Street, Lancaster House, London N1 9LH, UNITED KINGDOM

Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights, 156 East 56 St., New York, NY 10022

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 330 Seventh Ave., 10th Floor, New York, NY 10001

Lawyers for Human Rights, 730 Van Erkom Building, Pretorius St., Pretoria 0002, SOUTH AFRICA

Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, Suite 1050, 400 Second Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55401

Minority Rights Group, 379 Brixton Road, London SW9 7DE, UNITED KINGDOM

Physicians for Human Rights, 58 Day Street, Somerville, MA 02144

Women in Law and Development in Africa, P.O. Box 4622, Harara, ZIMBABWE

ZIMRIGHTS, 38 New Africa House, Box 4111, 40 Union Avenue, Harara, ZIMBABWE

The Human Rights Internet Reporter and the human rights directories include entries from the above organizations and many others.

8. U.N. Documents

The U.N. publishes many reports submitted by U.N. organs and member states detailing countries' adherence to international human rights standards. The Commission on Human Rights, for example, authorizes working groups, special rapporteurs, representatives, experts, Commission members, the Secretary-General, and other envoys to monitor violations or make direct contacts in particular countries: Afghanistan (1984-present), Armenia and Azerbaijan (1995-present), Bolivia (1981-1982), Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)(1993-present), Burundi (1995-present), Cambodia (1993-present), Chad (1995), Chile (1975-1990), Cuba (1988-present), Democratic Kampuchea (1980-1983), El Salvador (1981-1995), Equatorial Guinea (1979-1980, 1984, 1991-present), Guatemala (1983-1987, 1990-present), Haiti (1992-present), Iran (1984-present), Iraq (1991-present), Myanmar (1992-present), Palestine (Occupied Arab Territories)(1993-present), Poland (1982), Romania (1989-1992), Rwanda (1994-present), Somalia (1993), Sudan (1993-present), Togo (1993-present), former Yugoslavia (1992-present), and Zaire (1994-present).

In addition, the Commission on Human Rights has established special rapporteurs and working groups on thematic topics: abuses by mercenaries (1987-present); arbitrary detention (1991-present); arbitrary executions (1982-present); disappearances (1980-present); freedom of opinion and expression (1993-present); independence of judges and lawyers (1995-present); internally displaced persons (1992-present); racism and xenophobia (1993-present); religious intolerance (1986-present); right to development (1993-present); sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (1990-present); torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment (1984-present); toxic waste (1995-present); and violence against women (1994-present). The special rapporteurs and working groups generally produce annual reports discussing human rights violations in many countries and detailing country visits.

The Commission on Human Rights has authorized experts on advisory services for the restoration of human rights in countries such as Equatorial Guinea, Guatemala, and Haiti. The reports of those experts provide information on countries receiving advisory services.

The ad hoc Working Group of Experts on Southern Africa (1967-1995), the Special Committee Against Apartheid, and the U.N. Council for Namibia have also issued specialized reports, but have been discontinued.

Within the framework of the Human Rights Committee, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Committee Against Torture (CAT), and the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) States parties are required to submit periodic reports on domestic developments. Those reports, along with the published conclusions, comments, and decisions taken by the committees, provide indispensable information about the countries.

The Special Committee on Decolonization receives reports from its delegations to dependent territories: American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, East Timor, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Gibraltar, Guam, Montserrat, New Caledonia, Pitcairn, St. Helena, Tokelau, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Western Samoa.

U.N. documents, listed in UNDOC: Current Index

(1979- ) and predecessor indices, are organized by document symbols referring to the U.N. organ, type of document, session number, and document number. Document symbols relevant to human rights include:

General Assembly

A/ Document for General Assembly plenary

A/INF

Information paper for the General Assembly

A/RES

General Assembly Resolution

A/C.1 through C.6, A/SEC, A/BLR

Main committees of the General Assembly, e.g., the Third Committee (A/C.3) considers social, humanitarian, and cultural matters; the Sixth Committee deals with legal matters. Documents issued only during Assembly sessions.

A/AC.109

Special Committee on Decolonization

A/AC.115

Special Committee on ApartheidA/AC.131 Council for Namibia

A/AC.160

Committee on International Terrorism

A/CONF.144



United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

E/

E/AC.57

E/CN.15

Document for ECOSOC plenary

Committee on Crime Prevention and Control

Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

E/INF

Information papers for ECOSOC

E/RES

ECOSOC resolution

E/C.2

Committee on Non-Governmental OrganizationsE/CN.4 Commission on Human Rights



E/CN.4/Sub.2 Sub-Commission on Prevention of

Discrimination and Protection of Minorities

E/CN.4/WG.15 Working Group on a Draft U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

E/CN.5

Commission for Social DevelopmentE/CN.6 Commission on Status of Women

E/CN.17



Commission on Sustainable Development

Other Major Organs

DC/

Disarmament Commission

S/

Security Council

ST/

Secretariat

T/ Trusteeship Council

International Human Rights Instruments

HRI/ Human Rights Instruments

HRI/CORE Core document forming part of the reports of States parties



International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

CCPR/C

Human Rights Committee

CCPR/SP Meetings of the States parties



International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ESC/

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

CERD/

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

CEDAW/ Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

International Convention on the Rights of the Child

CRC/ Committee on the Rights of the Child

International Convention on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

CAT/

Functional Symbols

Committee Against Torture___/Add.

Addendum

___/CONF.

Conference

___/Corr.

Corrigendum

___/L.

Document with limited distribution (often draft resolutions or reports, generally available only at the time of issue)

___/NGO Document submitted by a nongovernmental

organization

___/PR. Press release

___/R.

Document with restricted distribution (not generally available to NGOs or individuals)___/Rev. Revision

___/SR. Summary records

___/WG. Working group

9. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights publishes periodic reports on its visits to investigate allegations of human rights violations in OAS member states. Annual reports of the Commission contain updates on the country visit reports or summaries of reports not separately issued. Reports have been prepared on Argentina (1980), Bolivia (1981), Chile (1974, 1976, 1977, 1985), Colombia (1981, 1994), Cuba (1962, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1976, 1979, 1983, 1993, 1994), El Salvador (1978, 1986, 1994), Guatemala (1981, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1994), Haiti (1979, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995), Nicaragua (1981, 1984, 1988, 1993), Panama (1978, 1989), Paraguay (1978), Peru (1993), Suriname (1983, 1985), and Uruguay (1978).

OAS member states include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas (Commonwealth of), Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica (Commonwealth of), Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

10. Media Services

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) (contains current news and information on eight countries/regions of the world; please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography, supra).

 

LEXIS/NEXIS (online service containing the full-text of news wires, newspapers, and magazines; please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography, supra).

WESTLAW (for a detailed description; please refer to the ELECTRONIC SOURCES section of this bibliography, supra).



1. The authors wish to acknowledge the tremendous efforts of Susan C. Snyder and Lee Friedman in compiling this bibliography. The authors also wish to thank Lyonette Louis-Jacques for her work in creating the original version of the bibliography.


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